liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Exploring Effects of Ecological Visual Analytics Interfaces on Experts' and Novices' Decision‐Making Processes: A Case Study in Air Traffic Control
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6741-4337
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0646-0388
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4761-8601
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8862-7331
2022 (English)In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 453-464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Operational demands in safety-critical systems impose a risk of failure to the operators especially during urgent situations. Operators of safety-critical systems learn to make decisions effectively throughout extensive training programs and many years of experience. In the domain of air traffic control, expensive training with high dropout rates calls for research to enhance novices' ability to detect and resolve conflicts in the airspace. While previous researchers have mostly focused on redesigning training instructions and programs, the current paper explores possible benefits of novel visual representations to improve novices' understanding of the situations as well as their decision-making process. We conduct an experimental evaluation study testing two ecological visual analytics interfaces, developed in a previous study, as support systems to facilitate novice decision-making. The main contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we describe the application of an ecological interface design approach to the development of two visual analytics interfaces. Second, we perform a human-in-the-loop experiment with forty-five novices within a simplified air traffic control simulation environment. Third, by performing an expert-novice comparison we investigate the extent to which effects of the proposed interfaces can be attributed to the subjects' expertise. The results show that the proposed ecological visual analytics interfaces improved novices' understanding of the information about conflicts as well as their problem-solving performance. Further, the results show that the beneficial effects of the proposed interfaces were more attributable to the visual representations than the users' expertise. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2022. Vol. 41, no 3, p. 453-464
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187151DOI: 10.1111/cgf.14554ISI: 000842261500039OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-187151DiVA, id: diva2:1686042
Conference
24th Eurographics/IEEE VGTC Conference on Visualization (EuroVis), Rome, ITALY, jun 12-17, 2022
Note

Funding: KAW Scholar Grant

Available from: 2022-08-08 Created: 2022-08-08 Last updated: 2022-09-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Real-Time Visual Analytics Interfaces to Strengthen Human-Automation Collaboration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-Time Visual Analytics Interfaces to Strengthen Human-Automation Collaboration
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Automation in today’s world supports human operators to accomplish several tasks in limited time. With more advanced automation and autonomous systems, the hu-mans’ role is shifting from hands-on operational tasks to supervisory tasks. In complex environments such as air traffic control, supervisory tasks become difficult to manage during unexpected situations as the operator needs to have a clear understanding of various resolution strategies and their consequences and make decisions about them in a limited amount of time (i.e. within a couple of minutes). In such environments, interface designers must carefully consider how information should be presented to the operators. An improper way of presenting information could, wastefully consume operators’ cognitive resources resulting in inefficient decision-making and an increased risk of failure. 

By designing ecological visual analytics interfaces, this thesis addresses the problem of real-time decision-making in the domain of air traffic control. The aim of this thesis has been to apply ecological design theories to the design and evaluation of visual representations to better support controllers’ analytical capabilities and decision-making. Four novel visual analytics interfaces were designed, developed, and tested over the course of this research project. To understand how the designed visual representations affected the operators’ decision-making processes, evaluation studies with air traffic controllers as well as novices without ATC experience were conducted for two of the designed interfaces and the results were analyzed. 

The contribution of this thesis to the field of air traffic control and visualization design is fourfold. First, the thesis contributes knowledge on what information should be visualized and how, to achieve functional goals of conflict detection and resolution task of air traffic control. Second, evolved through a series of design studies, a final interactive visual analytics interface is proposed that visualizes information about the available solution space for solving conflict situations between airborne traffic and the traffic complexity. The interface supports controllers’ decision-making process for resolving conflicts and ability to reduce the traffic complexity. Third, the method developed for evaluating the interface designs contribute with knowledge on how interfaces tailored to safety-critical systems can be tested. Fourth, findings show that the integration of ecological interface design with the development of visual representations can shape novice and expert operators’ decision-making towards domain-specific functional goals, while allowing them to follow their own problem-solving strategies. 

Abstract [sv]

Automation hjälper mänskliga operatörer att utföra uppgifter parallellt, på begränsad tid. Med mer avancerad automation och autonoma system förändras människans roll, och går över från mer direkt kontroll till övervakning- och intervention. I komplexa miljöer som flygledning, blir övervakningsuppgifter svåra att hantera under oväntade situationer eftersom operatören behöver ha en klar förståelse för olika strategier, deras konsekvenser, och fatta beslut om dem under en begränsad tid (inom ett par minuter). I sådana miljöer måste en visualiseringsdesigner noga överväga hur information ska presenteras för operatörerna. Ett felaktigt sätt att presentera information belastar operatörernas kognitiva resurser, vilket leder till ineffektivt beslutsfattande och en ökad risk för misslyckanden.  

Genom att utforma ekologiska visuella analytiska gränssnitt tar denna avhandling upp problemet med beslutsfattande i realtid, i oplanerade situationer, inom området för flygledning. Syftet med denna avhandling har varit att tillämpa ekologiska designteorier på design och utvärdering av visuella representationer. Målet var att bättre stödja operatörers analytiska förmåga och beslutsfattande. Fyra nya visuella analysgränssnitt utformades, utvecklades och testades. För att förstå hur de visuella representationerna påverkade operatörernas beslutsprocesser genomfördes utvärderingsstudier med såväl flygledare som nybörjare utan domänerfarenhet för två av gränssnitten och resultaten analyserades.  

Avhandlingen ger fyra bidrag till området flygledning och till området visualiseringsdesign. För det första bidrar den med kunskap om vilken information som ska visualiseras och hur man uppnår funktionella mål för att upptäcka och lösa konflikter i flygledning. För det andra, utvecklat genom en serie designstudier, föreslås ett interaktivt visuellt analytiskt gränssnitt. Det visualiserar information om det tillgängliga lösningsutrymmet för att lösa konfliktsituationer mellan luftburen trafik, samt visar trafikens komplexitet. Gränssnittet utformades för att stödja beslutsprocesser för att lösa konflikter och för att minska komplexitet i trafik. För det tredje bidrar den metod som utvecklats för att utvärdera gränssnittsdesignerna, med kunskap om hur gränssnitt skräddarsydda för säkerhetskritiska system kan testas. För det fjärde bidrar avhandlingen med resultat angående integrationen av ekologisk gränssnittsdesign med utveckling av visuella representationer. Den visar hur gränssnitten kan påverka nybörjare och operatörers (experters) beslutsfattande angående domänspecifika funktionella mål, samtidigt som gränssnitten tillåter dem att följa sina egna problemlösningsstrategier.   

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2022. p. 106
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2257
Keywords
Abstraction hierarchy, Angular timeline visualization, Air traffic complexity, Air traffic control, Air traffic controller, Conflict detection and resolution, Ecological interface design, Focus context visualization, Human-automation collaboration, Human–computer interaction, Information visualization, Interaction, Rate of climb or descent, Research through design, Safety-critical systems, Visual analytics, Visualization, Visualization design and evaluation methods, Work domain analysis
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-188501 (URN)10.3384/9789179294908 (DOI)9789179294892 (ISBN)9789179294908 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-10-11, Domteatern, Visualiseringscenter C., Kungsgatan 54, Norrköping, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-09-14 Created: 2022-09-14 Last updated: 2022-09-14Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1015 kB)152 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1015 kBChecksum SHA-512
906f8abbdd88a96ea23e1cf4bf4116b6099c5cb1ca242a73d40077a97d58ede14976c0d55db59da27a182ebaebf14403bbd183ac34d3a69ac3a768b2cbba6aff
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records

Zohrevandi, ElmiraWestin, CarlVrotsou, KaterinaLundberg, Jonas

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Zohrevandi, ElmiraWestin, CarlVrotsou, KaterinaLundberg, Jonas
By organisation
Media and Information TechnologyFaculty of Science & Engineering
In the same journal
Computer graphics forum (Print)
Human Computer Interaction

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 153 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 221 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf