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The role of industrial energy management in the transition toward sustainable energy systems: Exploring practices, knowledge dynamics and policy evaluation
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6359-1889
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mitigating climate change represents one of the most pressing challenges of our time. The EU has set the goal of reaching climate neutrality by 2050. The transition of manufacturing organizations is essential in reaching the EU’s goal, since industry accounts for circa 25% of the total final energy use and about one-fifth of EU’s GHG emissions. Energy efficiency stands as one of the essential pillars of industrial decarbonization, with energy management playing a pivotal role in reaching its full potential. To remain competitive in the long term and align with the EU’s carbon neutrality goal for 2050, the manufacturing industry must enhance energy efficiency in a cost-effective way. Manufacturing companies are exploring new ways of working with energy management in order to meet the requirements for both radical and incremental innovations needed to achieve the climate neutrality goal. However, due to the high complexity of industrial energy systems and its high diversity among sectors, improving energy efficiency is a difficult task. Knowledge, especially extensive knowledge, is a key factor for adopting innovations in energy efficiency and industrial processes. 

The aim of this thesis is to explore the role of industrial energy management in the transition toward sustainable energy systems using an extended system approach. Employing top-down and bottom-up approaches, this thesis specifically focuses on three key aspects: industrial energy management practices, knowledge dynamics in industrial energy management, and policy evaluation. Key aspects of this thesis have been studied by means of mixed methods, such as literature reviews, interviews, case study with action research approach, survey, and evaluations. This thesis advocates that energy management practices (EnMPs) include activities beyond energy efficiency improvements. Specifically, they incorporate activities related to the decarbonization of industrial processes, including energy supply (own and purchased) and fuel conversion, at the very least. 

The results show that internal EnMPs revolve around a focus on technologies, processes, and leadership, for which knowledge creation is an ongoing and evolving process. EnMPs encompass a comprehensive set of strategies and actions undertaken by manufacturing organizations to enhance energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and navigate the transition towards sustainable energy systems. Such practices consist of the following components: energy conservation, energy efficiency, process innovation, energy supply and compensation measures. Furthermore, this thesis has shown that external EnMPs are connected to the participation in energy policy programs and voluntary initiatives and is a common practice in energy management work.

Organizations often employ a combination of these strategies to achieve climate neutrality and align with environmental sustainability goals. Successful implementation of EnMPs is contingent upon deep process knowledge, especially in the case of radical process innovations, which necessitate a thorough understanding of interdependencies and interconnected processes. Collaboration with external sources of knowledge, including universities and stakeholders, is essential to drive innovation and adapt to evolving energy systems. Leadership plays a vital role in navigating these complexities and ensuring a strategic approach to EnMPs implementation. 

This thesis contributes to the field of research on energy management in different ways: i. re-viewing the role of energy management in the current context of transition toward sustainable energy systems, ii. advancing theoretical and practical understanding of energy management in manufacturing organizations, iii. enhancing the knowledge-creation perspective within energy management practices for enhancing the adoption of both energy efficiency and process innovation, and iv. advancing theoretical understanding of the knowledge-creation process for energy management through the development of a knowledge-based framework. 

Abstract [sv]

Att mildra klimatförändringarna är en av de största utmaningarna i modern tid. EU har satt upp målet att uppnå klimatneutralitet till 2050. Omställningen av tillverkningsindustrin är avgörande för att nå EU:s målet, eftersom industrin står för cirka 25% av den totala slutliga energianvändningen och ungefär en femtedel av EU:s växthusgasutsläppen. Energieffektivitet är en av de viktigaste pelarna för industriell dekarbonisering, där energiledning spelar en avgörande roll för att uppnå sin fulla potential. För att bibehålla långsiktig konkurrenskraft samtidigt som man bidrar till EU:s mål om klimatneutralitet till 2050 behöver tillverkningsindustrin förbättra energieffektiviteten på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt. Tillverkningsföretag utforskar nya sätt att arbeta med energiledningsåtgärder för att möta behovet att radikala och inkrementella innovationer som krävs för att uppnå omställningsmålen. Men på grund av den höga komplexiteten hos industriella energisystem och att det skiljer sig mycket åt mellan branscher är det svårt att förbättra energieffektiviteten. Kunskap är en nyckelfaktor för att hitta radikala och inkrementella innovationer för energieffektivitet och industriella processer.

Syftet med denna avhandling är att utforska rollen av industriella energiledning i övergången till ett hållbart energisystem med hjälp av ett utvidgat systemperspektiv. Genom att använda top-down och bottom-up-ansatser, fokuserar denna avhandling specifikt på tre nyckelaspekter: industriella energiledningsåtgärder, kunskapsdynamik inom industriell energiledning och policyutvärdering. Nyckelaspekter i denna avhandling har studerats med hjälp av blandade metoder, såsom litteraturstudie, intervjuer, fallstudier med deltagande observationer och aktionsforskningsmetod, och enkäter. Denna avhandling förespråkar att energiledningsaktiviteter (ELsA) inkluderar aktiviteter utöver energieffektiviseringar. Specifikt inkluderar de aktiviteter relaterade till dekarbonisering av industriella processer, inklusive energiförsörjning (egen och köpt) och bränslekonvertering, åtminstone.

Resultaten visar att intern energiledning kretsar kring fokus på tekniker, processer och ledarskap, för vilket kunskapsskapandet är en pågående och utvecklande process. ELsA omfattar en omfattande uppsättning strategier och åtgärder som vidtagits av tillverkande organisationer för att förbättra energieffektiviteten, minska utsläppen av växthusgaser och navigera övergången till hållbar energianvändning.  Sådana åtgärder består av följande komponenter: energibesparing, energieffektivitet, processinnovation, energitillförsel och kompensationsåtgärder. Vidare har denna avhandling visat att externa åtgärder kopplad till deltagande i energipolitiska program och frivilliga initiativ också är en vanlig praxis i energiledningsarbete.

Organisationer använder ofta en kombination av dessa strategier för att uppnå klimatneutralitet och anpassa sig till miljömässiga hållbarhetsmål. En framgångsrik implementering av ELsA är beroende av djup processkunskap, särskilt när det gäller radikala processinnovationer, som kräver en grundlig förståelse för ömsesidigt beroende och sammankopplade processer. Samarbete med externa kunskapskällor, inklusive universitet och intressenter, är avgörande för att driva innovation och anpassa sig till föränderliga energisystem. Ledarskap spelar en viktig roll för att navigera i dessa komplexiteten och säkerställa ett strategiskt tillvägagångssätt för implementering av ELsA.

Denna avhandling bidrar till forskningen om energiledning på olika sätt: i. ompröva energihushållningens roll i det aktuella sammanhanget av övergången till hållbara energisystem, ii. främja teoretisk och praktisk förståelse för energiledning i tillverkande organisationer, iii. förbättra kunskapsskapande perspektivet inom energiledningsaktiviteter för att förbättra antagandet av både energieffektivitet och processinnovation, och iv. förbättra fördjupad teoretisk förståelse av kunskapsskapande perspektivprocessen för energiledning genom utveckling av ett kunskapsbaserat ramverk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023. , p. 146
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2346
Keywords [en]
Energy management, Practices, Transition to sustainable energy systems, Knowledge-creation, Process innovation, Incremental and radical innovations, Voluntary initiatives, Digital technologies for energy efficiency
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198900DOI: 10.3384/9789180753524ISBN: 9789180753517 (print)ISBN: 9789180753524 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-198900DiVA, id: diva2:1808469
Public defence
2023-11-30, ACAS, A-building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-10-31 Created: 2023-10-31 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Knowledge demands for energy management in manufacturing industry - A systematic literature review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge demands for energy management in manufacturing industry - A systematic literature review
2022 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 159, article id 112168Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The social context in relation to energy policies and advances in more energy efficient technologies is changing constantly, thus driving a need for change in the manufacturing sector. This study presents a knowledge-based framework that enables the understanding of the model for knowledge that has taken industrial energy efficiency to current levels and the analysis of the model in the current context of industry transition. The framework consists of three broader forms of knowledge and specific knowledge attributes that can capture the knowledge employed in industrial energy management. The framework is applied in a systematic literature review, analyzing the forms of knowledge and main aspects of energy management in manufacturing industries from 157 articles published between 2010 and 2020 in various academic journals. Besides the framework, the results show that the technical form of knowledge is the primary type of knowledge employed in energy management and that a paradigm-changing towards Industry 4.0. is seen. Another employed form of knowledge is process knowledge, which is concerned with the prerequisite information needed to implement energy management. Finally, lead- ership knowledge is also employed in energy management and a blend in these three forms of knowledge might move us beyond traditional knowledge towards new forms of knowledge that maximize the potential for energy management in manufacturing industries. The knowledge demands brought by Industry 4.0 for all forms of knowledge are identified and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Energy management, Manufacturing industry, Energy efficiency, Decarbonization, Analytical framework, Knowledge based framework, Industry 4.0, Process knowledge, Technical knowledge, Leadership knowledge, Model for energy management
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183200 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2022.112168 (DOI)000786655600003 ()
Projects
Towards a theory of energy management through contrasting case studies from the shipping and the manufacturing sectors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 460581-1, Dnr 2018-001887
Note

Funding: Graduate School in Energy Systems (FoES) - Swedish Energy Agency [46058-1, 2018-001887]; Division of Energy Systems in the Department of Management and Engineering at Link oping University

Available from: 2022-02-28 Created: 2022-02-28 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
2. Decarbonization of industry: Guidelines towards a harmonized energy efficiency policy program impact evaluation methodology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decarbonization of industry: Guidelines towards a harmonized energy efficiency policy program impact evaluation methodology
Show others...
2021 (English)In: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 7, p. 1385-1395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The decarbonization of EU energy system is under way, but manufacturing industry is still using approximately 25% of the EU total final energy use. To maintain long-term competitiveness while contributing to the EU goal of carbon neutrality by 2050, manufacturing industry needs to improve energy efficiency in a cost-effective way. One important way to achieve this is through energy audits. The Energy Efficiency Directive promotes member states development of energy efficiency programs to encourage industry to undergo energy audits. Previous studies have reviewed industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluations and argued that there is no harmonized way to conduct them. This leads to difficulties in: i) comparing energy efficiency and cost saving potentials throughout different programs, and ii) providing necessary information that supports the improvement of the policy program. Therefore, we argue that a harmonized methodology for industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluation is of great importance, and, we have developed a set of five-steps guidelines that lay the foundation for an ex-ante energy efficiency policy program evaluation methodology. The guidelines are to be be conducted during the lifetime of the program, in five steps, as follows: (s1) define key issues, (s2) set the objectives for each key issue, (s3) identify the options for each key issue, (s4) analyze options from an energy and environmental perspective, and (s5) compare options and select the recommended one. Our proposed methodology will support policymakers and evaluators answer questions such as: i) how can the objectives of the policy program be achieved? ii) is there any need to change the policy program? Furthermore, a comparison in terms of relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of all major policy options developed, including the status quo option is proposed in the methodology. This paper can be seen an important step towards the goal of creating a harmonized policy evaluation methodology. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Decarbonization of industry; Energy efficiency policy programs; Ex-ante policy evaluation; Energy audits; Policy process; Guidelines; Methodology
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-180263 (URN)10.1016/j.egyr.2021.02.067 (DOI)000701614200009 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Energy Agency [302881]; Division of Energy Systems at the Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoping University, Sweden

Available from: 2021-10-14 Created: 2021-10-14 Last updated: 2023-10-31

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