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The Effect of Halftoning on the Appearance of 3D Printed Surfaces
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2021 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Managing the final appearance of 3D surfaces is an interesting and essential topic in 3D printing applications. Knowledge about the parameters which influence the 3D surface reproduction quality enables engineers to achieve the final appearance as accurately as designed. Many studies have been conducted to explore numerous parameters that affect the quality of 3D surface reproduction. This work contributes to verifying the role of halftoning in increasing the 3D surface visual quality and the control over the surface appearance of a 3D printed object. The results show that applying different halftones according to the geometrical characteristics of the 3D surface could emphasize or diminish the perceived 3D geometrical structures of a shape. The experimental results are in line with the simulated outputs reported in previous work. Our findings might introduce a new approach towards having more control over 3D appearance reproduction without changing the material or printer settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2021.
Keywords [en]
3D printing, Halftoning, Surface appearance
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-180696OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-180696DiVA, id: diva2:1607197
Conference
47th Annual Conference of Iarigai
Available from: 2021-10-29 Created: 2021-10-29 Last updated: 2023-09-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. 2D and 3D Halftoning for Appearance Reproduction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>2D and 3D Halftoning for Appearance Reproduction
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The appearance of an object is determined by its chromatic and geometric qualities in its surrounding environment using four optical parameters: color, gloss, translucency, and surface texture. Reconstructing the appearance of objects is of great importance in many applications, including creative industries, packaging, fine-art reproduction, medical simulation, and prosthesis-making. Printers are reproduction devices capable of replicating objects’ appearance in 2D and 3D forms. With the introduction of new printing technologies, new inks and materials, and demands for innovative applications, creating accurate reproduction of the desired visual appearance has become challenging. Thus, the appearance reproduction workflow requires improvements and adaptations. 

Accurate color reproduction is a critical quality measure in reproducing the desired appearance in any printing process. However, printers are devices with a limited number of inks that can either print a dot or leave it blank at a specific position on a substrate; hence, to reproduce different colors, optimal placement of the available inks is needed. Halftoning is a technique that deals with this challenge by generating a spatial distribution of the available inks that creates an illusion of the target color when viewed from a sufficiently large distance. Halftoning is a fundamental part of the color reproduction task in any full-color printing pipeline, and it is an effective technique to increase the potential of printing realistic and complex appearances. Although halftoning has been used in 2D printing for many decades, it still requires improvements in reproducing fine details and structures of images. Moreover, the emergence of new technologies in 3D printing introduces a higher degree of freedom and more parameters to the field of appearance reproduction. Therefore, there is a critical need for extensive studies to revisit existing halftoning algorithms and develop novel approaches to produce high quality prints that match the target appearance faithfully. This thesis aims at developing halftoning algorithms to improve appearance reproduction in 2D and 3D printing. 

Contributions of this thesis in the 2D domain is a dynamic sharpness-enhancing halftoning approach, which adaptively varies the local sharpness of the halftone image based on different textures in the original image for realistic appearance printing. The results show improvements in halftone quality in terms of sharpness, preserving structural similarity, and decreasing color reproduction error. The main contribution of this thesis in 3D printing is extending a high quality 2D halftoning algorithm to the 3D domain. The proposed method is then integrated with a multi-layer printing approach, where ink is deposited at variable depths to improve the reproduction of tones and fine details. Results demonstrate that the proposed method accurately reproduces tones and details of the target appearance. Another contribution of this thesis is studying the effect of halftoning on the perceived appearance of 3D printed surfaces. According to the results, changing the dot placement based on the elevation variation of the underlying geometry can potentially control the perception of the 3D printed appearance. It implies that the choice of halftone may prove helpful in eliminating unwanted artifacts, enhancing the object’s geometric features, and producing a more accurate 3D appearance. The proposed methods in this thesis have been evaluated using different printing techniques.    

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023. p. 57
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2331
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198137 (URN)10.3384/9789180752701 (DOI)9789180752695 (ISBN)9789180752701 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-10-26, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

2023-10-09: The cover was updated to reflect the printed version. 

Before this date the PDF has been downloaded 45 times.

Available from: 2023-09-26 Created: 2023-09-26 Last updated: 2023-10-09Bibliographically approved

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Abedini, FereshtehGooran, SasanNyström, Daniel

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