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  • 1.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Berg, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    You give a little bit more love to animals than to robots2023In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although digital technology is an important part of young peoples lives, previous research implies that they have a limited understanding of what programming is and its connection to the digital devices they encounter every day. In order to create conditions for meaningful teaching in and about programming in technology education, more knowledge about younger students pre-understanding and experiences is needed. In the light of this, the aim of this case study was to explore young pupils descriptions of the concept programming, in connection with being introduced to programming as a teaching content in technology education. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with 16 children in year 1 (7-year-olds) in a primary school in Sweden. In their descriptions of programming as an activity, the pupils mainly used technological descriptions-a theory of artificial mind perspective. However, when they talked about the objects with which they associated programming, psychological descriptions-a theory of mind perspective-were more clearly present. Then, a less pronounced distinction between humans and machines was made. Anthropomorphic references were used, such as when the pupils referenced childrens culture such as movies and television programs. However, the term programming was difficult for many of the pupils to grasp. They also had difficulty in finding a function for programming, as well as explanations and arguments for why they learn programming in school. The results of this study indicate that these 7-year-old pupils perceive programming as something complex. This at the same time as they describe how programmed and programmed artefacts (including AI devices) are highly present in their everyday lives, in their leisure environments, and in school. This mirrors how technology has become an intelligent and active agent, rather than a mere tool in their lives-an aspect that teachers may forget to take advantage of.

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  • 2.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Boström, Johan
    Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Technology in children’s picture books as an agent for reinforcing or challenging traditional gender stereotypes2021In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 31, p. 27-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is a field with strong connections to the female/male dichotomy. Children start to stereotype everyday life regarding this dichotomy as early as the age of two. The preschool, through its activities—among them reading aloud from picture books—is an arena where societal norms can be either preserved or challenged. Books about different artefacts, e.g. cars, airplanes and boats, often serve as an introduction for children about the human application of technology and may influence how they identify and categorise the technology they encounter in everyday life. The aim of this study was to investigate the technological content in a selection of picture books from a gender perspective. Since preschools in Sweden often use books from libraries in their daily activities, the empirical material was derived from the library sections Facts for youngsters and Technology for youngsters, aimed at children aged 1–3 and 3–6. A thematic analysis was used to discover the dominant themes within the books. The results show that there is a focus on how separate artefacts function but no detailed explanation of how these artefacts are connected or what kind of implications they have in a societal context. There also seems to be an emphasis on traditionally masculine coded technology.

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    Technology in children’s picture books as an agent for reinforcing or challenging traditional gender stereotypes
  • 3.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Representations of technology in the “Technical Stories” for children of Otto Witt, early 20th century Swedish technology educator2013In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 817-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge to schoolchildren. An investigation of children's literature for schools is therefore important in order to understand what was considered worth knowing about technology at the time. The aim of this article is therefore to analyse the representations of technology and attitudes towards technology that were mediated through two children's fiction books in Swedish elementary school libraries in the 1910s. We have limited the analysis of empirical material to the books Technical Stories for Young and Old (Tekniska sagor for stora och smAyen, 1914) and Technical Stories of the War for Young and Old (Krigets tekniska sagor for stora och smAyen, 1915) by the Swedish inventor, author and technology educator Otto Witt. Gauging Witt's influence on the schoolchildren and educators of his time is very difficult, but in this first English-language article on his "technical stories" one can conclude that he was in many ways unique and probably fairly well-read in the schools of early 20th century Sweden and onward. He was also a particularly perceptive forerunner of today's technology and science educators in his use of anthropomorphism as an educational tool.

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  • 4.
    Boström, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gyberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Rethinking construction in preschool: discerning didactic strategies in Swedish preschool activities2022In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 2039-2061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though construction tasks have a long history as an activity in the Swedish preschool, technology as a content matter (e.g., construction) is relatively new. Hence, preschool teachers are generally unsure of the content of technology and how to handle it from a teaching perspective. Thus, there is need for deeper understanding of how construction tasks in preschool can be enacted and what kind of premises are offered to the children. To investigate this, we took our stance in activity theory and the concepts of mediating artifacts, rules and division of labour. This helped us discern what type of instructional practices that were enacted by preschool teachers when working with construction tasks. Activity theory in combination with thematic analysis helped us distinguish four general didactic actions that the teachers used to bring about the construction task-to engage, to guide, to coordinate, to show. These four strategies were then formulated into specific technology didactic actions through the perspectives of technology as product, process and concepts.

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  • 5.
    Boström, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gyberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Who counts?: Legitimate solutions in construction activities in preschool2023In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 33, p. 1309-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As has been pointed out in previous research, teacher-led learning plays an important role in developing preschool children's technological skills and technological self-esteem. What is missing in research are more detailed analysis of how the children’s and teachers’ actions and interactions shape the learning process. In order to study this within the field of construction, an action research project was conducted, where construction activities were developed, implemented and revised in an iterative procedure. Data from the second cycle were analyzed for this article using graphic transcriptions and multimodal analysis, with a focus on action, interaction and experience from a pragmatist perspective. Our findings show that children who quickly and decisively engage with the material, the teachers and their peers in suggesting which material to use and/or how the material can be used, end up in a central role in the design process. These children (or their actions) often get legitimized by the teachers. Thus, in order to give children access to equal opportunities in the construction activities, it is important for teachers to understand how the children’s construction-focused actions become constitutive and what their role in that process is.

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  • 6.
    Citrohn, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Svensson, Maria
    Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden; Department of Pedagogical, Curricular and Professional Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The use of models and modelling in design projects in three different technology classrooms2023In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 33, p. 63-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we aim to investigate activities using models in a design project in three technology classrooms. Activities that use models are important for students’ development of knowledge and skills connected to the design process. Nevertheless, few empirical studies have thus far examined how models and modelling are used in a classroom environment when students and teachers are involved in a design project. In order to meet our aim, we video-recorded eight lessons from three different technology classrooms (students aged 13–15), where the students were involved in diferent problem-solving activities using models and modelling. The three projects had diferent specifcations, and the students’ degrees of freedom thereby varied. The video recordings were analysed using a qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in seven activities being identifed where the teachers and students talked about models and modelling in order to solve the problem. The results also revealed three diferent dimensions of models: material, structure and function. These dimensions are present in almost all activities that use models. In a project with a high degree of freedom, all three dimensions of models are present. On the contrary, in a project with a lower freedom, only one of the dimensions is present, resulting in a lower degree of complexity for the students. The study emphasizes that the presumptions and openness of a design project in technology education can provide diferent possibilities for students learning in relation to models and modelling.

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  • 7.
    Citrohn, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Physics and Electrical engineering, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Svensson, Maria
    Department of Pedagogical, Curricular and Professional Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Technology teacher’s perceptions of model functions in technology education2020In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 805-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate how 11 Swedish technology teachers perceive model functions in technology education. The main reason for investigating model functions in technology is an identified lack of knowledge about, and research studies into, a conscious use of models when teaching technology, even though models are part of technology education in many countries. In order to answer the research question of how technology teachers perceive model functions in technology education, we have used directed content analysis where Nia and de Vries (J Technol Des Educ 27:627–653, 2017) model functions constituted a framework. The teachers connect model functions to two teaching contexts: Design process and Explain and facilitate understanding of technological solutions. Model functions are understood as parts of the design process which relate to technology/engineering knowledge, a prescriptive way of understanding models. Models are also used to explain and clarify specific technological situations or functions when teaching technology closely related to a scientific, descriptive way of using models. Five of Nia and de Vries model functions are identified in this empirical study. This strengthens the importance of addressing model functions in technological education.

  • 8.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Strömdahl, Helge
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Perspective on models in theoretical and practical traditions of knowledge: The example of Otto engine animations2012In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and theoretical traditions of knowledge: science students and teachers at upper secondary school level; vocational students and teachers in vehicle mechanics at upper secondary school level, and; MSc and PhD students in vehicle system engineering. The aim was to explore how they interpreted the animations against the background of their different traditions of knowledge and their experience of physical engines and models of engines. A key finding was that the PhD students saw the interactive animation as a familiar and useful model of engines, whereas the vehicle mechanics teachers saw it as a poor representation of reality. A general conclusion was that there is a variety of competent ways to interpret a model, depending on the tradition of knowledge.

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  • 9.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Embodying the past, designing the future: technological determinism reconsidered in technology education2022In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 32, p. 17-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a philosophical viewpoint, technological design is about connecting what is desirable with what is technically possible. Technology itself plays a major role in design processes, not only because technology development is what designing is all about, but also since the existing technology at any given point in time frames what is possible to achieve in terms of new outcomes. A limiting role of technology in design, education and other societal activities goes under the concept of technological determinism and has arguably been one of the most significant points of debate in the social sciences in the last decades. The aim of this article is to investigate how philosophical, sociological and historical research, as well as design and innovation research about technological determinism, could be fruitfully reconsidered in technology education. The analysis yielded three novel findings about the nature of technological determinism. First of all, technological determinism can take the form of an idea, theory or a way of explaining technology development in history or the present, but it can also take the form of actual material structures that—implicitly or explicitly—permeate and influence society, or, at least, this is what some researchers claim. Secondly, technological determinism is not just something that is the result of a bird’s eye view of technology and society or when we study technology as part of the macro level of society. Determinism can appear on all levels, even the micro level. Thirdly, like its counterpart social/societal determinism, technological determinism is not necessarily a “bad”thing, but a natural result of design being a balance between what is societally desirable and technically possible. The most critical issue from the point of view of technological literacy is to promote the idea that it is humans that design and retain control over technology.

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  • 10.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Elvstrand, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hellberg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gender and technology in free play in Swedish early childhood education2015In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the new Swedish curriculum for the preschool (2010) technology education is emphasized as one of the most significant pedagogical areas to work with. The aim of this article is to investigate how girls and boys explore and learn technology as well as how their teachers frame this in free play in two Swedish preschools. The study is inspired by an ethnographic approach and is based on qualitative data collected through video-taped observations and informal talk with children and teachers in two preschools. It is concluded that girls and boys learn to approach and handle technology differently, thereby confirming rather than dissolving gender boundaries. The girls more often have a special purpose in building something they need in their play, that is, they mostly engage in technological construction as a sideline. The boys, on the other hand, more often award technological construction a central part in their play; building is an end in itself. Teachers are not so active in supporting free play involving technology among the older children, nor in giving boys and girls equal opportunities to explore and use material and toys which are not gender-stereotyped. One important implication is that in-service education needs to address not only experiments and construction but also gender issues and how teachers can create equal opportunities for boys and girls in the free play.

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  • 11.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lövheim, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The study of technology as a field of knowledge in general education: historical insights and methodological considerations from a Swedish case study, 1842–20102014In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 121-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, technology education in Sweden is both a high-status and a low-status phenomenon. Positive values such as economic growth, global competitiveness and the sustainability of the welfare state are often coupled with higher engineering education and sometimes even upper secondary education. Negative values, on the other hand, are often associated with primary and lower secondary education in this subject. Within the realm of technology education at such lower levels of schooling in Sweden, different actors have often called for reformed curricula or better teacher training, owing to the allegedly poor state of technology education in schools. Recurring demands for a change in technology education are nothing unique from an historical point of view, however. In fact, the urge to influence teaching and learning in technology is much older than the school subject itself. The aim of this article is to describe and analyse some key patterns in technology education in Swedish elementary and compulsory schools from 1842 to 2010. This study thus deals with how technological content has developed over time in these school forms as well as how different actors in and outside the school have dealt with the broader societal view of what is considered as important knowledge in technology as well as what kind of technology has particular significance. The long period of investigation from 1842 to 2010 as well as a double focus on technology as scattered educational content and a subject called Technology make it possible to identify recurring patterns, which we have divided into three overarching themes: Technological literacy and the democratic potential of technological knowledge, The relationship between school technology and higher forms of technology education and The relationship between technology and science.

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  • 12.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Klasander, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Visible Parts, Invisible Whole: Swedish Technology Student Teachers’ Conceptions about Technological Systems2017In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, no 3, p. 387-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological systems are included as a component of national technology curricula and standards for primary and secondary education as well as corresponding teacher education around the world. Little is known, however, of how pupils, students, and teachers conceive of technological systems. In this article we report on a study investigating Swedish technology student teachers’ conceptions of technological systems. The following research question is posed: How do Swedish technology student teachers conceive of technological systems? Data was collected through in-depth qualitative surveys with 26 Swedish technology student teachers. The data was analysed using a hermeneutic method, aided by a theoretical synthesis of established system theories (system significants). The main results of the study are that the technology student teachers expressed diverse conceptions of technological systems, but that on average almost half of them provided answers that were considered as undefined. The parts of the systems that the students understood were mostly the visible parts, either components, devices, or products such as buttons, power lines, hydroelectric plants, or the interface with the software inside a mobile phone. However, the ‘invisible’ or abstract aspects of the technological systems, such as flows of information, energy or matter, or control operations were difficult to understand for the majority of the students. The flow of information was particularly challenging in this regard. The students could identify the input and often the output of the systems, that is, what systems or components do, but the processes that take place within the systems were elusive. Comparing between technological systems also proved difficult for many students. The role of humans was considered important but it was mostly humans as users not as actors on a more systemic level, for example, as system owners, innovators, or politicians. This study confirms previous research in that the students had a basic understanding of structure, input and output of a technological system. Thus, the adult students in this study did not seem to have better understanding of technological systems than school pupils and teachers in previous studies, although this is in line with previous investigations on the general system thinking capabilities of children and adults. The most important implication of this study is that students need to be trained in systems thinking, particularly regarding how components work and connect to each other, flows (especially of information), system dependency, and the human role in technological systems.

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  • 13.
    Hultén, Magnus
    School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Technology as the language of schooling: utopian visions of technology in Swedish general education in the 1960s2013In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 581-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the state-of-the-art Glass Project run by the Swedish National Agency for Education during the second half of the 1960s, a new type of comprehensive technology education was developed. The project had little impact on school practice and was soon forgotten about. However, the project is interesting from several points of view. First, it elaborated an interesting curricular idea where school activities were to centre around technology, thus creating a meaningful whole for the pupils, a sort of “language of schooling”. Second, the Glass Project illustrates a utopian logic of educational reform. The school had become an important area of reform in the mid-twentieth century, and in this the pedagogy of the “old school” was heavily criticised. Technology education clearly became a tool for progressive ideas in Sweden in the 1960s.

  • 14.
    Hultén, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Artman, Henrik
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    House, David
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A model to analyse students’ cooperative idea generation in conceptual design2018In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 451-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we focus on the co-creation of ideas. Through the use of concepts from collaborative learning and communication theory we suggest a model that will enable the cooperative nature of creative design tasks to emerge. Four objectives of the model are stated and elaborated on in the paper: that the model should be anchored in previous research; that it should allow for collaborative aspects of creative design to be accounted for; that it should address the mechanisms by which new ideas are generated, embraced and cultivated during actual design; and that it should have a firm theoretical grounding. The model is also exemplified by two test sessions where two student pairs perform a time-constrained design task. We hope that the model can play a role both as an educational tool to be used by students and a teacher in design education, but primarily as a model to analyse students’ cooperative idea generation in conceptual design.

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  • 15.
    Hultén, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Epistemic habits: Primary school teachers’ development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in a design-based research project2016In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 335-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalist primary school teachers often have little or no training in school subjects such as science and technology. Not surprisingly, several studies show that they often experience difficulties when teaching these subjects, in fact some primary teachers even avoid teaching them. The over all aim of this study is to contribute to new theoretical and methodological tools for the study of how teachers develop knowledge for teaching, i.e. pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). And based on this, elaborate on implications for the professional development of primary school teachers. The teachers in the study participated in a design-based research project concerning technology education in Grade 1. We were especially interested in whether the teachers displayed any habits that contributed to the development of their personal PCK. We found three significant patterns in how the teachers, together with the researcher, developed knowledge of how to teach a specific topic in technology. We argue that these patterns tell us something about the teachers’ epistemic habits in relation to the teaching of technology. The existence of these habits could help to explain how teachers with little or no experience of teaching a subject can develop relevant PCK.

  • 16.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden .
    Bjurulf, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transfer of knowledge in technical vocational education: a narrative study in Swedish upper secondary school2013In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 519-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vocational education, teaching and learning are expected to take place in the different learning arenas; schools and workplaces. In such a dual school system, the question of transfer is vital, i.e. how to use knowledge learned in previous situations in new situations. This article is an empirical contribution to research concerning transfer, by means of results from semi-structured group interviews with teachers and supervisors who educate students in the Energy program and the Industry program in Swedish upper secondary school. The interviews were analysed by analyses of narratives. The results show four themes of transfer in the interviews: (1) transfer of basic knowledge, (2) transfer of principles and skills, (3) transfer of written materials and real life and (4) transfer of experiences. The results also show three factors that are crucial in order to create possibilities for transfer: (1) communication, (2) financial resources and (3) reflection. These factors demand close cooperation between the teachers and supervisors during the students vocational education.

  • 17.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Exploring the metaphoric nature of programming teachers reflections on action-a case study with teaching in mind2023In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, subject content such as programming and digital literacy has become an integral part of technology education. However, research shows that many programming teachers lack sufficient formal education to teach programming and show disparate educational and professional experiences. This study investigates how three teachers knowledge and beliefs about their teaching practices are enacted in their classroom practice. The data for the study consist of videoed classroom observations and subsequent episodic narrative interviews with the teachers. Metaphor analysis have been used to uncover central relations between the teachers knowledge and beliefs about their practice and their classroom actions. The result of the study reveals that the teachers describe their roles as teachers differently. Despite the differences, the teachers still share the idea that programming is an activity where small pieces of code is intertwined so that they can achieve a purpose. However, none of the teachers speak about code as being essential for learning programming. The teachers all seem to view themselves as assets for the students achievements, nevertheless, they do not share the idea of why. Altogether, the result of the study suggests that even though the curriculum is the same, teachers knowledge and beliefs about their teaching plays a big role in students education. Also, the study show, that it is reasonable to suggest that conceptual metaphors affect not only our language, but also our actions in the classroom.

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  • 18.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hands on programming: Teachers use of Metaphors in gesture and Speech make Abstract concepts tangible2023In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 33, p. 901-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metaphors in gesture and speech play a pivotal role in the way that programming concepts are presented in the classroom. However, little is known about the function of teachers metaphors in practice. This study aims to explore teachers use of metaphors in gesture and speech in a lecture on programming. Based on video observations of three upper secondary teachers, we employ Metaphor Identification Procedure (MIP) and Metaphor Identification for Gesture Guidelines (MIG-G) as methodological tools for identifying metaphoric speech and gestures related to programming concepts. The results of the study reveal that the gestures of the three teachers mainly function in two ways: (1) to add spatial properties to a programming concept and (2) to provide additional imagery for a programming concept. Consequently, the gestures identified in this study reduce the communicative burden of teachers speech. Furthermore, the study reveals that teachers gestures serve as means for making abstract concepts more tangible. For example, gestures concerning the abstract term "data" can generally be related to an object that could be received or moved. Hence, despite its metaphorical origin, data could be considered a graspable aspect of programming. Furthermore, spatial gestures enable the teachers to communicate programming processes in a tangible way, for example assigning programming processes a forward direction. Theoretical implications, potential implications for teaching and future research are discussed in the paper.

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  • 19.
    Nordlöf, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-efficacy or context dependency?: Exploring teachers’ perceptions of and attitudes towards technology education2019In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 123-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational research on attitudes shows that both teaching and student learningare affected by the attitudes of the teacher. The aim of this study is to examine technologyteachers’ perceptions of and attitudes towards teaching technology in Swedish compulsoryschools, focusing on teachers’ perceived control. The following research question is posed:How do the teachers perceive self-efficacy and context dependency in teaching technology?Qualitative interviews were performed with 10 technology teachers in the compulsoryschool (ages 7–16), and the data was analysed using thematic analysis. Based on an attitudeframework, three sub-themes of self-efficacy were found: experience, education andinterest, subject knowledge, and preparation. Furthermore, four sub-themes of contextdependency were found; collegial support, syllabus, resources and status. The results showthat, according to the teachers in this study, self-efficacy mainly comes from experience,education and interest. Moreover, contextual factors can both limit and boost the teachers,but overall there are negative attitudes because of a lack of support and resources, whichimpedes the teaching. Teachers educated in technology education generally express morepositive attitudes and thus seem to have advantages in relation to technology teaching, butstill they sometimes express negative attitudes in the field of perceived control. Someimplications of this study are that it is necessary to promote teacher education in technologyand to reserve resources for technology education in schools, thereby supportingteachers in controlling contextual and internal factors that affect their teaching. Thissupport to teachers is especially important if there is an intention for the subject to developin new directions.

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  • 20.
    Nordlöf, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Norstrom, Per
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Towards a three-part heuristic framework for technology education2022In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 1583-1604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is not one single global version of technology education; curricula and standards have different forms and content. This sometimes leads to difficulties in discussing and comparing technology education internationally. Existing philosophical frameworks of technological knowledge have not been used to any great extent in technology education. In response, the aim of this article is to construct a heuristic framework for technology education, based on professional and academic technological knowledge traditions. We present this framework as an epistemological tripod of technology education with mutually supporting legs. We discuss how this tripod relates to a selection of epistemological views within the philosophy of technology. Furthermore, we apply the framework to the Swedish and English technology curricula, to demonstrate its utility as an analytic tool when discerning differences between national curricula. Each leg of the tripod represents one category of technological knowledge: (1) technical skills, (2) technological scientific knowledge and (3) socio-ethical technical understanding. The heuristic framework is a conceptual model intended for use in discussing, describing, and comparing curriculum components and technology education in general, and potentially also as support for planning and conducting technology teaching. It may facilitate common understanding of technology education between different countries and technology education traditions. Furthermore, it is a potentially powerful tool for concretising the components of technological literacy.

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  • 21.
    Norström, Per
    et al.
    Department of Learning, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Models and modelling in secondary technology and engineering education2023In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 33, p. 1797-1817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The common purpose of models is to provide simplified representations of other phenomena. Depending on type, they are suitable for communication, documentation, prognostication, problem solving, and more. Various types of models, such as drawings, mock-ups, flow charts, and mathematical formulae, are important tools in engineering work. An introduction to the area of technological modelling is therefore an essential component in secondary technology and engineering education, both to prepare for future studies and work, and to instil a general technological literacy. Models in the form of technical drawings and physical models are mentioned in several international curricula and standards for secondary education, but the nature of models or the modelling process are seldom elaborated upon. The purpose of this article is to investigate the ‘why?’, the ‘what?’, and the ‘how?’ of teaching and learning about models and modelling in secondary technology and engineering education. We discuss the roles of models and modelling and suggest a modelling framework for technology and engineering education consisting of a six-step modelling process that can be used in education with increasing level of complexity: identification, isolation, simplification, validation, verification, and presentation. Examples from Swedish curricula and secondary school textbooks are used to highlight the progress (or lack thereof) concerning model creation and model use. It was found that especially validation and verification are downplayed or missing in these accounts. Special attention needs to be given to the simplification step, where the balance between simplicity and realism often leads to difficult decisions in the modelling process.

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  • 22.
    Otterborn, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Surveying preschool teachers’ use of digital tablets: general and technology education related findings2019In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 717-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of digital tablets in preschools has increased significantly in recent years. Literature suggests that these tools can enhance students’ literacy and collaborative skills. As society becomes increasingly digitized, preschool curriculum reform also emphasises the subjects of technology and science as priority areas of learning. Teachers’ knowledge and experiences are of utmost importance in carrying out this mandate. Few studies have explored the use of digital tablets to teach preschool technology and science in Sweden, and there is an urgent need to ascertain the role of digital aids as teaching tools. This survey study seeks to determine how digital tablets are used to support preschool children’s learning in general, and with respect to technology education. Preschool educators (n = 327) across Sweden responded to an online survey consisting of 20 closed and 6 open items that probed the use of digital tablets. Survey results revealed a high degree of engagement with digital tablets in preschools, with activities directed toward various subject-related, social and generic skills. Programming, invention, construction and creation, problem-solving, and design emerged saliently as tablet activities in technology subject areas. Opportunities for providing meaningful learning tasks and digital adaptability were seen as pedagogical benefits of using tablets, but increasing expectations to integrate tablet activities with an accompanying lack of digital skills were expressed as limitations. Teachers’ recommendations for future tablet use included defining clearer curriculum guidelines for tablet implementation and adequate training for acquiring digital competence.

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  • 23.
    Schooner, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klasander, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teachers’ cognitive beliefs about their assessment and use of tools when evaluating students’ learning of technological systems: a questionnaire study2023In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 33, p. 937-956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In technology education, assessment is challenging and underdeveloped as it is a nascent practice and teachers do not have a well-defined subject tradition to lean on when assessing students. The aim of this study is to explore Swedish secondary technology teachers’ cognitive beliefs about assessing students’ learning of technological systems, in relation to the assessment tools they use. Data for the study were collected through a questionnaire which was completed by 511 Swedish technology teachers in lower secondary education (grades 7–9). The data were analysed statistically in three main steps. Exploratory factor analysis revealed underlying dimensions in teachers’ cognitive beliefs, which was followed by correlation analysis to discern associations between dimensions of cognitive beliefs. Finally, comparisons were made between groups of teachers to discern how teachers’ cognitive beliefs are influenced by their experience and educational background. The results show that additional education in the technology and engineering fields relates to more positive cognitive beliefs concerning teachers’ ability to assess students’ learning of technological systems. Teachers’ cognitive beliefs about assessment therefore did not primarily relate to the content of technological systems per se but to increased engineering and technology competence more broadly, which may indicate the importance of a comprehensive technological knowledge base in order to be confident in assessment. Furthermore, strong cognitive beliefs about assessment were connected specifically to local, regional and national technological systems, which are generally well-known and visible types of systems, and to the human, socio-technical dimensions of the systems. Cognitive beliefs about knowledge for assessment were also associated with positive attitudes to assessment tools that followed the formative tradition, which may be explained by the prevalence of procedural epistemic practices and modelling in the design and understanding of technological systems. Technology teachers would need additional in-service courses in engineering to broaden their knowledge and increase their cognitive beliefs about assessment. Formative assessment should also be preferred, and it might be appropriate to begin teaching and assessment with well-known local and regional infrastructural systems with a clear socio-technical dimension.

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  • 24.
    Schooner, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Klasander, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Swedish technology teachers’ views on assessing student understandings of technological systems2018In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 169-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology education is a new school subject in comparison with other subjects within the Swedish compulsory school system. Research in technology education shows that technology teachers lack experience of and support for assessment in comparison with the long-term experiences that other teachers use in their subjects. This becomes especially apparent when technology teachers assess students’ knowledge in and about technological systems. This study thematically analysed the assessment views of eleven technology teachers in a Swedish context. Through the use of in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews, their elaborated thoughts on assessing knowledge about technological systems within the technology subject (for ages 13–16) were analysed. The aim was to describe the teachers’ assessment views in terms of types of knowledge, and essential knowledge in relation to a progression from basic to advanced understanding of technological systems. The results showed three main themes that the interviewed teachers said they consider when performing their assessment of technological systems; understanding (a) a system’s structure, (b) its relations outside the system boundary and (c) its historical context and technological change. Each theme included several underlying items that the teachers said they use in a progressive manner when they assess their students’ basic, intermediate and advanced level of understanding technological systems. In conclusion, the results suggest that the analysed themes can provide a basis for further discussion about defining a progression for assessing students’ understanding about technological systems. However, the findings also need to be examined critically as the interviewed teachers’ views on required assessment levels showed an imbalance; few students were said to reach beyond the basic level, but at the same time most assessment items lay on the intermediate and advanced levels.

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  • 25.
    Sultan, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Örebro Universitet.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Bringing girls and women into STEM?: Girls’ technological activities and conceptions when participating in an all-girl technology camp2024In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 647-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bringing more girls and women into science, technology, engineering and mathematics, STEM, is often highlighted as an aim in education and industry. A constantly growing body of research on engagement is driven by equity concerns caused by the unbalanced gender distribution in STEM. In this study, Swedish teenage girls on a three-day technol- ogy camp are in focus. The camp was an initiative with three goals: “Get girls interested, keep girls interested and provide knowledge about futures within technology professions”. We explored the participating girls’ technological activities and conceptions of technology at the camp. Data collection was conducted through participant observations and a focus group interview. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and a gender theoretical framework. Results show the camp presented uncertain notions of what technology can be, and traditionally male-oriented domains were “girlified”. However, girlified activities might not have been constructive in this context since the girls expressed interest in technology before the camp and showed few signs of gendering technology – they liked all kinds of technology. Girlified technology can, at its worst, give a false image of the future industrial work life that the camp organiser aimed to inspire. Despite this, the camp activities were still meaningful and relevant to the girls. The camp created opportunities for the girls to develop their sense of being technical and a feeling of belonging. Implications for technology classroom settings and future camps are to value practical work and improvisational design without leaving the teaching unreflected. This could be a way of engaging and familiarising girls with the multifaceted world of technology without girlifying it. In addition, a broad conception of technology could make gender codes less relevant and open new opportunities. 

  • 26.
    Svenningsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science.
    The Mitcham Score: quantifying students’ descriptions of technology2020In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 995-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central issue when measuring students’ attitudes toward an object is the children’s understanding of that object, in this case, technology. Studies have shown that schoolchildren often describe technology narrowly as different kinds of technological objects; more specifically, modern electrical objects. This may mean that we have been measuring students’ attitudes toward modern technological objects for more than 30 years. This study intends to research what other aspects students potentially describe, when describing technology, and how the descriptions can be implemented in attitudes toward technology research. To visualize and analyze different aspects of technology, Carl Mitcham’s philosophical framework of the manifestations of technology is used. The deductive method used for analysis quantifies students’ descriptions of technology, for use in attitude, and other quantitative, studies. In this study, descriptions of technology and technology education from 164 students (aged 12–15) are analyzed, classified and quantified within Mitcham’s typology (technology as Object–Activities–Knowledge–Volition). The student descriptions are compared to the typology and students score a point for every one of the four aspects of technology they describe. The sum of aspects in the description is named The Mitcham Score. The results of this study show that students can describe technology in a broad way using all four aspects of Mitcham’s typology. In line with previous studies, the most common way is to describe technology as objects and activities using the objects. Technological knowledge has not been in focus in previous studies of student descriptions. In this study, 44.5% of the students mention technological knowledge in their descriptions of technology. Measurement using the Mitcham Score provides a method to study both students’ concepts of technology and the factors that might affect this. The Mitcham Score is potentially one more factor to use in analyzing students’ attitudinal profiles. The method is sufficiently reliable and enables a broad understanding of students’ attitudes.

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    Quantifying students’ descriptions of technology
  • 27.
    Svenningsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Understanding attitude measurement: Exploring meaning and use of the PATT short questionnaire2018In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 67-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pupils’ attitudes toward technology survey (PATT) has been used for 30 years and is still used by researchers. Since it was first developed, the validity of the questionnaire constructs has primarily been discussed from a statistical point of view, while few researchers have discussed the type of attitudes and interest that the questionnaire measures. The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge about student interpretations and the meaning of their answers in the recently developed PATT short questionnaire (PATT-SQ). To research this, a mixed methods approach was used, where the qualitative data from six interviewees (students aged 14) help to explain and interpret the quantitative data from 173 respondents (students aged 12–15). The interviewed students completed a Swedish version of the PATT-SQ 3 weeks prior a semistructured interview. The results from this study imply that the PATT-SQ survey can be used mostly as it is, but this study also shows that there are some categories that require some caution when being analyzed and discussed. For example, the gender category cannot be used as intended since it does not measure what it is supposed to and it might be gender-biased. The interest category can advantageously be reduced to four items to focus on school technology, which will indicate how deep a student’s well-developed individual interest is. And the career category seems to only detect students’ who urge a career in technology, while the other students lack knowledge about what that career might be and therefore they are not interested in such a career.

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  • 28.
    Svenningsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Students attitudes toward technology: exploring the relationship among affective, cognitive and behavioral components of the attitude construct2022In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 1531-1551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When studying attitudes toward technology education, the affective attitudinal component has primarily been the focus. This study focuses on how the affective, cognitive and behavioral attitudinal components of technology education can be incorporated using a two-step survey: the traditional PATT-questionnaire (PATT-SQSE) and the recently developed Mitcham Score questionnaire. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship among the cognitive, affective and potential behavioural components of students attitudes toward technology in a Swedish context, using the PATT-SQ-SE instrument including the Mitcham score open items. Results of the analyses show that relationships among the attitudinal components are observable. The results also imply that relationships among the attitudinal components are different for girls than boys. A key factor for the participating students attitudinal relations was interest (affective component) in technology education. An individual interest in technology education was related to both the cognitive component and behavioral intention. Another key relationship, for girls, was that the cognitive component had a strong relationship with behavioral intention, which was not the case for boys. Based on the observed relations between the cognitive, affective and behavioural components we have identified two key implications for educational practice: Girls should learn a broader conception of technology in technology education, if we want them to pursue technology-related careers to a higher degree; Students interest in technology should be stimulated through engaging tasks in technology education.

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  • 29.
    Svensson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ingerman, Åke
    University of Gothenburg.
    Discerning technological systems related to everyday objects: mapping the variation in pupils experience2010In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 255-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding technology today implies more than being able to use the technological objects present in our everyday lives. Our society is increasingly integrated with technological systems, of which technological objects, and their function, form a part. Technological literacy in that context implies understanding how knowledge is constituted in technology, and in particular how concrete (objects) and abstract levels (systems) are linked. This article has an educational focus concerning systems in technology education. Using a phenomenographic approach, the study explores pupils experiences of technological systems as embedded in four everyday objects. We identify five qualitatively different ways of understanding systems, ranging from a focus on using the particular objects, over-focussing on the function of objects, seeing objects as part of a process, and seeing objects as system components, to understanding objects as embedded in systems. As a conclusion, we suggest an educational strategy for teaching about systems in technology education.

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