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Wood Templated Organic Electronics
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0122-4914
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In today’s digital era, electronics are integral to most activities in our daily lives, offering swift and global communication, powerful data processing tools, and advanced sensor devices. However, there are drawbacks to the exponentially growing demand for electronics, such as the depletion of fossil resources, and the complexities surrounding recycling electronic waste (E-waste). As we gradually step into the era of sustainability, it is necessary to explore alternative resources and develop greener electronic technologies. For this purpose, organic electronics (OE) has emerged as an interesting alternative, owning to its potential for low-energy fabrication and use of organic materials composed of Earth-abundant elements.

The term "organic electronics" has been used widely to refer to electrical devices crafted from organic materials, typically semiconducting polymers (sCPs). This arises from the fact that most developed OE devices such as solar cells, transistors, supercapacitors, and batteries are centered around such materials. Along with the development of different semiconducting polymer varieties, materials from various natural resources have also been explored for devices’ electrodes, binders, and electrolytes. Among them, materials from the forest have emerged as abundant, renewable, and valuable options. For many years, wood has been tailored and utilized as a device template, while its components including cellulose fibrils and lignin have been widely used as structural or active components in OE. Lignin has now become an important electrode and electrolyte active material in energy storage devices.

This thesis presents new approaches and findings in the utilization of wood and lignin as active components in different OE applications. The thesis centers around two primary themes, in which the first involves the development and utilization of conductive wood (CW), containing lignin, and lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) for supercapacitors and battery applications. The second theme focuses on developing and employing conductive wood as an active electrode in the creation of a wood electrochemical transistor. Within the first theme, I have uncovered the potential of storing electricity in wood utilizing its redox-active component, native lignin. The discovery is reinforced by the successful employment of LNPs as active materials in an organic battery. Within the second theme, I have demonstrated the world's first wooden transistor, characterized its electronic performance, and discussed the pretreatment procedure of the wood substrate that is necessary for achieving a working device. This thesis is anticipated to contribute to new and valuable knowledge for encouraging the development of low-cost and sustainable OE in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023. , p. 88
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2350
Keywords [en]
Organic electronics, Wood, Lignin, Supercapacitor, Battery, Organic electrochemical transistor (OECT)
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198705DOI: 10.3384/9789180753654ISBN: 9789180753647 (print)ISBN: 9789180753654 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-198705DiVA, id: diva2:1806849
Public defence
2023-11-24, K1, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-10-24 Created: 2023-10-24 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Utilizing native lignin as redox-active material in conductive wood for electronic and energy storage applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilizing native lignin as redox-active material in conductive wood for electronic and energy storage applications
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 10, no 29, p. 15677-15688Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanostructured wood veneer with added electroactive functionality combines structural and functional properties into eco-friendly, low-cost nanocomposites for electronics and energy technologies. Here, we report novel conducting polymer-impregnated wood veneer electrodes where the native lignin is preserved, but functionalized for redox activity and used as an active component. The resulting electrodes display a well-preserved structure, redox activity, and high conductivity. Wood samples were sodium sulfite-treated under neutral conditions at 165 degrees C, followed by the tailored distribution of PEDOT:PSS, not previously used for this purpose. The mild sulfite process introduces sulfonic acid groups inside the nanostructured cell wall, facilitating electrostatic interaction on a molecular level between the residual lignin and PEDOT. The electrodes exhibit a conductivity of up to 203 S m(-1) and a specific pseudo-capacitance of up to 38 mF cm(-2), with a capacitive contribution from PEDOT:PSS and a faradaic component originating from lignin. We also demonstrate an asymmetric wood pseudo-capacitor reaching a specific capacitance of 22.9 mF cm(-2) at 1.2 mA cm(-2) current density. This new wood composite design and preparation scheme will support the development of wood-based materials for use in electronics and energy storage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187502 (URN)10.1039/d1ta10366k (DOI)000823818600001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Wallenberg Wood Science Center (Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation); Karl-Erik Onnesjo Foundation; Treesearch, a collaboration platform for Swedish forest industrial research

Available from: 2022-08-25 Created: 2022-08-25 Last updated: 2024-01-10
2. In Situ Lignin Sulfonation for Highly Conductive Wood/Polypyrrole Porous Composites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Situ Lignin Sulfonation for Highly Conductive Wood/Polypyrrole Porous Composites
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2023 (English)In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 2201597Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To address the rising need of sustainable solutions in electronic devices, the development of electronically conductive composites based on lightweight but mechanically strong wood structures is highly desirable. Here, a facile approach for the fabrication of highly conductive wood/polypyrrole composites through top-down modification of native lignin followed by polymerization of pyrrole in wood cell wall. By sodium sulfite treatment under neutral condition, sulfonated wood veneers with increased porosity but well-preserved cell wall structure containing native lignin and lignosulfonates are obtained. The wood structure has a content of sulfonic groups up to 343 mu mol g(-1) owing to in situ sulfonated lignin which facilitates subsequent oxidative polymerization of pyrrole, achieving a weight gain of polypyrrole as high as 35 wt%. The lignosulfonates in the wood structure act as dopant and stabilizer for the synthesized polypyrrole. The composite reaches a high conductivity of 186 S m(-1) and a specific pseudocapacitance of 1.71 F cm(-2) at the current density of 8.0 mA cm(-2). These results indicate that tailoring the wood/polymer interface in the cell wall and activating the redox activity of native lignin by sulfonation are important strategies for the fabrication of porous and lightweight wood/conductive polymer composites with potential for sustainable energy applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2023
Keywords
composites; conductivity; energy; polypyrrole; sulfonated wood
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189462 (URN)10.1002/admi.202201597 (DOI)000865839600001 ()2-s2.0-85139530190 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Wallenberg Wood Science Center - Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2022-10-25 Created: 2022-10-25 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
3. Electrical current modulation in wood electrochemical transistor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical current modulation in wood electrochemical transistor
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2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 120, no 118, article id e2218380120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The nature of mass transport in plants has recently inspired the development of low-cost and sustainable wood-based electronics. Herein, we report a wood electrochemical transistor (WECT) where all three electrodes are fully made of conductive wood (CW). The CW is prepared using a two-step strategy of wood delignification followed by wood amalgamation with a mixed electron-ion conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The modified wood has an electrical conductivity of up to 69 Sm−1 induced by the formation of PEDOT:PSS microstructures inside the wood 3D scaffold. CW is then used to fabricate the WECT, which is capable of modulating an electrical current in a porous and thick transistor channel (1 mm) with an on/off ratio of 50. The device shows a good response to gate voltage modulation and exhibits dynamic switching properties similar to those of an organic electrochemical transistor. This wood-based device and the proposed working principle demonstrate the possibility to incorporate active electronic functionality into the wood, suggesting different types of bio-based electronic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2023
Keywords
conductivity, electrochemistry, PEDOT:PSS, transistor, wood
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-197080 (URN)10.1073/pnas.2218380120 (DOI)001025817800003 ()37094114 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85153687393 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230713

Available from: 2023-08-22 Created: 2023-08-22 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved

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