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  • 1.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Critical Comment on Collste2011In: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 203-205Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article claims that the account of specification as a way to solve conflicts between rights, suggested by Göran Collste, is unsatisfactory. It is argued that specification is not a solution on its own, but is better described as a remedy in response to a political failure.

  • 2.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Secular State?2010In: Identity and pluralism : ethnicity, religion and values / [ed] Göran Collste, Linköping: LiU-Tryckk , 2010, p. 80-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Lunds universitet.
    Bör den liberala staten privilegiera religion i samhället?2013In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, E-ISSN 2002-3383, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 1-21Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det anses ofta att en liberal stat måste förhålla sig neutral till religiösa element i samhället. Att bryta mot neutralitetskravet och därmed privilegiera religiösa element i samhället är uteslutet, hävdas det, eftersom ett sådant privilegierande skulle innebära att man medvetet gynnar en grupp uppfattningar om det goda livet – vilket skulle vara synnerligen icke-liberalt.

    I den här artikeln ifrågasätts det neutralitetskrav som åläggs den liberala staten. Istället försvaras idén att en liberal stat i vissa fall kan ha en prima facie skyldighet att privilegiera vissa religiösa element i samhället. I artikeln presenteras tre villkor som måste vara uppfyllda för att ett avsteg från neutralitetskravet ska vara rättfärdigat.

    Efter en kortare diskussion om den relevanta empiriska forskningen konkluderas att en liberal stat i vissa fall är berättigad att privilegiera religiösa element i samhället utan att därmed kompromissa med sin liberala status.

  • 4.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Introduktion2013In: Varför inte Socialism? och Om den egalitära rättvisans valuta / [ed] G. A. Cohen, Daidalos, 2013Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Michael Sandel: What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets2014In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, E-ISSN 2002-3383, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 37-44Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Quality of Government and the Treatment of Immigrants2013In: Ecumenical Review Sibiu / Revista Ecumenica Sibiu, ISSN 2065-5940, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normative questions concerning the treatment of immigrants can be approached from various perspectives: consequentialistic, deontological, fairness-based, rectificatory, or similar. In this paper, the implications of the idea of quality of government for the treatment of immigrants are examined. It is argued that an acceptable definition of quality of governance includes a principle of beneficence, which prescribes a beneficial treatment of immigrants whenever laws and policies allow. The principle, which is not novel in itself, is presented in a more specified form and is provided with a philosophical justification.

  • 7.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Quality of Government: Toward a More Complex Definition2013In: American Political Science Review, ISSN 0003-0554, E-ISSN 1537-5943, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 433-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concepts such as “quality of government” and “good governance” refer to a desired character of the exercise of public authority. Recently the interest in good governance, the quality of government, and similar concepts has increased considerably. However, despite this increasing interest and use, an adequate definition of the concept of quality of government has proved difficult to find. This article criticizes recent attempts at such a definition and proposes an alternative, more complex definition that includes moral content and also encompasses a plurality of values and virtues at its core. An acceptable definition of the quality of governance must be consistent with the demands of a public ethos, the virtues of good decision making and reason giving, the rule of law, efficiency, stability, and a principle of beneficence. The article describes these components in detail and the relations among them.

  • 8.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Reassessing Walzer’s social criticism2012In: Philosophy & Social Criticism, ISSN 0191-4537, E-ISSN 1461-734X, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 917-937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often argued that Michael Walzer's theory of social criticism, which underpins his theory of justice, is not much of a theory at all, but rather an impressionistic collection of historical anecdotes. Contrary to this perception, I argue that Walzer's method can be accurately described as a version of John Rawls' well-known method of wide reflective equilibrium. Through a systematic comparison it can be shown that the two methods are strikingly similar. This implies that, far from the critics' claim, Walzer's method can be described as a philosophically sophisticated method. This also adds credibility to Walzer's views on politics and justice.

  • 9.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Ethics of Free Soloing2010In: Climbing: because it's there / [ed] Stephen E. Schmid, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p. 158-168Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden .
    When Do We Share Moral Norms?2012In: Journal of Value Inquiry, ISSN 0022-5363, E-ISSN 1573-0492, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 303-315Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Agulanna, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Informed Consent in Sub-Saharan African Communal Culture: The2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Some scholars argue that the principle of voluntary informed consent is rooted in the Western ethos of liberal individualism; that it would be difficult to implement this requirement in societies where the norms of decision-making emphasize collective rather than individual decision-making (for example, Sub-Saharan Africa); that it would amount to “cultural imperialism” to seek to implement the principle of voluntary informed consent in non-Western societies. This thesis rejects this skepticism about the possibility of implementing the informed consent requirement in non-Western environments and argues that applying the principle of voluntary informed consent in human subjects’ research in Sub-Saharan African communal culture could serve as an effective measure to protect vulnerable subjects from possible abuses or exploitations. The thesis proposes the “multi-step” approach to informed consent as the best approach to the implementation of the principle in the African communal setting. The thesis argues that the importance of the “multi-step” approach lies in the fact that it is one that is sensitive to local culture and customs. On the question of whether the principle of voluntary informed consent should be made compulsory in research, the thesis answers that we have no choice in the matter.

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  • 12.
    Ahamadu, Ibrahim
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Intellectual Property Rights: A Barricade to Technological Development. An Ethical Analysis on the Less Developed Countries2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Debate over Intellectual Property Rights ‘IPRs’ particularly patent and copyrights is mainly on forward-looking industries in computer software. As part of a trade deal reached in 1994, the member nations of the World Trade Organisation must adhere to a global agreement known as TRIPS, for the Trade- Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights.

    This study is to analyse the ethical conception of Intellectual Property Rights and in particular its implications on the developing countries in relation to TRIPS. The approach will be to analyse a broad philosophical theories of property to see if there is any justification for a software program to be treated as private property and also argue base on John Rawls two principles of justice in relation to TRIPS Agreement. Some reflections will be put on the use of open-source software by less developing countries.

    From the study it was asserted that, strong IPRs protection would hinder technological transfer and indigenous learning activities in the early stage of industrialisation when learning takes place through reverse engineering. And policy makers should consider differentiation in terms of the level of economic and industrial development, if protection and enforcement of IPRs is intended to enhance technological development.

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  • 13.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    What is Wrong Between Us?: On the problem of circularity in Scanlon's contractualism2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, the Scanlonian contractualist formula will be understood as follows: Within the domain of morality of what we owe to each other, an action is morally wrong if it follows principles that similarly motivated people can reasonably reject. Consequently, the concept of ‘reasonable rejection’ is the operative element in moral valuation, thus begging the question of what it is for a rejection to be reasonable. The problem of circularity in Scanlon’s contractualism builds upon a reading according to which Scanlon’s explanation of what it is to be ‘reasonably rejected’ seems to be understood as ‘when the action is morally wrong’. If this is the case, then Scanlon’s contractualism refers to its own thesis when performing moral valuations: that is wrong which can be reasonably rejected, and for an action to be reasonably rejected it must be morally wrong. The problem of circularity apparently renders Scanlon’s contractualism ‘empty’ as it cannot explain what it is for an action to be morally wrong without referring to its own thesis.

    In this essay I will try to clarify the difference between welfarist and structural charges of circularity. I will argue that the structural charges of circularity are due to a fallacious constructivist reading of What We Owe to Each Other. As I understand Scanlon, the constructivist reading places Scanlon’s theory too close to the contractualist tradition. I will also argue that critics holding Scanlon’s contractualism to be circular have failed to note that his theory only claims to cover a narrow domain of morality. Where critics hold Scanlon’s contractualism to refer to its own thesis when performing moral valuations I will argue that the theory refers to moral domains outside that of what we owe to each other. Hopefully my discussion on constructivism and circularity will shed some light on the simple brilliance and practical applicability of Scanlon’s contractualism.

    I will give a brief overview of What We Owe to Each Other before I present the critique put forth by Onora O’Neill, Mark Timmons and Joseph Raz. Then I will show how Scanlon treats the problem of circularity in his book, and how his defense targets substantial and not structural charges of circularity. I will then show that the structural critique is fallacious by analyzing the domain of morality that Scanlon’s contractualism targets. Finally I will try to apply Scanlon’s formula on personal relationships and on environmental issues. As of this point I will refer to Scanlon’s thesis as ‘contractualism’ while other theories following the contractualist tradition will be referred to as ‘contractarian’.

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    What is Wrong Between Us?
  • 14.
    Almén, Edgar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Furenhed, Ragnar
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hartman, Sven G.
    Lärarhögskolan, Stockholm.
    Skogar, Björn
    Lärarutbildningen, Karlstad och Södertörn.
    Livstolkning och värdegrund: att undervisa om religion, livsfrågor och etik2000Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolans värdegrund har på senare år lyfts fram i många olika sammanhang. Uppgiften att undervisa om religion, etik, och livsfrågor har också debatterats. Detta undervisningsområde hör till skolans svåraste uppgifter - men kanske också till de viktigaste. Denna antologi ger ett bidrag till utvecklingen av ett professionellt lärarkunnande i frågor som gäller skolans värdegrund och undervisning på livsåskådningsområdet.

    Författarna ger utifrån sina respektive kompetensområden en belysning av några av ämnesområdets centrala aspekter.

    De texter som ingår har skrivits särskilt för lärarutbildningen men kan också användas i andra sammanhang. Avsikten har varit att via texterna föra de studerande i kontakt med såväl aktuell forskning som professionell lärarkunskap av annat slag.

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    Livstolkning och värdegrund: Att undervisa om religion, livsfrågor och etik
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  • 15.
    Aman, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The Double Bind of Interculturality and the Implications for Education2015In: Journal of Intercultural Studies, ISSN 0725-6868, E-ISSN 1469-9540, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 149-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the ways in which boundaries of estrangement are produced in the academic literature assigned for courses on interculturality. As the existence of interculturality is dependent on the ascription of content to culture – since the notion, by definition, always involves more than one singular culture – this essay seeks to provide an answer to the question of what this literature, implicitly or otherwise, defines in terms of sameness vis-à-vis otherness, and thereby to chart the conditions for becoming intercultural. This question is especially important because the self in interculturality has to be, in principle, generalizable: it should signify a position available for occupation by anybody with proper training in this approach. Starting from the assumption that different experiences, languages and identities, already intersect and are indeed already intercultural before being subjected to study under the auspices of ‘interculturality’ as an educational topic, the essay goes on to problematize the way in which interculturality tends to construe sameness and difference along national lines and does little to cater for multiple, as opposed to national, or other unified, identities.

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  • 16.
    Amanze, Stanley Otitoaja
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Technologised Parenthood: An Ethical Implacation of Human Reproductive Cloning2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Science and technology has been the bedrock of human growth and dynamism. Man has over the years distinguished his existence from all other beings by his ability to champion and fashion his existence. Among his tools is biotechnology which actually attenuates the fears of aging and death.

    Human reproductive cloning stands out as one of the means through which biotechnology plans to achieve this perfect existence for man. Technological advancements in the field of biotechnology are now in the threshold of human procreation.

    Human reproductive cloning is seen as an assisted method of reproduction which creates a newborn that is genetically identical to another human being.Human reproductive cloning as a technology and as a means of reproduction is not without its pros and cons. In as much as the technology promises to mention but a few, hope for the infertile couples and single parents, as well as the hope of reproduction without passing on hereditary diseases; it at the same time beeps some flashes of worry. Hence, the inherent threat to the notion of parenthood which does not smack of compromise, coupled with other ethical implications are reasons one may proffer not to have this technology.

    Technologised parenthood stands out as an implication of human reproductive cloning and as such it considers issues in human sexuality i.e. the place of human sexuality in reproduction and then the nature of the family which is the playground of human existence. This thesis focuses on this implication of human reproductive cloning while making a critical exposition of the concept of human reproductive cloning.

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  • 17.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

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    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 18.
    Andersson, Anna-Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Title Legitimacy of power: an argument about the justification of redistributions and restrictions of liberty of action within a state2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims at answering the following questions:1) How can the existence of a state be justified?2) To what extent does the state have the right to restrict individual´s liberty of action?3) To what extent does the state have the right to restrict or redistribute any kind of "goods", and if so, which restrictions should be allowed on which"goods"?4) Can a moral theory be "goal-directed", and are there moral reasons that it should be "goaldirected"?

    In order to answer these questions, I will analyze Robert Nozick´s and Michael Walzer´s answers to these questions, as presented in Anarchy, State and Utopia (1974) and Spheres of Justice (1983). My answers, which are founded on an argument for the necessity of freedom of choice and ambition-sensitivity in theories of justice, are results of a compromise between the ideas in these theories, but also partially on criticism of both theories.

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  • 19.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Deep Time Ecstasy: Ponderings from Beyond the Time-Wall, Courtesy of Peter Sloterdijk2022In: Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, E-ISSN 1832-9101, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 577-611Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review essay of Infinite Mobilization, by Peter Sloterdijk, translated by Sandra Berjan, Cambridge, Polity, 2020, 240 pp., $24.95, ISBN: 978-1-509-51847-0.

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  • 20.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, Linköping.
    Helstrup, Tore
    University of Oslo.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Collaborative memory: how is our ability to remember affected by interaction with others?2007In: Everyday memory / [ed] Svein Magnussen, Tore Helstrup, Hove: Psychology Press, 2007, Vol. Sidorna 135-156, p. 135-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Socialization with relatives, friends and colleagues is often regarded as one of the main ingredients of life. Our thoughts, beliefs and ways of life ar affected by socialization. The question to be discussed in this chapter is how social interaction affects our mental processes, especially our memory processes.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Johan Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aesthetic Ideology in the Anthropocene: On the Total Mobilization of the Earth into the Status of a Work of Art2021In: Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, E-ISSN 1832-9101, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 113-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of the radical change to the reach and range of technical alteration, the co-evolution of mankind and the biosphere has become one of the principal questions of our age. As we find that man has altered the planet at just about every scale we are capable of measuring, the question concerning the essence of technology, in its power to not only imitate but in many ways even surpass the forces of nature, has become critical for the discussion about global environmental change. Often, the empirical findings of the geosciences have been interpreted as a motive to question the long-standing dualism between nature and artifice that itself has served, during almost the entirety of the history of Western philosophy, as the productive tension through which concepts such as technology and history have hitherto been conceptualized. But if much of our contemporary discourse on global environmental change is premised upon the functional and formal similarities between natural and artificial organs, I argue that returning to the intellectual current of 1920s and 30s Weimar Culture, where the relationship between globalization and industrialization first became of central hermeneutic concern, may shed new light on the Anthropocene as the conceptual site for a resurged geoaesthetics that denotes the ontological ubiquity of the designed environment, making the technological the foundation for a modern typological cosmology. Examining Ernst Jünger’s early work on the meaning of the planetary impact of modern technology, I caution that by reifying the cybernetic disclosure of the earth as a natural-artificial hybrid into a naturalistic ontology of work, we are liable to render our planet perfectly functional to its sustained instrumental appropriation as standing-reserve.

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  • 22.
    Andersson, Johan Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Artificial Earth: A Genealogy of Planetary Technicity2023Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial Earth: A Genealogy of Planetary Technicity offers an intellectual history of humanity as a geological force, focusing on a prevalent contradiction in the Anthropocene discourse on global environmental change: on the one hand, it has been argued that there are hardly any pristine environments anymore, to the degree that the concept of nature has lost its meaning; while on the other, that anthropogenic environmental change has become so prevailing that it ought to be conceived of as a force of nature, in the literal sense of the expression. Artificial Earth argues that to fully grasp the stakes of this discourse, we need not only understand the contemporary scientific and technological transformations behind the Anthropocene, but also explore the history of an ontological concern tied up with it.

    In order to do so, Artificial Earth examines reflections on the ontological dualism between nature and artifice within the history of earth science from the late eighteenth century onwards. Paying particular attention to its consequences for how human subjectivity has been conceptualized in the Anthropocene, it then enrolls these resources in an effort to problematize attempts since the 1980s to formalize earth science in systems theoretical terminology. In sum, the aim is to investigate the historical conditions for the possibility of conceiving human artifice as an integral part of the earth’s terrestrial environment, with the conviction that such an investigation may assist in resolving the aforementioned contradiction or at least to understand it better by tracing its historical lineage.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Johan Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Telluric Recollection: On the Disappearance of History in Deep Time2021In: Anthropocenes - Human, Inhuman, Posthuman, ISSN 2633-4321, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the turn of the millennium, the humanities have been progressively forced to come to terms with the materiality of a warming world, in particular the entanglement of natural environments with technical infrastructures that lies at the heart of anthropgenic environmental change, and its implications for the hithertofore seemingly impentetrable ontological wall of separation between natural and human history. In an effort to address the concomitant insufficiency of remaning solely at the discursive level, some scholars have sought to reorient the interpretative concerns of the humanities by submerging the modern subject into geological registers of deep time. This paper cautions that along with such a reorientation, however, any sense of a limit – such as a horizon of understanding belonging to human history – recedes into the modal void of deep time, with the unfortunate side-effect that questions of human agency and responsibility have a tendency to get lost in the more-than-human networks of the earth’s geophysical forces. This is ironic, given that the purported novelty of the so-called ‘Anthropocene’ condition is to highlight the anthropogenic dimension of global environmental change, and thus the deep time consequences of human action.

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    Andersson, J. D. (2021). Telluric Recollection: On the Disappearance of History in Deep Time. Anthropocenes - Human, Inhuman, Posthuman, 2(1): 11, pp. 1-13.
  • 24.
    Aniago, Wilfred Onyekachi
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    International Debt Cancellation and the Question of Global Justice: A Case Study of Nigeria.2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is so much hunger in the developing poor countries of the world that the extent of inequality calls for a re-examination of global resources distribution especially as it concerns global debt crisis. The debts and their servicing obligation worsen the condition of the poor. Their cancellation could grant some respite to these global poor. This is why the call for a total and unconditional cancellation of Third World debt becomes a moral imperative. This needs to be given a normative approach especially as most of the debts were said to have arisen from morally questionable contracts. The demand for their cancellation is therefore a demand for global justice viewed from the stand point of rectification and distribution.

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  • 25.
    Animasaun, Emmanuel Dare
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Professional Medical Ethicist: A Weed or Desired Member in Medical Ethics Debates?2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We now live in an era of experts on virtually everything, among which we have professional medical ethicists, who gained prominence in the late 60s due to dramatic advances in medical technology. Before then, medical ethics issues were not thought as separable from the warp and woof of the everyday life. Medical technology’s advancement cascades legions of moral problems in medicine and biomedical research. Series of innovative interventions in medicine raise throngs of ethical questions. In most cases that have to do with issues of life and death, there are perceived moral conflicts. Due to this swath of problematic issues that need solutions, some apologists favour medical ethics experts as fit for the job, while critics argue that no one has the knowledge or skill for dealing with moral quandaries because objective truth is not feasible in ethics and moral judgment is relative to cultures, beliefs and values. The necessity for medical ethicists to take active role in Medical Ethics Debates, either in Committees at the institutional level, or at any other decision-making mechanisms is justified in this thesis. In addition to this, the thesis also justifies medical ethicists’ role as expert consultants to clinicians and individuals alike This justification is based on complex moral problems accentuated by medical technology, which are far from being easily solved through mere appeal to individual reason, but rather by involving medical ethicists based on their specialized knowledge and high level understanding of research and practice. Although critics question the authority with which experts speak on these issues, nevertheless, the thesis unravels the roles, functions, significance and components of expert’s expertise that separate him/her from the crowd. Arguments are critically analysed and medical ethicists’ limits and professional flaws are addressed, with a view to establishing a virile foundation for the profession of medical ethics.

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  • 26.
    Aronsson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Det estetiska problemet: Relationen mellan det estetiska och etiska i Kierkegaards filosofi2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about Soren Aabye Kierkegaards (1813-1855) philosophy regarding the relation between the aesthetic and the ethic stage. The result of the essay is a modification of the aesthetic problem. The suggestion is to convert part of Kierkegaard’s metaphysical claims into an epistemic approach. An epistemic approach means to hold a position of well grounded stipulative beliefs. The argument for this suggestion is that it’s not possible to decide the truth in Kierkegaard’s metaphysical claims and therefore is it more fruitful to take an epistemic position. This paper claims that for the aesthetic person an argumentation on an epistemic level should be enough to choose the ethic way of life.

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  • 27.
    Arvidsson, HG.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    How to Enhance the Usefulness of Public Debates as a Support for Political Decision-Making2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective for this study is to examine whether it is possible to use the method of reflective equilibrium in order to enhance the usefulness of public debates as a support for political decision-making. Since public debates from political quarters are seen as an important tool for policy-making, the need for a rational assessment of the views put forward in such debates are important. And since reflective equilibrium aims for coherence between judgments on different levels – intuitions, principles and theories, which all are put forward in public debates – the point of departure for this theses is that this method could be useful for the matter of bringing some kind of structure to public debates.

    The analysis in this study shows that there actually are similarities between the method of reflective equilibrium and the course of public debates, since they both are characterized by the fact that viewpoints are mutually scrutinized in the light of one another. Further, it is argued that a more systematic applying of the method of reflective equilibrium would further the justification force of the outcome of public debates, since the method stresses the need of rationality and the importance of taking all relevant opinions into consideration. Therefore, the conclusion is that applying reflective equilibrium to public debates could make the political decision-making more democratic.

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  • 28.
    Barabas, György
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary.
    Szigeti, András
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Philosophy, History, Arts and Religion. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Philosophy and Applied Ethics. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Using Quotas as a Remedy for Structural Injustice2023In: Erkenntnis, ISSN 0165-0106, E-ISSN 1572-8420, Vol. 88, p. 3631-3649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze a frequent but undertheorized form of structural injustice, one that arises due to the difficulty of reaching numerically equitable representation of underrepresented subgroups within a larger group. This form of structural injustice is significant because it could occur even if it were possible to completely eliminate bias and overt discrimination from hiring and recruitment practices. The conceptual toolkit we develop can be used to analyze such situations and propose remedies. Specifically, based on a simple mathematical model, we offer a new argument in favour of quotas, explore implications for policy-making, and consider the wider philosophical significance of the problem. We show that in order to reach more equitable representations, quota-based recruitment may often be practically unavoidable. Assuming that members of groups in statistical minority are more likely to quit due to their marginalization, their proportions can stabilize at a low level, preventing a shift towards more equal representation and conserving the minority status of the subgroup. We show that this argument has important implications for addressing, preventing, and remediating the structural injustice of unfair representation.

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  • 29.
    Beckman, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Augustinus predestinationslära och människans fria vilja2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is mainly a discussion of Augustine’s combination of the idea that human beings have a free will with his doctrine of predestination. According to the definitions of “determinism” and “free will” suggested in this paper, the actuality of predestination excludes the possibility of human free will. Since Augustine takes starting-point in his belief in God and his assumptions about the attributes of God and human beings, such a conclusion is impossible for him. The actuality of both predestination and human free will is an important feature of his view of the relationship between human beings and God. This paper investigates how Augustine’s line of argument in De Libero Arbitrio (On Free Choice of the Will) manages to hold against a modern criticism. The primary aim is to show why Augustine’s assumption that human beings have free will is inconsistent with his assumption that God has predestined all events of the world.

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  • 30.
    Beckman, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier..
    Mistaken morality?: an essay on moral error theory2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores arguments and questions related to moral error theory – the idea that morality inevitably involves a fundamental and serious error such that moral judgments and statements never come out true. It is suggested that the truth of error theory remains a non-negligible possibility, and that we for this reason should take a version of moral fictionalism seriously.

    I begin by defining error theory as the claim that moral judgments are beliefs with moral propositions as content, moral utterances are assertions of moral propositions, and no positive moral proposition is true. Second, after giving an account of J.L. Mackie’s error theory, I argue that neither Richard Joyce’s nor Jonas Olson’s argument for error theory gives us strong reasons to believe it. According to Joyce, moral discourse presupposes non-institutional desire-transcendent reasons and non-institutional categorical requirements. I challenge this claim by arguing that morality can be understood as an institution, and that the assumption that there are non-institutional moral reasons and requirements can be understood as entering pragmatically into moral conversations. According to Olson, moral discourse involves a commitment to irreducibly normative favoring relations between facts and actions. I challenge this claim by challenging Olson’s response to Stephen Finlay’s argument against absolutist accounts of moral discourse.

    Third, I discuss two objections to error theory, and argue that neither gives us strong reasons to reject it. According to the first objection, which is suggested by Terence Cuneo, error theory entails epistemic error theory, which has problematic consequences. After indicating some possible responses on part of the epistemic error theorist, I challenge the entailment claim by defending Hilary Kornblith’s account of epistemic reasons as hypothetical reasons. According to the second objection, error theory entails normative error theory, which cannot be believed. Although he does not defend this objection, Bart Streumer has given an argument for the unbelievability claim. I challenge Streumer’s argument by suggesting that we might have hypothetical reasons to believe normative error theory and that, properly understood, Streumer’s conclusion is not as radical as it may first appear.

    Fourth, I discuss what practical implications the discovery that error theory is true would have for first-order moral thinking and discourse. I argue that if this practice is overall non-morally valuable to us, we ought to revise engagement in it on the model of role-playing in live action role-playing games if we find out that error theory is true. Some have claimed that Richard Joyce’s fictionalism encounters (prima facie) problems. I argue that by incorporating the suggestion that engagement in revised moral practice is modeled on role-playing, fictionalism can escape these problems and preserve the benefits of first-order moral practice.

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  • 31.
    Beckman, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Richard Swinburne's Inductive Argument for the Existence of God – A Critical Analysis2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay discusses and criticizes Richard Swinburne's inductive argument for the existence of God. In his The Existence of God, Swinburne aims at showing that the existence of God is more probable than not. This is an argument taking into consideration the premises of all traditional arguments for the existence of God. Swinburne uses the phenomena and events that constitute the premises of these arguments as evidence in an attempt to show that his hypothesis is more probably true than nor. Swinburne pursues this task by way of applying Bayes' theorem. The aim of this essay is normative - to judge the strength of Swinburne's argument for the existence of God. My primary objections towards Swinburne is that he professes a subjective concept of probability, that he relies too heavily on simplicity as a virtue of plausible and probable hypotheses and that his concept of God involves an incoherent picture of God's nature. I question not only the actual success of Swinburne's project but what his argument, if it had been successful, would have been able to establish.

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  • 32.
    Beckman, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Superveniens och dess plats inom anomal monism: En analys av debatten mellan Donald Davidson och Jaegwon Kim2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the debate between Donald Davidson and Jaegwon Kim concerning Davidsons idea of the supervenience of the mental upon the physical. This thought is part of Davidson's general theory of the relation between mind and body; anomalous monism. The author asks wherther Kim is right that mental supervenience is insufficient to gurantee the mental causal power. The paper analyses the standpoints of both philosophers, especially regarding their definitions of "supervenience" and argues that Kim, to some extent, can be said to have misunderstood Davidson's notion of supervenience. Kim has offered definitons of "weak" and "strong" supervenience and interpreted Davidsons supervenience as being of the kind last mentioned. The author takes a standpoint opposite of Kim's and argues that Davidson's notion of supervenience is better understood as weak supervenience, but at the same time notes that it is by no means obvious that Davidsons supervenience can be said to belong to either of these categories since these refer to "possible worlds", which Davidson refuses to accept.

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  • 33.
    Behrensen, Maren
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kaliarnta, Sofia
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Sick and Tired: Depression in the Margins of Academic Philosophy2017In: Topoi: An International Review of Philosophy, ISSN 0167-7411, E-ISSN 1572-8749, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 355-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a reflection on Peter Railtons keynote speech at the Central APA in February 2015, especially on his disclosure of his struggle with clinical depression. Without attempting to deny the significance of Prof. Railtons outing, we want to draw attention here to something that did not prominently figure in his speech: structural features of the philosophical profession that make people sick. In particular, we focus on the "ideology of smartness" in philosophy and how it creates a pathological double-bind for those that come into the discipline from the margins, or find themselves in its margins.

  • 34.
    Bell, John
    Applied Logic Group, Department of Computer Science, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, UK.
    Primary and Secondary Events2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A formal, logical, theory of events is developed and used as the basis for a definition of causation and to provide a pragmatics for causal counterfactuals.The theory begins with with a logical formalization of events as represented in the planner strips. The resulting inertial theories include a common sense law of inertia and their pragmatics is based on the principle of chronological minimization. The theory of events is then developed by removing some of the simplifying assumptions of the strips representation.

    To begin with the assumption that events always succeed, given that their preconditions are true when they occur, is dropped. Instead a common sense law of change is introduced with the effect that events normally succeed but may fail if some qualification (some unusual or unexpected condition) arises. The pragmatics of the resulting causal theories is provided by refining the pragmatics of inertial theories. In particular, where there is a conflict between change and inertia, preference is given to change.

    The resulting defeasibility of events makes it possible to remove the strips assumption that only one event occurs at any given time; as conflicting events now result in failure rather than inconsistency. However it is desirable to provide a means for adjudicating between conflicting events. Consequently the theory is extended so that qualification preferences can be specified and the pragmatics are refined accordingly.

    A further strips assumption is that the effects of an event are invariant. In order to remove this assumption a distinction is drawn between primary events, events of the kind described above, and secondary events. Secondary events are invoked by primary events in appropriate contexts, they are causally dependent on primary events and when successful produce the additional, variant, effects of the

    primary events which invoke them. As a result, both the context-dependent effects of events (their ramifications) and non-deterministic events (events whose outcome is uncertain) can be represented.

    The theory of primary and secondary events is then used as the basis for a definition of causation which can be seen as providing a formal account of Mackie's definition of a cause as an inus condition.

    A major theme of this paper is the conflict between the opposite but complementary principles of change and inertia. For much of the paper the emphasis is on restricting the effects of inertia and favouring change. The resulting imbalance becomes unnatural when considering the combined effects of several events. However the definition of causation makes it possible to state a law of change and inertia, which is used to regulate change and inertia and thus ensure a proper balance between them: while caused change is preferred to inertia, inertia is preferred to uncaused change.

    The theory is then used to provide a pragmatics for causal counterfactuals, thereby extending the representation of actual causal reasoning to counterfactual causal reasoning. This is illustrated by the use of causal counterfactuals in order to obtain explanations.

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  • 35.
    Benferhat, Salem
    et al.
    Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse (I.R.I.T.)-C.N.R.S. Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.
    Dubois, Didier
    Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse (I.R.I.T.)-C.N.R.S. Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.
    Kaci, Souhila
    Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse (I.R.I.T.)-C.N.R.S. Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.
    Prade, Henri
    Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse (I.R.I.T.)-C.N.R.S. Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.
    Encoding classical fusion in ordered knowledge bases framework2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of merging multiple sources information is central in many information processing areas such as databases integrating problems, multiple criteria decision making, expert opinion pooling, etc. Recently, several approaches have been proposed to merge classical propositional bases, or sets of (non-prioritized) goals. These approaches are in general semantically defined. Like in belief revision, they use priorities, generally based on Dalal's distance, for merging the classical bases and return a new classical base as a result.An immediate consequence of the generation of a classical base is the impossibility of iterating the fusion process in a coherent way w.r.t. priorities since the underlying ordering is lost.

    This paper presents a general approach for fusing prioritized bases, both semantically and syntactically, when priorities are represented in the possibilistic logic framework. Different classes of merging operators are considered including conjunctive, disjunctive, reinforcement and adaptive operators.We show that the approaches which have been recently proposed for merging classical propositional bases can be embedded in this setting. The result is then a prioritized base, and hence the process can be coherently iterated. Moreover, we also provide a syntactic counterpart for the fusion of classical bases.

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  • 36.
    Berger, Erich
    et al.
    Bioart Society.
    Keski-Korsu, Mari
    Aalto University.
    Radomska, Marietta
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies.
    Thastum, Line
    ISOP/The Independent AIR.
    Editorial: State of the Art2023In: State of the Art: Elements for Critical Thinking and Doing / [ed] Erich Berger, Mari Keski-Korsu, Marietta Radomska, Line Thastum, Helsinki: Bioart Society , 2023, p. 8-17Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Berger, Erich
    et al.
    Bioart Society.
    Keski-Korsu, MariAalto University, Finland.Radomska, MariettaLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Thastum, LineISOP/The Independent AIR.
    State of the Art: Elements for Critical Thinking and Doing2023Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How to participate proactively in a process of change and transformation, to shape our path within an uncertain future? With this publication, the State Of The Art Network marks a waypost on a journey which started in 2018, when like-minded Nordic and Baltic art organisations and professionals initiated this network as a multidisciplinary collaboration facing the Anthropocene. Over five years, ten organisations and around 80 practitioners from different disciplines, like the arts, natural sciences and humanities came together, online and in person, for workshops, seminars and discussions. The aim was to find ways to create resilience and concrete actions on how to live through the change in culture, economy and the environment and to find concrete, hands-on methods to deal with the Anthropocene and the environmental crisis. As an outcome of this process, this publication takes a closer look at how we as practising artists, researchers and cultural actors can create elements for critical thinking and doing which can assist us in navigating the complexities of the present.

  • 38.
    Berghofer, Philipp
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, University of Graz, Austria.
    Goyal, Philip
    Department of Physics, University at Albany, Albany, USA.
    Wiltsche, Harald
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Philosophy, History, Arts and Religion.
    Husserl, the mathematization of nature, and the informational reconstruction of quantum theory2021In: Continental philosophy review, ISSN 1387-2842, E-ISSN 1573-0611, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 413-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As is well known, the late Husserl warned against the dangers of reifying and objectifying the mathematical models that operate at the heart of our physical theories. Although Husserl’s worries were mainly directed at Galilean physics, the first aim of our paper is to show that many of his critical arguments are no less relevant today. By addressing the formalism and current interpretations of quantum theory, we illustrate how topics surrounding the mathematization of nature come to the fore naturally. Our second aim is to consider the program of reconstructing quantum theory, a program that currently enjoys popularity in the field of quantum foundations. We will conclude by arguing that, seen from this vantage point, certain insights delivered by phenomenology and quantum theory regarding perspectivity are remarkably concordant. Our overall hope with this paper is to show that there is much room for mutual learning between phenomenology and modern physics.

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  • 39.
    Berghofer, Philipp
    et al.
    University of Graz, Austria.
    Wiltsche, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Philosophy and Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Introducing Phenomenology to QBism and Vice Versa: Phenomenological Approaches to Quantum Mechanics2024In: Phenomenology and QBism / [ed] Philipp Berghofer, Harald A. Wiltsche, New York: Routledge, 2024, p. 1-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Berghofer, Philipp
    et al.
    University of Graz, Austria.
    Wiltsche, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Philosophy, History, Arts and Religion. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phenomenological approaches to physics: mapping the field2020In: Phenomenological approaches to physics / [ed] Harald A. Wiltsche, Philipp Berghofer, Cham: Routledge, 2020, Vol. Sidorna 1-47, p. 1-47Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Berghofer, Philipp
    et al.
    Department for Philosophy, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Wiltsche, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Philosophy and Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phenomenology and Physics2024In: Encyclopedia of Phenomenology, p. 1-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Berghofer, Philipp
    et al.
    University of Graz, Austria.
    Wiltsche, HaraldLinköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Philosophy and Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phenomenology and QBism: New Approaches to Quantum Mechanics2024Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first book exclusively devoted to phenomenology and quantum mechanics. By emphasizing the role of the subject’s experiences, QBism exhibits several interesting parallels with phenomenology. This book elaborates whether and specifies how phenomenology could serve as thephilosophical foundation of QBism. This objective is pursued from the perspective of QBists engaging with phenomenology as well as the perspective of phenomenologists engaging with QBism. These approaches enable us to realize a better understanding of quantum mechanics and the world we live in, achieve a better understanding of QBsim, and introduce the phenomenological foundations of quantum mechanics.

  • 43. Berild Lundblad, Nicklas
    et al.
    Stjernberg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Philosophy, History, Arts and Religion.
    Frågvisare: människans viktigaste verktyg2021 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som man frågar får man svar. Frågvisare handlar om den mänskliga nyfikenheten, hur den uppkommit, vad som skiljer oss från djuren. Frågor ramar in våra liv. Det är med frågor vi orienterar oss i världen. De utgör vårt viktigaste verktyg, förmågan som fört mänskligheten framåt. Men bättre frågor kommer också att hjälpa oss att skaffa en bättre bild av världen. Den här boken ger förslag på hur.

  • 44.
    Bernabe, Rosemarie
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    An Investigation on the Aristotelian Foundations of Martha Nussbaum's Capabilities Approach and the Disability Issue Utilizing Nussbaum's Earlier Works on Aristotle2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is an investigatory work on the Aristotelian foundations of Martha Nussbaum's capabilities approach and the disability issue. After an initial exposition of the capabilities approach and the application of the approach on the disability issue, the author makes a survey of the previous works of Nussbaum on Aristotle. That survey of the works of Nussbaum on Aristotle was utilized to evaluate the Aristotelian foundations of the capabilities approach (which Nussbaum claims is an Aristotelian approach). The conclusion was that Aristotle, as developed by Nussbaum, does not provide a sufficient foundation for the approach nor for the issue on disability.

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  • 45. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Berzell, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Electronic Healthcare Ontologies: Philosophy, the real world and IT structures2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis investigates how the notion of ‘ontology’ has been used in the field of medical informatics and knowledge representation. Partly to investigate what an ‘ontology’ can be said to represent and what requirements we can have on a good ‘ontology’. The author studies the already existing medical terminologies and ‘ontologies’ to elucidate what theories they are based on. The terminological theories of Eugen Wüster and his legacy in medical informatics are studied. It is noted that terminological theories handling linguistic entities are not suited for describing and representing medical theories, since these are assumed to refer to the real world, which consists of more than linguistics entities.

    In order to find a metaphysical theory in accordance with the world view that medical theories describe, the author turn to the critical realism of Karl Popper, Roy Bhaskar and Ilkka Niiniluoto. These theories, taken together with the metaphysical theories regarding universals of David M Armstrong and Ingvar Johansson, are used as a basis to find out what an ‘ontology’ can be said to represent, and what criteria and requirements we can have on a good ‘ontology’. Among the requirements presented in the thesis are stability, interoperability and the requirement that a good ‘ontology’ must be in accordance with our best available theories.

    Finally, it is discussed how these requirements and criteria can come into conflict with one another, and how one should reason when handling these trade-offs. The author emphasises the importance of including the medical expertise in the process of creating ‘ontologies’, in order to produce as useful and relevant ‘ontologies’ as possible.

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  • 46.
    Berzell, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Culture and Aesthetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Medicinska mätvärdens ontologiska status i ljuset av universaliestriden2014In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, no 3, p. 26-34Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vad innebär det att vara realist rörande medicinska mätvärden, dvs. det värde en patient får på en viss specifik mätning, t.ex. i samband med ett sjukhusbesök, där läkaren försöker avgöra om det föreligger en sjukdom?1 Vad är man realist om – och vad finns det för alternativ när det gäller att tolka mätvärdens ontologiska status? Frågan kanske kan formuleras på flera olika sätt, men den kan ses som en fråga om ontologi, dvs. vad finns? Förutom sjukdom och mätvärde behöver också referensvärde analyseras. Referensvärden används för att kunna avgöra om sjukdom föreligger och baseras på mätvärden från friska individer. I den här artikeln vill vi använda oss av två av positionerna (aristotelisk realism och nominalism) från den klassiska universaliestriden för att analysera förhållandet mellan sjukdom, referensvärden och mätvärden inom medicin. Låt oss börja med att titta på universaliestriden.

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  • 47.
    Bialek, Lukasz
    et al.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Dunin-Keplicz, Barbara
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Szalas, Andrzej
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Rule-Based Reasoning with Belief Structures2017In: FOUNDATIONS OF INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS, ISMIS 2017, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2017, Vol. 10352, p. 229-239Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces 4QL(Bel), a four-valued rule language designed for reasoning with paraconsistent and paracomplete belief bases as well as belief structures. Belief bases consist of finite sets of ground literals providing (partial and possibly inconsistent) complementary or alternative views of the world. As introduced earlier, belief structures consist of constituents, epistemic profiles and consequents. Constituents and consequents are belief bases playing different roles. Agents perceive the world forming their constituents, which are further transformed into consequents via the agents or groups epistemic profile. In order to construct 4QL(Bel), we extend 4QL, a four-valued rule language permitting for many forms of reasoning, including doxastic reasoning. Despite the expressiveness of 4QL(Bel), we show that its tractability is retained.

  • 48.
    Bjellerup, Jon
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies.
    Är du på riktigt?: en teoretisk och praktisk studie av autenticitet, äkthet och möbler2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Autenticitet och äkthet är ord som används i vardagliga sammanhang, inte bara som konservatorer, utan av alla. Vad menar vi när vi beskriver något som autentiskt eller äkta? Sättet vi använder orden på för att beskriva möbler lämnar mycket till en subjektiv tolkning baserad på vad personen som använder orden har valt att de ska betyda. Att hitta gemensamma betydelser för orden måste prioriteras eftersom det spelar en så central roll inom både handel och undersökning av möbler.

    En filosofisk paradox blir startskottet till en bättre förståelse för termerna.

    Resultaten av denna teoretiska analys används sedan som grund i en undersökning av den store möbeldesignern och arkitekten Pierre Jeanneret.

    Jag anser att det finns en tydlig skillnad mellan de två orden som är viktig att belysa för hur vi för samtal inom konserveringsyrket.

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  • 49.
    Björck, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Do we have a moral duty to offer severely ill asylum-seeking children residence permits?2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Do we have a moral duty to offer severely ill asylum- seeking children permanent residence permits?

    This thesis analyses our moral duty to offer 410 severely ill asylum-seeking children permanent residence permits. During 2004 an emotionally charged debate started in Sweden. The debate concerned the deportation of 410 severely ill asylum- seeking children and their families. For this and other reasons Sweden was criticized by the United Nations commission along with human rights organizations for being too restrictive in its migration and asylum politics. My thesis outlines the migration and asylum debate and the refugee situation in the world at present together with facts about how the asylum procedure takes place in Sweden. Further I draw upon medical research connected to the asylum procedure along with how the Swedish Government and Save the Children respond to the migration and asylum debate.

    I also explore which rights, in terms of legal implications and ethical principles, these children have. Additional I outline theories in political philosophy from the utilitarian and communitarian tradition. The two philosophers I refer to are Michael Walzer and Peter Singer to apply their views to my primary question. Finally, I reach a critical analysis where I summarize and discuss my research. In the end I offer my final reflections in order to further debate on migration and asylum issues.

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  • 50.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Lund Sweden.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Eriksson, John
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Francén Olinder, Ragnar
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Caj
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Recent Work on Motivational Internalism2012In: Analysis, ISSN 0003-2638, E-ISSN 1467-8284, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 124-137Article, review/survey (Refereed)
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