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Performance Assessment of Long Combination Vehicles using Naturalistic Driving Data
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation, The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
2024 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The deployment of long combination vehicles (LCVs) is currently in progress in Sweden. LCV refers to heavy vehicles that are longer than 25.25 m, which is the conventional length limit in Swedish regulations. LCVs reduce operational costs, improve fuel efficiency and reduce CO2 emission per ton-km. Despite their numerous advantages, a question that still revolves around these vehicles is how they perform on the road. Although this question has been answered using simulations, an analysis using real traffic data is still missing. 

This thesis assesses the performance of LCVs using naturalistic driving data (NDD). The performance assessment is done using Performance-based standards (PBS) measures. PBS is a regulatory scheme for heavy vehicles, such as LCVs, that includes performance measures with a quantified required level of performance. The main PBS measures used in this thesis are rearward amplification, low-speed swept path, high-speed transient offtracking, and high-speed steady-state offtracking. Rearward amplification represents the amplification of motions in the rear end of a vehicle combination, which relates to its stability, and the remaining three are indicative of the space that the vehicles occupy in different scenarios. The steering reversal rate is also employed to compute the cognitive workload of the drivers in low-speed scenarios. 

Two LCV combinations are considered for analysis, namely an A-double composed of a tractor-semitrailer-dolly-semitrailer/tractor-semitrailer-full trailer and a DuoCAT composed of a truck hauling two centre-axle trailers. Four scenarios are of interest to this thesis: lane changes, manoeuvring through roundabouts, turning in intersections and negotiating tight curves. The thesis presents three contributions outlining the analysis methodologies, followed by a discussion of the results obtained from the analysis. 

The first contribution involves developing an algorithm to extract lane changes from the NDD of LCVs. The algorithm is used against the data obtained from A-doubles. The results indicate that A-doubles adhere to proposed safety limits during lane changes. 

The second contribution assesses the performance of A-double in round-abouts using NDD. Various roundabouts with different radii are considered. The vehicle occupies more space with lower radius roundabouts than higher radius roundabouts. The space occupied in all the cases is below the proposed safety limit. However, steerable axles might be needed for smaller roundabouts than those considered in this study. Additionally, the driver’s cognitive work-load is found to vary with the roundabout’s radius, with drivers navigating higher-radius roundabouts more easily. 

The third contribution deals with the performance evaluation of DuoCAT across four scenarios, followed by the comparison with A-double. The results indicate that the A-double and the DuoCAT are stable and have good tracking performance in most cases. The A-double is observed to be slightly more stable in lane changes, whereas the DuoCAT has slightly better manoeuvrability at low-speed scenarios such as roundabouts and intersections. 

Abstract [sv]

Introduceringen av långa fordonskombinationer (LCV) pågår för närvarande i Sverige vilket ger en möjlighet att minska driftskostnader samtidigt som bränsleeffektiviteten förbättras och koldioxidutsläppen per ton-km reduceras. LCV avser tunga fordon som är längre än 25,25 meter, vilket är den konventionella längdgränsen enligt svenska regler. Trots fördelarna är en fråga hur dessa fordon presterar på väg. Den här avhandlingen studerar och analyserar den frågan med hjälp av naturalistisk kördata (NDD) från experiment med LCV.

Prestandabedömningen görs med hjälp av prestandabaserade standarder (PBS). PBS är ett regleringssystem för tunga fordon, såsom LCV, som kvantifierar och kravställer fordonets beteende. De huvudsakliga PBS-måtten som används i denna avhandling är bakåtförstärkning, spåravvikelse och svept area i låg hastighet. Bakåtförstärkning representerar förstärkningen av rörelser från den främre till den bakre delen av en fordonskombination, vilket relaterar till dess stabilitet, och de två återstående indikerar det utrymme som fordonen upp-tar i olika scenarier. Dessutom används styråtervändningshastigheten (SRR) för att beräkna förarnas kognitiva arbetsbelastning vid låga hastigheter, exempelvis vid körning i rondeller och korsningar.

Två LCV varianter studeras i denna avhandling, en A-dubbel bestående av dragbil-påhängsvagn-dolly-påhängsvagn/dragbil-påhängsvagn-släpvagn samt en Duo-kärra bestående av en lastbil som drar två släpvagnar med centrerade ax-lar. Fyra scenarier är av intresse för denna avhandling: filbyten, manövrering genom rondeller, svängning i korsningar och körning i snäva kurvor. Avhandlingen presenterar tre bidrag som beskriver analysmetoderna och efterföljande resultatdiskussioner.

I det första bidraget utvecklas en algoritm för att extrahera filbyten från naturalistisk kördata av LCV fordon där metoden används på data från A-dubbelfordon. Resultaten indikerar att A-dubbelfordon håller sig till föreslagna säkerhetsgränser under filbyten.

I det andra bidraget bedöms prestandan hos ett A-dubbelfordon i rondeller med hjälp av NDD. Olika rondeller med olika radier studeras. Fordonet upptar mer utrymme i rondeller med mindre radie jämfört med rondeller med större radie och det upptagna utrymmet ligger i alla undersökta fall under den föreslagna säkerhetsgränsen. För mindre rondeller än de som tas upp i denna studie kan styrbara axlar behövas. Dessutom visas att förarens kognitiva belastning varierar med rondellens radie där förare som navigerar större rondeller har en lägre kognitiv belastning.

Det tredje bidraget handlar om prestandautvärdering av Duo-kärrafordon över fyra scenarier, följt av jämförelsen med A-dubbelfordon. Resultaten indikerar att både A-dubbelfordon och Duo-kärrafordon är stabila och har god spårningsprestanda i de flesta fallen. A-dubbelfordon observeras vara något mer stabil i filbyten, medan Duo-kärrafordon har något bättre manövrerbarhet vid låghastighetsscenarier som rondeller och korsningar.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2024. , p. 19
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1985
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-201742DOI: 10.3384/9789180755658ISBN: 9789180755641 (print)ISBN: 9789180755658 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-201742DiVA, id: diva2:1845511
Presentation
2024-04-16, Nobel conference room, BL32, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova, 2019−03103Available from: 2024-03-19 Created: 2024-03-19 Last updated: 2024-03-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Performance analysis of an A-double in roundabouts using naturalistic driving data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance analysis of an A-double in roundabouts using naturalistic driving data
2024 (English)In: Setting the Wheels In Motion: Reimagining the future of heavy vehicles, roads and freight, International Forum for Heavy Vehicle Transport & Technology, International Forum for Heavy Vehicle Transport & Technology; The International Society for Weigh-In-Motion , 2024, article id 4565Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The focus of this paper is to use Naturalistic Driving Data to understand how the drivers manoeuvre an A-double combination in the roundabouts and evaluate performance in the roundabouts using measures like Low-Speed Swept Path (LSSP) and Tail Swing (TS). The analyses of the steering patterns and speed variations depict that the standard deviations of the responses of the drivers for a given travel direction in a roundabout are within 35o (17 % of the baseline) for the steering wheel angle and 8 km/h (40 % of the baseline) for the speed. It is also found that the cognitive workload of the drivers due to the steering pattern is higher in right turns compared to straight crossings through the roundabout. The performance analyses show a dependency of LSSP on the instantaneous radius obtained from the vehicle's path, and the vehicle's travel direction in the roundabout. LSSP ranges from 7.7 m for a left turn in a roundabout with an inner radius of 12 m to 3.1 m for a straight crossing in a roundabout with a 30 m inner radius. TS is observed in only one roundabout and its magnitude goes up to 0.4 m in a roundabout of 30 m inner radius.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Forum for Heavy Vehicle Transport & Technology; The International Society for Weigh-In-Motion, 2024
Keywords
High-Capacity Transport, A-double, Swept Path, LSSP, Tail Swing, Performance Based Standards, Roundabouts, Driver Behaviour, Cognitive Workload, Transport Systems and Logistics, Transportteknik och logistik
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-201741 (URN)
Conference
Technology Convergence 2023, Brisbane, Australia, November 6-10, 2023.
Available from: 2024-03-19 Created: 2024-03-19 Last updated: 2024-03-19

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Behera, Abhijeet

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