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  • 1.
    Ackebjer Turesson, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Werneskog, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    The Challenge of Providing Sufficient Grid Capacity for Electrification to Be a Key Factor in Achieving Climate Neutrality Until 2045: A national and regional demand analysis investigating the future electricity demand and the grid operators' perspectives on large-scale electrification in Sweden2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to contribute to grid planning and public debate about how the electric power system can cope with electrification and decarbonisation. The thesis is based on the assumption that Sweden, in accordance with the climate goals, will achieve climate neutrality by 2045.

    Based on a literature review, an analysis is made of how different scenarios predict the future national electricity demand up until 2045 and identifies the underlying drivers for changes in electricity demand. A more detailed analysis based on results from a literature review and interviews with industry representatives is made for four chosen regions, Norrbotten, Västra Götaland, Stockholm and Skåne. For each region, estimates are made of how high the electrification potential is in the industrial, transport, residential and service sectors.

    The prerequisites for the electricity grid to handle the identified electrification potential, in terms of grid capacity, have been analysed in order to highlight what challenges there are for large-scale electrification to be a key factor in achieving the climate goals.

    The general belief in the studied scenarios is that the national electricity demand will increase until 2045. The investigated scenarios predict increases resulting in an annual national electricity demand of up to 207 TWh in 2045, corresponding to an increase of almost 60 %. The most significant increases are due to decarbonisation in the industry and transport sector.

    The regional analysis shows significant electrification potentials in the investigated regions. A few industries stand out with dramatic increases, Borealis AB in Västra Götaland shows an electrification potential of 8 TWh and 1 000 MW and SSAB in Norrbotten shows an electrification potential of 9 TWh and 900 MW. Significant electrification potentials in the transport, residential and service sectors have been identified in metropolitan areas, i.e. in the region of Stockholm, Västra Götaland and Skåne.

    The grid analysis shows that it will be challenging to increase grid capacity at sufficient speed. It is concluded that there is currently insufficient grid capacity to meet large-scale electrification, and that the grids need to be reinforced. However, the concession process for grid reinforcements is considered too slow to meet the demands that arise, primarily in the industry sector. Three ways to address this challenge have been identified:

    -          If the permission process for electricity grid expansion does not change and the industry is to choose the electrification route, this needs to be decided before 2030 in order for reinforcements in the electricity grid to be ensured before 2045.

    -          Speed up the permit process to allow shorter lead times for power grid expansions.

    -          The industry choose another route for decarbonisation than electrification.

    The overall conclusion is that new approaches for expanding the electricity grid will be required if large-scale electrification is to be a key factor in achieving the climate goals in 2045.  

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  • 2.
    Ahmad, Iftikhar
    et al.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Pakistan.
    Arif, Muhammad Salman
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Pakistan.
    Cheema, Izzat Iqbal
    Univ Engn & Technol, Pakistan; Univ Engn & Technol, Pakistan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khan, Masroor Ahmed
    United Nations Ind Dev Org, Pakistan.
    Drivers and Barriers for Efficient Energy Management Practices in Energy-Intensive Industries: A Case-Study of Iron and Steel Sector2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 18, article id 7703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two major reasons behind the worlds energy crisis are losses in energy transmission and less efficient energy use at sinks. The former flaw can be catered by changing the entire energy transmission system which requires investment and planning on a large scale, whereas the later deficiency can be overcome through proper management of energy utilizing systems. Energy-intensive industries have a substantial share in energy consumption and equally high energy saving potentials if they adopt some integrated and improved energy efficiency. This study investigates the energy management systems in the iron and steel sector of Pakistan, and compare it with findings of similar work in Sweden, Bangladesh, and Ghana. A systematic questionnaire was circulated in the iron and steel sector across the country and afterward the collected data was analyzed to find major barriers and drivers for efficient energy management practices. In addition, questions on non-energy benefits and information sources relevant to the energy efficiency were also part of the questionnaire. Cost reduction resulting from lowered energy use was rated as the most important driver for applying energy-efficient operation. On the other hand, the cost of production disruption was considered among high-level barriers to the implementation of improved energy efficiency. An increase in the life-time of equipment was labeled as the top non-energy benefits. Company peers and seminars/conferences were referred as the best information sources related to energy efficiency. The outcome of the study will be helpful to the decision-maker in the industry, as well as the government levels.

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  • 3.
    Aiastui, Xabier
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Towards more efficient industrial lighting: Literature review on energy efficiency improvement of industrial lighting2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis work is aimed to investigate the possibilities of achieving more efficient industrial lighting. The study is divided in four parts: 1) Industrial lighting energy efficiency measures, 2) Added value of lighting, 3) Drivers and barriers for adopting lighting efficiency measures, and 4) Applications of AI in industrial lighting.The first part of the study explores various energy efficiency measures that could be applied in industrial lighting. The results show that using energy-efficient lighting fixtures, optimizing lighting controls, and adopting smart lighting solutions that integrate daylight in the illumination strategy and design are the most effective measures for reducing energy consumption and increasing efficiency.In the second part, the study examines the added values or non-energy benefitsof efficient industrial lighting. The findings indicate that apart from cost savings, efficient lighting leads to improvements on the quality of work environments, enhances workers health and safety conditions and improves environmental performance. Moreover, the study suggests that in many cases, the added values of lighting are not given the importance they should have and are not considered when an energy efficiency investment is planned to be done.The third part of the study identifies the drivers and barriers for adopting lighting efficiency measures in industrial settings. The study found that factors such as cost and energy savings, energy efficiency regulations are the main drivers for implementing efficient lighting solutions. However, barriers such as lack of awareness, perceived high initial costs, technology adoption and insufficient government incentives are the main obstacles to adoption.Finally, the study investigates the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in industrial lighting. The results show that AI-based solutions, such as predictive maintenance and intelligent lighting control could significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce maintenance costs. Moreover, AI can bring the work environment to another level by the application of human centred and personalized lighting.Overall, this master thesis work provides valuable insights into achieving more efficient industrial lighting by highlighting effective energy efficiency measures, identifying the added value of efficient lighting, and examining the drivers and barriers to adoption. Moreover, the study sheds light on the potential of AI in industrial lighting and its potential benefits and future challenges.

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  • 4.
    Alanne, K.
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning, P.O. Box 1100, 02015 TKK, Finland.
    Salo, A.
    Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Systems Analysis Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 1100, 02015 TKK, Finland.
    Saari, A.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Construction Economics and Management, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 2100, 02015 TKK, Finland.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Multi-criteria evaluation of residential energy supply systems2007In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 1218-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider the selection of a residential energy supply system as a multi-criteria decision-making problem, which involves both financial and environmental issues. Specifically, we compare micro-CHP (micro-cogeneration) heating with traditional heating systems through an evaluation that accounts for: (i) the decision-makers' subjective preferences, (ii) uncertainties in the performance of micro-CHP heating systems (which are partly caused by the lack of long-term operational experiences) and (iii) the context-dependency of life-cycle costs and environmental burdens of heating systems. Motivated by these considerations, we employ the PAIRS multi-criteria decision-making methodology that captures incomplete information by way of interval-valued parameters and provides support for sensitivity analyses, too. Our comparative analysis of alternative heating systems suggests that micro-CHP is a reasonable alternative to traditional systems, particularly from the environmental point of view. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Aliahmad, Abdulhamid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Mohan, Aisiri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Transition of non-production facilities towards carbon-neutrality A Case Study- Volvo CE’s Customer Center2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on historical developments that lead to the establishment of global organizations for climate change has shown that the phenomenon of surface temperature is not a new topic of focus. Increased policy restrictions, brand image, fear of resource scarcity, growing market trends towards sustainability and consumer awareness are among the several external factors that have influenced the growing research in corporate transition towards carbon neutrality. The main aim of this study is to understand through data accounting of major material and energy carrier changes, how a non-production facility could transition to become a carbon-neutral facility. Therefore, an exploratory case study has been performed and conducted at Volvo CE Customer center in Eskilstuna, Sweden, with two objectives: i) to identify and quantify the customer center current footprint by mapping the main contributors to greenhouse gases emissions, and ii) to recommend specific & general measures that can mitigate the carbon footprint of the facility. Three research questions related to the facility’s current carbon footprint, measures implemented so far, and the best applied assessment method, have guided us throughout the study. The methodology has been framed to give a theoretical underpinning for understanding the project from a holistic perspective. The split of the methodology has been constructed in line with the theoretical framework that gave the foundation to the needed theories to be taken into account i.e. GHG protocol, which is the tool that has been adopted by the study to attain the desired aim, including the three scopes under the protocol which were also defined accordingly. ‘Scope 1’ has been taken into account and is a representation of direct emissions, ‘Scope 2 represents the indirect emissions, and ‘Scope 3’ (according to the GHG protocol) takes into account the rest of the indirect emissions arranged into 15 categories, from which applicable to our study were 4 categories (1, 3, 4 and 6). The results showed that during the base year (2019) the highest user within Scope 1 was diesel, followed by HVO, and under Scope 2, The results from Scope 1 and 2, together with the results of Scope 3 category, were analyzed using the attributional LCA approach recommended by the GHG protocol to calculate their contribution to the customer centers’ total carbon footprint. It was found that Scope 1 stands for 128.52 t CO₂-eq while Scope 2 stands only for 1.16 t CO₂-eq and finally Scope 3 stands for most of the emissions with 3719 t CO₂-eq. It has been found that in 2019, the customer center has saved 101.05 tonnes of GHG by implementing measures, such as switching from using Diesel to HVO and switching from the mixed electricity to the renewable ones, according to the attributional perspective presented in the GHG protocol. However, different results were found when these values were discussed and analyzed from the consequential perspective, since this perspective analyses the effects of the implemented measures on the global emission level. This concluded that implementation of conservation and efficiency measures must take priority before switching to higher priced renewables. Thus, the resulting carbon neutrality will be consequentially safer. The recommendations stated in this study also follows the same principle “Conserve before investing”. Suggestions and recommendations outlined in the study for future implementation approach carbon neutrality as a strategy and not a burden, helping the customer neutral achieve the goal in an Environment, Economic and Socially sustainable manner. 

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    Transition of non-production facilities towards carbon-neutrality A Case Study- Volvo CE’s Customer Center
  • 6.
    Alsbjer, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Hur elpris och värmelast påverkar fjärrvärmesystem: fallet Göteborg Energi och Volvo Cars2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report observes the energy systems at Göteborg Energi and Volvo Cars, Torslanda. The systems are integrated as one system and the influence of different measures is evaluated. The main purpose is to reduce the total cost of the integrated system.

    This work use the power bonus method, a margin perspective view where all additional electricity production is calculated to replace condense power. The allocation for emissions at a combined heat and power plant is also calculated with the power bonus method.

    The data is simulated with the optimisation program Modest. Using computer models for the energy systems at Göteborg Energi and Volvo Cars the systems have been connected. The results from measures on one of the systems can be evaluated in the complete system.

    Evaluated measures using the computer models:

    • Electricity price raised to European levels
    • A connection between the district heating networks at Göteborg Energi and Volvo Cars
    • Conversions to district heating in Volvo Cars network

    Important conclusions in this report:

    • Raised electricity prices increases the profit vastly and reduces the global emissions for energy systems with combined heat and power production
    • Connecting two nearby district heating networks is profitable
    • Conversions to district heating at Volvo Cars is not profitable in the present situation but gains interest if electricity prices in Sweden increases to a European level
    • An electricity price on the present European level is enough to make the shadow prices for heat negative during the summer months if a combined heat and power plant is on the margin for heat production
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    Hur elpris och värmelast påverkar fjärrvärmesystem – fallet Göteborg Energi och Volvo Cars
  • 7.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Widén, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkan mellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Byggnader i energisystem2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ger en kortfattad översikt och syntes av tvärvetenskapliga forskningsresultat från verksamheten i konsortiet Byggnader i energisystem inom forskarskolan Program Energisystem. Tonvikten ligger på tiden från forskarskolans start 1997 till dess 15-årsjubileum 2012, men hänvisningar görs även till forskning publicerad därefter. Utgångspunkten har varit att lyfta fram det tvärvetenskapliga inom forskningen för att visa hur forskarskolan har bidragit till tvärvetenskaplig kunskaps- och metodutveckling.

    I rapporten ges en översikt över fallstudier och avhandlingar inom konsortiet och de tvärvetenskapliga forskningsresultaten sammanfattas inom tre huvudsakliga tematiska områden: (1) Passivhus: boende och energieffektiva byggnadstekniker,

    (2) Energieffektivisering: processer och aktörer, samt (3) Energianvändning, vardagsaktiviteter och småskalig solenergi i hushåll. Tvärvetenskapliga metoder och resultat sammanfattas och utvecklingen av samarbeten och angreppssätt beskrivs. Rapporten avslutas med några sammanfattande reflektioner kring hur framgångsrik tvärvetenskaplig forskning bör bedrivas.

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    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Byggnader i energisystem
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  • 8.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Widén, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: kunskapsutveckling genom samverkan mellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Publikationer från Program Energisystem2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en omfattande publicering från Program Energisystem. Förutom 78 doktorsavhandlingar och 16 licentiatavhandlingar så har forskarstuderande och seniorer publicerat ytterligare minst 500 publikationer inom ramen för Program Energisystem.

    I denna rapport förtecknas dessa publikationer.

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    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Publikationer från Program Energisystem
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  • 9.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Widén, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Lokala och regionala energisystem2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem har med sina fem deltagande forskningsavdelningar från Chalmers tekniska högskola, Linköpings universitet, KTH och Uppsala universitet varit banbrytande inom tvärvetenskaplig energisystemforskning och dess tre konsortier har spelat en viktig roll för forskarskolans utveckling. Konsortierna är inriktade på byggnader i energisystem, industriella energisystem samt lokala och regionala energisystem. I varje konsortium har doktorander och seniorer från minst två av de deltagande avdelningarna bedrivit tvärvetenskaplig forskning.

    I det lokala och regionala konsortiet har forskningsfrågorna kretsat kring aktörer och processer av betydelse för energisystemen i svenska kommuner, län och regioner. Inom konsortiet har frågeställningar om miljömässigt, socialt och ekonomiskt hållbara lokala och regionala energisystem bland annat studerats genom att analysera aktörers agerande och politiska processer inom de tekniska, ekonomiska och institutionella villkor som utgör begränsningar och möjligheter för energisystemen. En tydlig trend inom konsortiets forskning under forskarskolans arton år är att inriktningen gått i riktning från lokal till regional och från stationära till mobila energisystem. Den förskjutningen följer också den ökande betydelse som regioner i form av länsstyrelser har fått för samordningen av energi- och klimatplaneringen i Sverige under det senaste decenniet. Kommunerna har fortfarande en dominerande position genom den energirelaterade infrastruktur som de förfogar över men en förskjutning mot ett mer regionalt inflytande är tydlig.

    Totalt har 26 doktors- och en licentiatexamen avlagts av konsortiets doktorander och dessa alumner är nu verksamma inom energirelaterade verksamheter Sverige. Den främsta representationen finns inom myndigheter och akademier.

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    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Lokala och regionala energisystem
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  • 10.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Widén, Joakim
    Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Byggteknik, Uppsala universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Huvudrapport2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idén att samhällsvetenskaplig och teknisk energisystemforskning måste vävas samman för att utveckla ny kunskap och få ökad samhällsnytta var utgångspunkt när Program Energisystem startade år 1997.

    Program Energisystem identifierade tidigt kärnvärden som visades vara viktiga framgångsfaktorer:

    • Energisystem med tyngdpunkt på användarsidan
    • Tvärvetenskaplig, universitets- och fakultetsöverskridande
    • forskning och forskarutbildning
    • Sammanhållen forskarskola
    • Finansiering av hela doktorandprojekt
    • Samarbeten i tematiska forskningsområden
    • Kontinuerlig tvärvetenskaplig utveckling
    • Långsiktig finansiering av samordningsstruktur

    Program Energisystems arbete har kännetecknats av:

    • Val av samhällsrelevanta projekt av hög vetenskaplig kvalitet
    • Gemensamma tvärvetenskapliga kurser och projektarbeten
    • Tvärvetenskaplig handledning
    • Kontinuerligt arbetande fora för diskussion
    • och kontakter över ämnesgränser
    • Forskningssamarbeten mellan seniorer i olika ämnen
    • Aktivt doktorand- och alumninätverk

    Forskarutbildningens målsättning har varit att utbilda bättre samhällsvetare

    och bättre ingenjörer, inte att göra samhällsvetare av ingenjörerna eller ingenjörer

    av samhällsvetarna.

    I den kontinuerliga utvecklingen av Program Energisystem har ett förtroendefullt samarbete utvecklats som möjliggjort kontinuerliga förbättringar av forskningen och forskarutbildningen.

    Arvet från Program Energisystem har förts vidare i den nya Forskarskola Energisystem. Forskarskola Energisystem har en delvis annan struktur men bygger innehållsmässigt vidare på centrala idéer från Program Energisystem. Det finns ett fortsatt stort behov av tvärvetenskaplig kunskapsutveckling på energiområdet som främst handlar om att förstå komplicerade samband och processer och hur dessa kan påverkas.

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    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Huvudrapport
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  • 11.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Widén, Joakim
    Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Byggteknik, Uppsala universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Industriella energisystem2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna syntesrapport är en sammanfattning och analys av den forskning som bedrivits inom ramen för det Industriella konsortiet från år 1997 (konsortiets verksamhet startade 1999) inom ramen för forskarskolan Program Energisystem. Under denna tid har 25 doktorsavhandlingar och en licentiatavhandling producerats inom det Industriella konsortiet. Avhandlingarna sammanfattas och analyseras i denna syntesrapport och arbetet avgränsas då till att studera avhandlingarnas Problemområde, Verktyg/Metod/Teori, Systemgräns, studerad Sektor och Övergripande resultat. Vidare ges, med utgångspunkt från dessa forskningsresultat, förslag på fortsatt forskning för hållbara och effektiva energisystem.

    Många viktiga problemområden har studerats inom ramen för forskarskolans Industrikonsortium. Ett flertal avhandlingar behandlar möjligheter att minska utsläppen av växthusgaser från industrin och här har flera sektorer studerats, bland annat massa- och pappersindustrin, järn- och stålindustrin, kemiindustrin och oljeraffinaderiindustrin. Ett centralt tema i avhandlingarna är potentialer för energieffektivisering i industrisektorn, inte minst vid införande av bioraffinaderikoncept i framtiden. Här analyseras t.ex. tekniska potentialer, kostnadseffektivitet för energieffektiviseringsåtgärder, samt betydelsen av energiledning och styrmedel.

    I avhandlingarna har en mängd olika metoder och verktyg använts. Den i särklass mest använda vetenskapliga metoden är intervjuer (15) följt av scenarioanalys (10), dokumentstudier (9), simuleringsberäkningar (9), pinchanalys (9) och optimering (8). Fallstudiemetodik där mer än en metod används för att studera ett specifikt fall, t.ex. ett företag, förekommer i flera avhandlingar. En grundtanke i forskarskolan Program Energisystem har varit att forskaren måste vara medveten om att resultat från energisystemanalyser kan påverkas av vilka systemgränser som valts. I flertalet av Industrikonsortiets avhandlingar har Europas elsystem utgjort systemgräns då effekter av förändrad elanvändning eller elproduktion analyserats.

    Industrikonsortiets forskningsresultat visar på många intressanta slutsatser. Det påvisas att det finns energieffektiviseringspotentialer både i nya investeringar och i energiledningsåtgärder, som att justera driftsbetingelser för befintlig teknisk utrustning och ändra beteenden. Det konstateras också att energisamarbeten mellan industri och energibolag med syfte att öka användningen av industriell överskottsvärme i många fall är en hållbar lösning som minskar regioners behov av primärenergi och reducerar utsläppen av växthusgaser. Hinder mot sådana samarbeten kan vara att detta inte är en del av industrins kärnverksamhet. Det konstateras även att energisamarbeten mellan närliggande anläggningar i ett industrikluster kan leda till avsevärt större energieffektiviseringspotentialer än om var och en av de ingående industrierna arbetar enbart med interna åtgärder. Hinder mot denna typ av samarbete är brist på etablerade affärsmodeller. Forskningen visar på ett behov av fortsatta studier kring begreppet kärnverksamhet och dess påverkan på energifrågan i svensk industrin. Avskiljning och lagring av koldioxid (CCS) från industrin har studerats och här konstateras att denna lösning inte är ekonomiskt lönsam med dagens förutsättningar. Det rekommenderas därför att framtida forskning bedrivs för att studera vilka styrmedel som skulle behövas för att CCS ska bli ekonomiskt intressant för industrin. En annan viktig fråga är hur energitjänsteföretag ska formulera affärsmodeller och strategier kring CCS, samt hur de kan samarbeta med industrin för att på affärsmässiga grunder få till stånd CO2– avskiljning, transport och lagring. Även framtida forskning kring styrmedel, t.ex. energitjänster, för ökad energieffektivitet i industrisektorn förordas. Resultat från Industrikonsortiets avhandlingar visar att processintegrationsverktyget pinchanalys kan kombineras med optimeringsverktyg (i detta fall MIND) vid analys av industriella energisystem. Denna metodkombination ger intressanta resultat varför fortsatt forskning förordas kring kombinationer av olika processintegrationsmetoder. I flertalet avhandlingar har företagsdata använts som indata vid exempelvis modellering och processintegrationsstudier. Detta har accentuerat behovet av ett standardiserat protokoll vid insamling av företagsdata. Ett sådant protokoll kan öka reliabiliteten på indata och förslagsvis användas vid fallstudier.

    Avslutningsvis kan konstateras att trots närmare 20 års tvärvetenskaplig forskning mellan samhällsvetare och teknikvetenskaperna finns det fortfarande mycket mer att beforska och utveckla.

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    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Industriella energisystem
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  • 12.
    Alvors, Per
    et al.
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Arnell, Jenny
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Lovisa
    Miljö- och energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lund.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Miljö- och energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lund.
    Grahn, Maria
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Energy and Environment, Heat and Power Technology Division,Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Jelse, Kristian
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    Volvo AB, Sweden.
    Kusar, Henrik
    Kemisk Teknologi, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Lidén, Gunnar
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mimmi
    Skolan för kemivetenskap, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Energi och miljö/Energiteknik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sjöström, Krister
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    Biokemi och Strukturbiologi, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Wallberg, Ola
    Institutionen för kemiteknik, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zacchi, Guido
    Institutionen för kemiteknik, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Öhrman, Olof
    Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå Tekniska universitet.
    Research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors – three illustrative examples: Improvement potential discussed in the context of Well-to-Tank analyses2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently biofuels have strong political support, both in the EU and Sweden. The EU has, for example, set a target for the use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector stating that all EU member states should use 10% renewable fuels for transport by 2020. Fulfilling this ambition will lead to an enormous market for biofuels during the coming decade. To avoid increasing production of biofuels based on agriculture crops that require considerable use of arable area, focus is now to move towards more advanced second generation (2G) biofuels that can be produced from biomass feedstocks associated with a more efficient land use.

    Climate benefits and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are aspects often discussed in conjunction with sustainability and biofuels. The total GHG emissions associated with production and usage of biofuels depend on the entire fuel production chain, mainly the agriculture or forestry feedstock systems and the manufacturing process. To compare different biofuel production pathways it is essential to conduct an environmental assessment using the well-to-tank (WTT) analysis methodology.

    In Sweden the conditions for biomass production are favourable and we have promising second generation biofuels technologies that are currently in the demonstration phase. In this study we have chosen to focus on cellulose based ethanol, methane from gasification of solid wood as well as DME from gasification of black liquor, with the purpose of identifying research and development potentials that may result in improvements in the WTT emission values. The main objective of this study is thus to identify research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors based on literature studies as well as discussions with the the researchers themselves. We have also discussed improvement potentials for the agriculture and forestry part of the WTT chain. The aim of this study is to, in the context of WTT analyses, (i) increase knowledge about the complexity of biofuel production, (ii) identify and discuss improvement potentials, regarding energy efficiency and GHG emissions, for three biofuel production cases, as well as (iii) identify and discuss improvement potentials regarding biomass supply, including agriculture/forestry. The scope of the study is limited to discussing the technologies, system aspects and climate impacts associated with the production stage. Aspects such as the influence on biodiversity and other environmental and social parameters fall beyond the scope of this study.

    We find that improvement potentials for emissions reductions within the agriculture/forestry part of the WTT chain include changing the use of diesel to low-CO2-emitting fuels, changing to more fuel-efficient tractors, more efficient cultivation and manufacture of fertilizers (commercial nitrogen fertilizer can be produced in plants which have nitrous oxide gas cleaning) as well as improved fertilization strategies (more precise nitrogen application during the cropping season). Furthermore, the cultivation of annual feedstock crops could be avoided on land rich in carbon, such as peat soils and new agriculture systems could be introduced that lower the demand for ploughing and harrowing. Other options for improving the WTT emission values includes introducing new types of crops, such as wheat with higher content of starch or willow with a higher content of cellulose.

    From the case study on lignocellulosic ethanol we find that 2G ethanol, with co-production of biogas, electricity, heat and/or wood pellet, has a promising role to play in the development of sustainable biofuel production systems. Depending on available raw materials, heat sinks, demand for biogas as vehicle fuel and existing 1G ethanol plants suitable for integration, 2G ethanol production systems may be designed differently to optimize the economic conditions and maximize profitability. However, the complexity connected to the development of the most optimal production systems require improved knowledge and involvement of several actors from different competence areas, such as chemical and biochemical engineering, process design and integration and energy and environmental systems analysis, which may be a potential barrier.

    Three important results from the lignocellulosic ethanol study are: (i) the production systems could be far more complex and intelligently designed than previous studies show, (ii) the potential improvements consist of a large number of combinations of process integration options wich partly depends on specific local conditions, (iii) the environmental performance of individual systems may vary significantly due to systems design and local conditons.

    From the case study on gasification of solid biomass for the production of biomethane we find that one of the main advantages of this technology is its high efficiency in respect to converting biomass into fuels for transport. For future research we see a need for improvements within the gas up-grading section, including gas cleaning and gas conditioning, to obtain a more efficient process. A major challenge is to remove the tar before the methanation reaction.

    Three important results from the biomethane study are: (i) it is important not to crack the methane already produced in the syngas, which indicates a need for improved catalysts for selective tar cracking, (ii) there is a need for new gas separation techniques to facilitate the use of air oxidation agent instead of oxygen in the gasifier, and (iii) there is a need for testing the integrated process under realistic conditions, both at atmospheric and pressurized conditions.

    From the case study on black liquor gasification for the production of DME we find that the process has many advantages compared to other biofuel production options, such as the fact that black liquor is already partially processed and exists in a pumpable, liquid form, and that the process is pressurised and tightly integrated with the pulp mill, which enhances fuel production efficiency. However, to achieve commercial status, some challenges still remain, such as demonstrating that materials and plant equipment meet the high availability required when scaling up to industrial size in the pulp mill, and also proving that the plant can operate according to calculated heat and material balances. Three important results from the DME study are: (i) that modern chemical pulp mills, having a potential surplus of energy, could become important suppliers of renewable fuels for transport, (ii) there is a need to demonstrate that renewable DME/methanol will be proven to function in large scale, and (iii) there is still potential for technology improvements and enhanced energy integration.

    Although quantitative improvement potentials are given in the three biofuel production cases, it is not obvious how these potentials would affect WTT values, since the biofuel production processes are complex and changing one parameter impacts other parameters. The improvement potentials are therefore discussed qualitatively. From the entire study we have come to agree on the following common conclusions: (i) research and development in Sweden within the three studied 2G biofuel production technologies is extensive, (ii) in general, the processes, within the three cases, work well at pilot and demonstration scale and are now in a phase to be proven in large scale, (iii) there is still room for improvement although some processes have been known for decades, (iv) the biofuel production processes are complex and site specific and process improvements need to be seen and judged from a broad systems perspective (both within the production plant as well as in the entire well-to-tank perspective), and (v) the three studied biofuel production systems are complementary technologies. Futher, the process of conducting this study is worth mentioning as a result itself, i.e. that many different actors within the field have proven their ability and willingness to contribute to a common report, and that the cooperation climate was very positive and bodes well for possible future collaboration within the framework of the f3 center.

    Finally, judging from the political ambitions it is clear that the demand for renewable fuels will significantly increase during the coming decade. This will most likely result in opportunities for a range of biofuel options. The studied biofuel options all represent 2G biofuels and they can all be part of the solution to meet the increased renewable fuel demand.

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    Research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors – three illustrative examples: Improvement potential discussed in the context of Well-to-Tank analyses
  • 13. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Economic and Environmental Benefits of CHP-based District Heating Systems in Sweden2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future energy systems and thus the climate are affected by many factors, such as energy resources, energy demand, energy policy and the choice of energy technologies. Energy systems of the future are facing three main challenges; the steady growth of global energy demand, the energy resource depletion, as well as the increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases and their impact on climate change. To meet the mentioned challenges with sustainability in mind, actions that increase energy efficiency and choosing an energy-efficient energy system which is cost efficient will be essential. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants and district heating and cooling could contribute greatly to increased system efficiency by using energy otherwise wasted.

    The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of how CHP-based district heating and cooling systems using different primary energy sources can contribute to more cost-efficient energy systems, which reduce global CO2 emissions, and to highlight the impact of some important parameters and measures on Swedish municipal district heating systems. An important assumption in this study is the estimation of CO2 emissions from electricity production, which is based on marginal electricity perspectives. In the short term, the marginal electricity is assumed to come from coal-fired condensing power plants while in the long term it consists of electricity produced by natural gas-fired combined cycle condensing power plants. This means that the local electricity production will replace the marginal electricity production. The underlying assumption is an ideal fully deregulated European electricity market where trade barriers are removed and there are no restrictions on transfer capacity.

    The results show that electricity generation in CHP plants, particularly in higher efficiency combined steam and gas turbine heat and power plants using natural gas, can reduce the global environmental impact of energy usage to a great extent. The results confirm, through the scenarios presented in this study, that waste as a fuel in CHP-based district heating systems is fully utilised since it has the lowest operational costs. The results also show how implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant in a biogas system contributes to an efficient system, as well as lowering both CO2 emissions and system costs. The results show that replacing electricity-driven (e.g. compression) cooling by heat-driven cooling using district heating (e.g. absorption chillers) in a CHP system is a cost-effective and climate friendly technology as electricity consumption is reduced while at the same time the electricity generation will be increased. The results of the study also show that there is potential to expand district heating systems to areas with lower heat density, with both environmental and economic benefits for the district heating companies.

    The results reveal that the operation of a studied CHP-based district heating system with an imposed emission limit is very sensitive to the way CO2 emissions are accounted, i.e., local CO2 emissions or emissions from marginal electricity production. The results show how the electricity production increases in the marginal case compared with the local one in order to reduce global CO2 emissions. The results also revealed that not only electricity and fuel prices but also policy instruments are important factors in promoting CHP-based district heating and cooling systems. The use of electricity certificates has a large influence for the introduction of biogas-based cogeneration. Another conclusion from the modelling is that present Swedish policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration with similar impact as applying external costs.

    List of papers
    1. Modelling and optimisation of electricity, steam and district heating production for a local Swedish utility
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling and optimisation of electricity, steam and district heating production for a local Swedish utility
    2006 (English)In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 175, no 2, p. 1224-1247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    District heating may help reduce environmental impact and energy costs, but policy instruments and waste management may influence operations. The energy system optimisation model MODEST has been used for 50 towns, regions and a nation. Investments and operation that satisfy energy demand at minimum cost are found through linear programming. This paper describes the application of MODEST to a municipal utility, which uses several fuels and cogeneration plants. The model reflects diurnal and monthly demand fluctuations. Several studies of the Linköping utility are reviewed. These indicate that the marginal heat cost is lower in summer, a new waste or wood fired cogeneration plant is more profitable than a natural-gas-fired combined cycle, material recycling of paper and hard plastics is preferable to waste incineration from an energy-efficiency viewpoint, and considering external costs enhances wood fuel use. Here, an emission limit is used to show how fossil-fuel cogeneration displaces CO2 from coal-condensing plants. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43950 (URN)10.1016/j.ejor.2005.06.026 (DOI)75220 (Local ID)75220 (Archive number)75220 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system
    2007 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 5242-5253Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Both energy supply and waste treatment give rise to negative effects on the environment, so-called external effects. In this study, monetary values on external costs collected from the EU′s ExternE project are used to evaluate inclusion of these costs in comparison with an energy utility perspective including present policy instruments. The studied object is a municipal district heating system with a waste incineration plant as the base supplier of heat. The evaluation concerns fuels used for heat production and total electricity production, for scenarios with external costs included and for a scenario using the present policy instrument.

    Impacts of assumptions on marginal power producers (coal or natural gas power plants) are investigated, since locally produced electricity is assumed to replace marginal power and thus is credited for the avoided burden. Varying levels of external costs for carbon dioxide emissions are analysed. The method used is an economic optimisation model, MODEST.

    The conclusion is that present policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration, even when external costs are included. Waste is fully utilised in all scenarios. In cases where coal is the marginal power producer, more electricity is produced; when natural gas is the marginal power producer, less is produced. There are several uncertainties in the data for external costs, both methodological and ethical. In the ExternE data, not all environmental impacts are included. For waste incineration, ashes are not included, and another difficulty is how to treat the avoided burden of other waste treatment methods.

    Keywords
    External costs, Combined heat and power, Waste incineration
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14206 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.04.026 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-01-04 Created: 2007-01-04 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden
    2007 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 12, p. 1319-1337Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mankind is facing an escalating threat of global warming and there is increasing evidence that this is due to human activity and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. Converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in a combined heat and power (CHP) system is a measure towards sustainability as electricity consumption is replaced with electricity generation. This electricity produced in Swedish CHP-system will substitute marginally produced electricity and as result lower global emissions of carbon dioxide. The use of absorption chillers is limited in Sweden but the conditions are in fact most favourable. Rising demand of cooling and increasing electricity prices in combination with a surplus of heat during the summer in CHP system makes heat driven cooling extremely interesting in Sweden. In this paper we analyse the most cost-effective technology for cooling by comparing vapour compression chillers with heat driven absorption cooling for a local energy utility with a district cooling network and for industries in a Swedish municipality with CHP. Whilst this case is necessarily local in scope, the results have global relevance showing that when considering higher European electricity prices, and when natural gas is introduced, absorption cooling is the most cost-effective solution for both industries and for the energy supplier. This will result in a resource effective energy system with a possibility to reduce global emissions of CO2 with 80%, a 300% lower system cost, and a 170% reduction of the cost of producing cooling due to revenues from electricity production. The results also show that, with these prerequisites, a decrease in COP of the absorption chillers will not have a negative impact on the cost-effectiveness of the system, due to increased electricity production.

    Keywords
    Absorption cooling, European electricity prices, Natural gas, Carbon dioxide, Global emissions
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14161 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2006.09.016 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Ostergotland in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Ostergotland in Sweden
    2009 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 496-506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of natural gas for heat and power production for the municipality of Linkoping, Norrkoping and Finspang in the County of Ostergotland, Sweden.

    The results of the study revealed that these three municipalities with the present heating demand can convert 2030 GWh/year of the present fuel mixed to natural gas. The expansion of natural gas provides the possibility to increase the electricity generation with approximately 800 GWh annually in the County of Ostergotland. The global emissions of CO2 reduce also by approximately 490 ktonne/year by assuming the coal condensing power plant as the marginal power plant. The total system cost decreases by 76 Mkr/year with the present electricity price which varies between 432 and 173 SEK/MWh and with 248 Mkr/year if the present electricity price increases to 37% which is approximately corresponding to European electricity prices.

    Sensitivity analysis is done with respect to the different factors such as price of electricity, natural gas, etc. The findings show that increased price of electricity and increased district heating demand increases the profitability to convert to natural gas using CHP plant.

    Keywords
    Natural gas, CO2 emissions, Combined heat and power
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16971 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.080 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-03-01 Created: 2009-02-27 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    5. Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems
    2010 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 2401-2410Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gavle, Sandviken and Borlange in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO2. The largest reductions in CO2 emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2010
    Keywords
    Combined heat and power; Heat sparse areas; CO2 emissions; District heating; Deregulated electricity market
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58385 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.02.002 (DOI)000278675100034 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Shahnaz Amiri and Bahram Moshfegh, Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems, 2010, Applied Energy, (87), 7, 2401-2410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.02.002 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2010-08-13 Created: 2010-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    6. Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system
    2013 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, no SI, p. 242-249Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Biogas system, CO2 emissions, Energy systems optimisation, Combined heat and power plant, Marginal electricity
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85624 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2012.01.022 (DOI)000309902000051 ()
    Available from: 2012-11-26 Created: 2012-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07
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    Economic and Environmental Benefits of CHP-based District Heating Systems in Sweden
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  • 14.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Henning, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system2013In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, no SI, p. 242-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

  • 15.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 2401-2410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gavle, Sandviken and Borlange in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO2. The largest reductions in CO2 emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems.

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  • 16.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh , Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Ostergotland in Sweden2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 496-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of natural gas for heat and power production for the municipality of Linkoping, Norrkoping and Finspang in the County of Ostergotland, Sweden.

    The results of the study revealed that these three municipalities with the present heating demand can convert 2030 GWh/year of the present fuel mixed to natural gas. The expansion of natural gas provides the possibility to increase the electricity generation with approximately 800 GWh annually in the County of Ostergotland. The global emissions of CO2 reduce also by approximately 490 ktonne/year by assuming the coal condensing power plant as the marginal power plant. The total system cost decreases by 76 Mkr/year with the present electricity price which varies between 432 and 173 SEK/MWh and with 248 Mkr/year if the present electricity price increases to 37% which is approximately corresponding to European electricity prices.

    Sensitivity analysis is done with respect to the different factors such as price of electricity, natural gas, etc. The findings show that increased price of electricity and increased district heating demand increases the profitability to convert to natural gas using CHP plant.

  • 17.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Weinberger, Gottfried
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Increased cogeneration of renewable electricity through energy cooperation in a Swedish district heating system - A case study2018In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 116, p. 866-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study of the district heating (DH) system in the city of Kisa, Sweden, shows how, through energy cooperation with a nearby sawmill and paper mill, a local energy company contributes to energy efficient DH and cost-effective utilization of a new biofuel combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Cases of stand-alone and integrated energy systems are optimized with the linear program MODEST. The European power market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The results show clear advantages for the energy company to cooperate with these industries to produce heat for DH and process steam for industry. The cooperating industries gain advantages from heat and/or biofuel by-product supply as well. The opening to use a biofuel CHP plant for combined heat supply results in cogenerated electricity of almost 29 GWh/a with an increased biofuel use of 13 GWhia, zero fuel oil use and CO2 emission reductions of 25,800 tons CO2/a with coal-condensing power plant on the margin and biofuel as limited resource. The total system cost decreases by -2.18 MEUR/a through extended cooperation and renewable electricity sales. The sensitivity analysis shows that the profitability of investing in a biofuel CHP plant increases with higher electricity and electricity certificate prices. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 12015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

    • between industry, academia and society,
    • between different perspectives, and
    • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

    BRC’s vision is:

    BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

    For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

    This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

    Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

    In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

    This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

    The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

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  • 19. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enabling industrial energy benchmarking: Process-level energy end-use, key performance indicators, and efficiency potential2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the greatest challenges of our time is global climate change. A key strategy for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases is the improvement of energy efficiency. Manufacturing industry stands for a large share of global energy end-use but has yet to achieve its full energy efficiency potential. A barrier to untapping this potential is the lack of detailed data on industrial energy end-use at the process level, preventing the development of sound, bottom-up energy key performance indicators (KPIs). This hampers the ability to create a profound strategy for improving industrial energy efficiency because it is not known in which end-use processes the largest energy efficiency potential is to be found. Increasing knowledge about energy end-use at the process level also increases the possibility for energy comparisons, i.e. benchmarking, at the process level.

    This thesis aimed to investigate how to further enable industrial energy benchmarking at the process level, primarily for the pulp and paper and wood industries. Relevant benchmarking requires that data on energy end-use is collected using a common, harmonized categorization of processes and that joint energy KPIs are applied. Therefore, suggestions for standardized categorizations of end-use processes were investigated for the studied industries.

    Based on the calculations, and under the assumptions made in this thesis for estimating the energy efficiency potential of end-use processes, diversity was found between industries around which type of processes have the largest efficiency potential. It also emerged that, due to the lack of detailed data about energy end-use and lack of information about energy efficiency measures, processes accounting for a significant share of the energy efficiency potential in the wood industry risk being overlooked. It is not certain that current energy policies are sufficient to reach the full potential identified. The lack of information about energy end-use and energy efficiency measures implies that neither industrial actors nor policy-makers are able to develop thorough energy strategies or roadmaps for improved energy efficiency.

    While the outcomes of this thesis show that a large share of Swedish pulp and paper mills carry out energy benchmarking to some degree, energy managers emphasized that benchmarking in this particular industry is difficult because it requires a deep understanding of the industry’s heterogenous and integrated processes. This thesis proposes a widened perspective on energy benchmarking and its role in industrial energy management; namely, also considering the process of how energy KPIs are implemented within in-house energy management. A process that enhances energy management includes the continuous monitoring, visualization, and revision of KPIs. In this thesis, a method is developed that encourages the bottom-up implementation of energy KPIs in the pulp and paper industry, which further enables industrial energy benchmarking.

    List of papers
    1. Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 883-895Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency among industrial companies is recognized as a key effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context, benchmarking industrial energy efficiency plays an important part in increasing industrial companies awareness of their energy efficiency potential. A method for calculating an energy efficiency index is proposed in this paper. The energy efficiency index is used to benchmark the energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized companies support and production processes. This enables the possibility to compare the energy performance of single energy end-use processes. This papers proposed energy efficiency index is applied to energy data from 11 sawmills that participated in the Swedish national energy audit program. The index values were compared with each sawmills energy saving potential, as stated in the energy audits. One conclusion is that the energy efficiency index is suitable as an energy strategy tool in industrial energy management and could be used both by industrial SMEs and by governmental agencies with an auditing role. However, it does require a harmonized categorization of energy end-use processes as well as quality assured energy data. Given this, a national energy end-use database could be created to facilitate the calculation of an energy efficiency index. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147376 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.02.027 (DOI)000428826300080 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [40537-1]

    Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2020-08-20
    2. Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program
    2018 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, p. 165-177Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most vital activities for the mitigation of climate change. Consequently, policy initiatives from governments addressing both energy-intensive and small and medium-sized industry have been enacted. In this paper, the energy end-use and the energy efficiency potential among industrial small and medium-sized companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program are reviewed. The three manufacturing industries of wood and cork, food products and metal products (excluding machinery and equipment) are studied. A unique categorization of their production processes energy end-use is presented, the results of which show that the amount of energy used in various categories of production processes differ between these industries. This applies to support processes as well, highlighting the problem of generalizing results without available bottom-up energy end-use data. In addition, a calculation of conservation supply curves for measures related to production processes is presented, showing that there still remains energy saving potential among companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program. However, relevant data in the database used from the Swedish Energy Audit Program is lacking which limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the conservation supply curves. This study highlights the need to develop energy policy programs delivering high-quality data. This paper contributes to a further understanding of the intricate matters of industrial energy end-use and energy efficiency measures.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
    Keywords
    Energy end-use; Conservation supply curves; Energy efficiency; Industrial energy efficiency; Energy efficiency measures
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151181 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2018.05.037 (DOI)000440966900013 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Environmental Protection Agency [802-0082-17]; Swedish Energy Agency [40537-1]

    Available from: 2018-09-17 Created: 2018-09-17 Last updated: 2020-10-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits
    2018 (English)In: eceee 2018 Industrial Summer Study proceedings: Industrial Efficiency 2018: Leading the low-carbon transition, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2018, p. 313-322Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing industry has a large energy efficiency potential, yet to be utilized, known as the energy efficiency gap. This gap exists due to barriers that hinder industrial companies from making energy efficiency investments. Research also shows that the gap is even larger if energy management practices are included as well. One type of energy management practice for industrial companies is energy performance benchmarking, which deals with several organisational applications. For example, energy performance benchmarking can be used to compare a company’s degree of energy efficiency to its peers. A benchmarking approach can also be adopted on different levels of aggregation, including sector, site, and process level. Furthermore, continuous work with energy management also entails additional benefits beyond the energy effects, known as non-energy benefits. In an energy management context, these benefits might for instance be organisational or informational in nature. The aim of this paper is to study these aspects of energy management – benchmarking and non-energy benefits – within the Swedish pulp and paper industry.

    These aspects of energy management have not, to the authors’ knowledge, been extensively investigated. The adopted method for data collection is a mixed method approach, where a questionnaire was sent to all operating pulp and paper mills in Sweden, and semi-structured interviews were carried out at six mills. The findings in this study show that the most common benchmarking method in the Swedish pulp and paper mills is external benchmarking within a company group. The benchmarking method with the highest perceived value for a mill’s energy management, however, is historical benchmarking of energy use. Furthermore, the pulp and paper mills have perceived a number of non-energy benefits from energy management practices, where top management’s interest in energy efficiency issues increasing more than expected was perceived as the most substantial.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2018
    Series
    eceee Industrial Summer Study proceedings, ISSN 2001-7979, E-ISSN 2001-7987 ; 20118
    Keywords
    energy management, non-energy benefits (NEBs), benchmarking, pulp and paper industry, energy performance benchmarking
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156296 (URN)978-91-983878-3-4 (ISBN)978-91-983878-2-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ECEEE Industrial Summer Study – Leading the low-carbon transition, Berlin, June 11-13
    Available from: 2019-04-11 Created: 2019-04-11 Last updated: 2020-12-15Bibliographically approved
    4. Key performance indicators for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key performance indicators for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry
    2019 (English)In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 24, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is one of the five most energy-intensive industries world-wide. In Sweden, most pulp and paper mills were certified with a standardized energy management system already in 2005. As Swedish mills have more than a decade of experience with energy management systems and energy key performance indicators (KPIs), studying KPIs within Swedish pulp and paper mills will enable both a state-of-the-art positioning of best-practice in relation to energy KPIs in pulp and paper mills, but also spot potential barriers and drivers in the utilization of energy KPIs. This paper studies the current level of implementation and operationalization of energy-related KPIs in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. The results show a potential for improvement.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
    Keywords
    Key performance indicators; Energy management; Energy efficiency; Pulp and paper; Pulp and paper industry
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157558 (URN)10.1016/j.esr.2019.03.004 (DOI)000466911300017 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency [802-0082-17]

    Available from: 2019-06-22 Created: 2019-06-22 Last updated: 2020-08-20
    5. Energy savings and greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Swedish wood industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy savings and greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Swedish wood industry
    2019 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 187, article id 115919Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most crucial actions for mitigating climate change. The lack of knowledge regarding energy end-use makes it difficult for companies to know in which processes the highest energy efficiency potential is located. Using a case study design, the paper provides a taxonomy for energy end-use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a process and energy carrier level. It can be seen that drying of wood is the largest energy using and GHG emitting process in the studied companies. The paper also investigates applied and potentially viable energy key performance indicators (KPIs). Suggestions for improving energy KPIs within the wood industry include separating figures for different wood varieties and different end-products and distinguishing between different drying kiln technologies. Finally, the paper presents the major energy saving and carbon mitigating measures by constructing conservation supply curves and marginal abatement cost curves. The energy saving potential found in the studied companies indicates that significant improvements might be achieved throughout the Swedish wood industry. Even though the scope of this paper is the Swedish wood industry, several of the findings are likely to be relevant in other countries with a prominent wood industry.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160259 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.115919 (DOI)000496334500068 ()2-s2.0-85071357226 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management [802-0082-17]; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

    Available from: 2019-09-13 Created: 2019-09-13 Last updated: 2021-12-28Bibliographically approved
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  • 20.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergstrand, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A study of the comparability of energy audit program evaluations2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, p. 2133-2139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large untapped potential for improved energy efficiency in various sectors of the economy. Governmental industrial energy audit programs subsidizing the companies to conduct an energy audit are the most common policy in trying to overcome the energy efficiency gap. Evaluation studies have been carried out to gain knowledge about the success of a completed energy audit policy program. The evaluations were made in different ways and in addition focused on different performance indicators and used different ways of categorizing data. In this article, a literature review has been made of five evaluation studies from different energy audit programs, where the problems of the present incomparability between programs due to differences are discussed. The policy implication of this paper is that new energy audit policy programs must distinguish a harmonized way of categorizing data, both regarding energy efficiency measures and energy end-use. Further, a proposition for a standard for how to evaluate energy audit policy programs is suggested. Conclusions from this study are that important elements, such as the free-rider effect and harmonized energy end-use data, should be defined and included in evaluation studies. A harmonized standard for evaluating audit programs is not least needed within the EU, where member states are obliged to launch audit programs for large enterprises, and preferably also for small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper serves as an important contribution for the development of such a standard in further research. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • 21.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 883-895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency among industrial companies is recognized as a key effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context, benchmarking industrial energy efficiency plays an important part in increasing industrial companies awareness of their energy efficiency potential. A method for calculating an energy efficiency index is proposed in this paper. The energy efficiency index is used to benchmark the energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized companies support and production processes. This enables the possibility to compare the energy performance of single energy end-use processes. This papers proposed energy efficiency index is applied to energy data from 11 sawmills that participated in the Swedish national energy audit program. The index values were compared with each sawmills energy saving potential, as stated in the energy audits. One conclusion is that the energy efficiency index is suitable as an energy strategy tool in industrial energy management and could be used both by industrial SMEs and by governmental agencies with an auditing role. However, it does require a harmonized categorization of energy end-use processes as well as quality assured energy data. Given this, a national energy end-use database could be created to facilitate the calculation of an energy efficiency index. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dernegård, Henric
    HOLMEN Teknik, SE-114 84, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Decarbonization of industry: Implementation of energy performance indicators for successful energy management practices in kraft pulp mills2021In: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 7, p. 1808-1817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management is the most prominent means of improving energy efficiency, and improved energy efficiency constitutes the cornerstone in decarbonization. For successful industrial energy management, defining accurate energy performance indicators (EnPIs) is essential. Energy-intensive industries have previously been found to have an improvement potential regarding the current monitoring of EnPIs, especially at process level. While general models for developing and implementing EnPIs exist, manufacturing industries are diverse in terms of their production processes, which is why industry-tailored models for EnPI development are needed. One major outcome of this paper is a unique model specifically tailored for kraft pulp mills. The model derives from a practice-based approach for EnPI development, building on real-life experiences from a Swedish group of companies. This paper’s developed model, and the validation of the EnPIs, further increase the understanding of the kraft pulp industry’s processes and how to apply descriptive and explanatory indicators. The developed model can potentially be generalized to other sectors.

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  • 23.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, p. 165-177Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most vital activities for the mitigation of climate change. Consequently, policy initiatives from governments addressing both energy-intensive and small and medium-sized industry have been enacted. In this paper, the energy end-use and the energy efficiency potential among industrial small and medium-sized companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program are reviewed. The three manufacturing industries of wood and cork, food products and metal products (excluding machinery and equipment) are studied. A unique categorization of their production processes energy end-use is presented, the results of which show that the amount of energy used in various categories of production processes differ between these industries. This applies to support processes as well, highlighting the problem of generalizing results without available bottom-up energy end-use data. In addition, a calculation of conservation supply curves for measures related to production processes is presented, showing that there still remains energy saving potential among companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program. However, relevant data in the database used from the Swedish Energy Audit Program is lacking which limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the conservation supply curves. This study highlights the need to develop energy policy programs delivering high-quality data. This paper contributes to a further understanding of the intricate matters of industrial energy end-use and energy efficiency measures.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Key performance indicators for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2019In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 24, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is one of the five most energy-intensive industries world-wide. In Sweden, most pulp and paper mills were certified with a standardized energy management system already in 2005. As Swedish mills have more than a decade of experience with energy management systems and energy key performance indicators (KPIs), studying KPIs within Swedish pulp and paper mills will enable both a state-of-the-art positioning of best-practice in relation to energy KPIs in pulp and paper mills, but also spot potential barriers and drivers in the utilization of energy KPIs. This paper studies the current level of implementation and operationalization of energy-related KPIs in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. The results show a potential for improvement.

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  • 25.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Falinger, Alva
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Hur kan flexibiliteten hos värmepumpar utnyttjas för att minska belastningen på elnätet vid vissa tidpunkter?: En fallstudie hos fastighetsbolaget Vasakronan2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 26.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Abrahamsson Bolstad, Maja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Hosting Capacity Methods Considering Complementarity between Solar and Wind Power: A Case Study on a Swedish Regional Grid2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for electrical power is growing due to factors such as population growth, urbanisation, and the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. To be able to keep up with the changes in electricity demand, the Swedish power grid must connect more renewable power generation, but also  increase its transmission capacity. Traditionally, power grids are expanded to increase the transmission capacity which requires a lot of time and investments. In order not to hinder the electrification of society, it is important to adequately estimate the current transmission capacity and plan the expansions accordingly. In the past, the generation of electrical power was primarily based on dispatchable energy sources, and the planning of new connections to the grid was assessed according to the stable and controllable nature of the electricity supply. However, renewable sources like solar and wind power are affected by weather variations. Therefore, the traditional methods of planning the power grid are no longer sufficient. Instead, there is a need to develop and implement new methods that account for the variable nature of renewable energy sources, and also the possible complementarity between different renewable power sources. This can possibly allow more connection of renewable power generation to the grid, without the need of expanding it.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate two different methods for analysing how much renewable power generation that can be connected to the power grid, so-called hosting capacity methods. The first method is a deterministic method which is traditionally used in power system analyses since it is a fast, simple and conservative method. This method does neither consider the intermittent nature of solar and wind power, nor any complementarity. The second method is a time series method which considers the complementarity and intermittency of solar and wind power but requires much data. The methods are compared in regards to assessed hosting capacities, risks and reliability of results.

    The study is performed on a regional grid case in the middle of Sweden. Solar and wind power plants with different capacities are modeled at ten buses in the power grid. The power grid is analysed in PSS/E with loading of lines and voltage levels determining the assessed hosting capacities. A correlation map presenting the temporal correlations of solar and wind power over the grid case area is also created in order to evaluate the complementarity in the area and its possible effects on the assessed hosting capacities. 

    The results show that the time series method is more reliable than the deterministic method. This is due to the difficulties in identifying accurate worst case hours that are used for the deterministic method. The time series method is also preferred as it considers complementarity between solar and wind power. However, the correlation map argues that the grid case area has weakly positive correlations, meaning low complementarity between solar and wind power. This suggests that the differences in hosting capacity between the two methods are more likely dependent on the temporal variations in existing load and power generation. The differences in assessed hosting capacity between the ten buses in the power grid are probably not due to the local complementarity either, but rather the structural differences of the grid in terms of components, local loads and existing power generation.

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    Hosting Capacity Methods Considering Complementarity
  • 27.
    Andersson, H.
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Cehlin, M.
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Experimental and numerical investigations of a new ventilation supply device based on confluent jets2018In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 137, p. 18-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developed countries, heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for more than 10% of national energy use. The primary function of a HVAC system is to create proper indoor environment. A number of ventilation strategies have been developed to minimize HVAC systems energy use whilst still maintaining a good indoor environment. Among these strategies are confluent jet ventilation and variable air volume. In this study, an air supply device with a novel nozzle design that uses both of the above-mentioned strategies was investigated both experimentally and numerically at three different airflow rates. The results from the numerical investigation using the SST k - omega turbulence model regarding velocities and flow patterns are validated by experimental data carried out by Laser Doppler Anemometry. The results from both studies show that the flow pattern and velocity in each nozzle is directly dependent on the total airflow rate. However, the flow pattern does not vary between the three different airflow rates. The numerical investigation shows that velocity profiles for each nozzle have the same pattern regardless of the airflow rate, but the magnitude of the velocity profile increases as the airflow increases. Thus, a supply device of this kind could be used for variable air volume and produce confluent jets for the airflow rates investigated.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    A Numerical and Experimental Investigation of a Confluent Jets Ventilation Supply Device in a Conference Room2022In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 5, article id 1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, confluent jets ventilation (CJV) supply devices with three different nozzle arrays (1 x 19, 2 x 19, 3 x 19) were investigated both numerically and experimentally at two different airflow and supply air temperature set-ups. The performance of the CJV supply devices was investigated concerning thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), and heat removal effectiveness in a conference room environment. A comparison between the experimental and numerical results showed that the & thetasym;(2) over bar -f model had the best agreement out of the investigated turbulence models. The numerical results showed that the size of the array had a great impact both on near-field development and on the conditions in the occupied zone. A larger array with multiple rows and a lower momentum conserved the inlet temperature and the mean age of the air better than a single-row array with a higher momentum. A larger array with multiple rows had a higher IAQ and a greater heat removal effectiveness in the occupied zone because the larger array conserved the mean age of air better and the buoyancy driven flow was slightly better at removing the heat. Because of the lower inlet velocities, they also had lower velocities at ankle level, which decreased the risk of draft and thermal discomfort.

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  • 29.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    An investigation concerning optimal design of confluent jets ventilation with variable air volume2023In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This parametric study aims to predict the performance of confluent jets ventilation (CJV) with variable air volume (VAV) from four CJV design parameters. A combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and response surface method (RSM) has been used to predict the energy efficiency, thermal comfort and IAQ for the four expected vital design variables, i.e., heat load (X-H), number of nozzles (X-N), airflow rate (X-Q) and supply temperature (X-TS). The RSM was used to generate a quadratic equation for the response variables exhaust temperature (T-E), supply temperature (T-P), PMV, DR, epsilon(T) and ACE. The RSM shows that the T-E, T-P and PMV were independent of the number of nozzles. The proposed equations were used to generate setpoints optimized for thermal comfort (PMV) for summer, spring and winter cases with different CLO factors and different T-S under a scenario where the heat load varied between 10-30 W/m(2). T-E was used as setpoint to regulate the airflow rate to keep the PMV values close to zero. The results show that by adapting the T-S to the CLO factor both thermal comfort and the energy efficiency can be improved. Further energy reduction can be gained by downregulating the airflow rate to keep the T-P at a fixed setpoint when the heat load is decreased. This means that a CJV can effectively be combined with VAV to improve environmental performance with good thermal comfort (-0.5 < PMV < 0.5, DR < 20%), above average IAQ (ACE approximate to 106%) and with a higher heat removal efficiency (epsilon(T) approximate to 110%) than conventional mixing ventilation. Highlights center dot Parametric study of Confluent jet ventilation with VAV center dot Optimization of set points for VAV scheme with confluent jet ventilation center dot Increased ventilation performance with optimized VAV set points center dot Reduced energy cost with VAV set points optimized for thermal comfort and IAQ

  • 30.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    On the Ventilation Performance of Low Momentum Confluent Jets Supply Device in a Classroom2020In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 20, article id 5415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of three different confluent jets ventilation (CJV) supply devices was evaluated in a classroom environment concerning thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy efficiency. The CJV supply devices have the acronyms: high-momentum confluent jets (HMCJ), low-momentum confluent jets (LMCJ) and low-momentum confluent jets modified by varying airflow direction (LMCJ-M). A mixing ventilation (MV) slot jet (SJ) supply device was used as a benchmark. Comparisons were made with identical set-up conditions in five cases with different supply temperatures (T-S) (16-18 degrees C), airflow rates (2.2-6.3 ACH) and heat loads (17-47 W/m(2)). Performances were evaluated based on DR (draft rating), PMV (predicted mean vote), ACE (air change effectiveness) and heat removal effectiveness (HRE). The results show that CJV had higher HRE and IAQ than MV and LMCJ/LMCJ-M had higher ACE than HMCJ. The main effects of lower T-s were higher velocities, DR (HMCJ particularly) and HRE in the occupied zone as well as lower temperatures and PMV-values. HMCJ and LMCJ produce MV conditions at lower airflow rates (<4.2 ACH) and non-uniform conditions at higher airflow rates. LMCJ-M had 7% higher HRE than the other CJV supply devices and produced non-uniform conditions at lower airflow rates (<3.3 ACH). The non-uniform conditions resulted in LMCJ-M having the highest energy efficiency of all devices.

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  • 31.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malek, Laura
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hultegren, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    System studies on biofuel production via integrated biomass gasification2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly.

    The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for “fair” techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project.

    Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found.

    There are several reasons why the results of the reviewed techno-economic studies vary. Some examples are that different system boundaries have been set and that different technical and economic assumptions have been made, product yields and energy efficiencies may be calculated using different methods etc. For obvious reasons, the studies are not made in the same year, which means that different monetary exchange rates and indices have been applied. It is therefore very difficult, and sometimes even impossible, to compare the technical as well as the economic results from the different studies. When technical evaluations are to be carried out, there is no general method for how to set the system boundaries and no right or wrong way to calculate the system efficiencies as long as the boundaries and methods are transparent and clearly described. This also means that it becomes fruitless to compare efficiencies between different concepts unless the comparison is done on an exactly equal basis.

    However, even on an equal basis, a comparison is not a straight forward process. For example, calculated efficiencies may be based on the marginal supply, which then become very dependent on how the industries exploit their resources before the integration. The resulting efficiencies are therefore very site-dependent. Increasing the system boundaries to include all in- and outgoing energy carriers from the main industry, as well as the integrated gasification plant (i.e. total plant mass and energy balance), would inflict the same site-dependency problem. The resulting system efficiency is therefore a measure of the potential improvement that a specific industry could achieve by integrating a biomass gasification concept.

    When estimating the overall system efficiency of industrial biorefinery concepts that include multiple types of product flows and energy sources, the authors of this report encourage the use of electrical equivalents as a measure of the overall system efficiency. This should be done in order to take the energy quality of different energy carriers into concern.

    In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and production cost estimates. However, the number of references for the cost data is rather limited. The majority of these have also been published by the same group of people and use the same or similar background information. The information in these references is based on quotes and estimates, which is good, however none of these are publically available and therefore difficult to value with respect to content and accuracy.

    It has further been found that the variance in the operational costs is quite significant. Something that is particularly true for biomass costs, which have a high variance. This may be explained by natural variations in the quality of biomass used, but also to the different markets studied and the dates when the studies were performed. It may be seen from the specific investment costs that there is a significant spread in the data. It may also be seen that the differences in capital employed and process yields will result in quite large variations in the production cost of the synthetic fuels. On a general note, the studies performed are considering future plants and in some cases assumes technology development. It is therefore relevant to question the use of today’s prices of utilities and feedstock’s. It is believed that it would be more representative to perform some kind of scenario analysis using different parameters resulting in different cost assumptions to better exemplify possible futures.

    Due to the surprising lack of reports and articles regarding integration of biomass gasifiers in sawmills, it would be of great interest to carry out such a study. Also larger scale wood pellet production plants could be of interest as a potential gasification based biorefinery.

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  • 32.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westling, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of the Swedish municipalities in the transition towards sustainable energy systems2019In: WEENTECH Proceedings in Energy, ISSN 2059-2353, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 124-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is affecting the planet on a global level and it is of vital importance that actors in the energy system work together to achieve political goals, such as the United Nations' goal which states that the global temperature increase should be kept far below 2 °C. There is a need of actions and collaboration throughout the society. The aim of this paper is to make visible the role of Swedish municipalities in the transition towards sustainable energy systems. The paper presents a study of some ongoing activities and collaborations for increased sustainability where municipalities play a clear role. The study focuses on three areas; (1) municipalities´ activities towards citizens and business community, (2) municipalities’ activities linked to collaboration with other actors, and (3) challenges related to these activities. The study is based on information from a literature search and interviews. Representatives from eight Swedish municipalities have been interviewed. The result shows that the municipalities are involved in various activities and collaborations. This is done via networks, projects, consulting, information dissemination, showing good examples, tryout activities and nudging. Some important challenges have been found. One of them is the transport sector and how to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Another is to consider that the Swedish energy system is spread over a large geographical area with different opportunities and limitations concerning electricity production and the sizes of the municipalities. Energy system measures and policy programs need to consider these differences to minimize the risk for sub-optimal energy-system measures. A third challenge is the lack of time and resources within the municipalities to engage enough in energy and climate issues.

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    The role of the Swedish municipalities in the transition towards sustainable energy systems
  • 33.
    Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hackl, Roman
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berntsson, Thore
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Algae-based biofuel production as part of an industrial cluster2014In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 71, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on the production of biofuels from algae cultivated in municipal wastewater in Gothenburg, Sweden. A possible biorefinery concept is studied based on two cases; Case A) combined biodiesel and biogas production, and Case B) only biogas production. The cases are compared in terms of product outputs and impact on global CO2 emissions mitigation. The area efficiency of the algae-based biofuels is also compared with other biofuel production routes. The study investigates the collaboration between an algae cultivation, biofuel production processes, a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial cluster for the purpose of utilizing material flows and industrial excess heat between the actors. This collaboration provides the opportunity to reduce the CO2 emissions from the process compared to a stand-alone operation. The results show that Case A is advantageous to Case B with respect to all studied factors. It is found that the algae-based biofuel production routes investigated in this study has higher area efficiency than other biofuel production routes. The amount of algae-based biofuel possible to produce corresponds to 31 MWfuel for Case A and 26 MWfuel in Case B.

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  • 34. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Andrei, Mariana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of industrial energy management in the transition toward sustainable energy systems: Exploring practices, knowledge dynamics and policy evaluation2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating climate change represents one of the most pressing challenges of our time. The EU has set the goal of reaching climate neutrality by 2050. The transition of manufacturing organizations is essential in reaching the EU’s goal, since industry accounts for circa 25% of the total final energy use and about one-fifth of EU’s GHG emissions. Energy efficiency stands as one of the essential pillars of industrial decarbonization, with energy management playing a pivotal role in reaching its full potential. To remain competitive in the long term and align with the EU’s carbon neutrality goal for 2050, the manufacturing industry must enhance energy efficiency in a cost-effective way. Manufacturing companies are exploring new ways of working with energy management in order to meet the requirements for both radical and incremental innovations needed to achieve the climate neutrality goal. However, due to the high complexity of industrial energy systems and its high diversity among sectors, improving energy efficiency is a difficult task. Knowledge, especially extensive knowledge, is a key factor for adopting innovations in energy efficiency and industrial processes. 

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the role of industrial energy management in the transition toward sustainable energy systems using an extended system approach. Employing top-down and bottom-up approaches, this thesis specifically focuses on three key aspects: industrial energy management practices, knowledge dynamics in industrial energy management, and policy evaluation. Key aspects of this thesis have been studied by means of mixed methods, such as literature reviews, interviews, case study with action research approach, survey, and evaluations. This thesis advocates that energy management practices (EnMPs) include activities beyond energy efficiency improvements. Specifically, they incorporate activities related to the decarbonization of industrial processes, including energy supply (own and purchased) and fuel conversion, at the very least. 

    The results show that internal EnMPs revolve around a focus on technologies, processes, and leadership, for which knowledge creation is an ongoing and evolving process. EnMPs encompass a comprehensive set of strategies and actions undertaken by manufacturing organizations to enhance energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and navigate the transition towards sustainable energy systems. Such practices consist of the following components: energy conservation, energy efficiency, process innovation, energy supply and compensation measures. Furthermore, this thesis has shown that external EnMPs are connected to the participation in energy policy programs and voluntary initiatives and is a common practice in energy management work.

    Organizations often employ a combination of these strategies to achieve climate neutrality and align with environmental sustainability goals. Successful implementation of EnMPs is contingent upon deep process knowledge, especially in the case of radical process innovations, which necessitate a thorough understanding of interdependencies and interconnected processes. Collaboration with external sources of knowledge, including universities and stakeholders, is essential to drive innovation and adapt to evolving energy systems. Leadership plays a vital role in navigating these complexities and ensuring a strategic approach to EnMPs implementation. 

    This thesis contributes to the field of research on energy management in different ways: i. re-viewing the role of energy management in the current context of transition toward sustainable energy systems, ii. advancing theoretical and practical understanding of energy management in manufacturing organizations, iii. enhancing the knowledge-creation perspective within energy management practices for enhancing the adoption of both energy efficiency and process innovation, and iv. advancing theoretical understanding of the knowledge-creation process for energy management through the development of a knowledge-based framework. 

    List of papers
    1. Knowledge demands for energy management in manufacturing industry - A systematic literature review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge demands for energy management in manufacturing industry - A systematic literature review
    2022 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 159, article id 112168Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The social context in relation to energy policies and advances in more energy efficient technologies is changing constantly, thus driving a need for change in the manufacturing sector. This study presents a knowledge-based framework that enables the understanding of the model for knowledge that has taken industrial energy efficiency to current levels and the analysis of the model in the current context of industry transition. The framework consists of three broader forms of knowledge and specific knowledge attributes that can capture the knowledge employed in industrial energy management. The framework is applied in a systematic literature review, analyzing the forms of knowledge and main aspects of energy management in manufacturing industries from 157 articles published between 2010 and 2020 in various academic journals. Besides the framework, the results show that the technical form of knowledge is the primary type of knowledge employed in energy management and that a paradigm-changing towards Industry 4.0. is seen. Another employed form of knowledge is process knowledge, which is concerned with the prerequisite information needed to implement energy management. Finally, lead- ership knowledge is also employed in energy management and a blend in these three forms of knowledge might move us beyond traditional knowledge towards new forms of knowledge that maximize the potential for energy management in manufacturing industries. The knowledge demands brought by Industry 4.0 for all forms of knowledge are identified and discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2022
    Keywords
    Energy management, Manufacturing industry, Energy efficiency, Decarbonization, Analytical framework, Knowledge based framework, Industry 4.0, Process knowledge, Technical knowledge, Leadership knowledge, Model for energy management
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183200 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2022.112168 (DOI)000786655600003 ()
    Projects
    Towards a theory of energy management through contrasting case studies from the shipping and the manufacturing sectors
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 460581-1, Dnr 2018-001887
    Note

    Funding: Graduate School in Energy Systems (FoES) - Swedish Energy Agency [46058-1, 2018-001887]; Division of Energy Systems in the Department of Management and Engineering at Link oping University

    Available from: 2022-02-28 Created: 2022-02-28 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
    2. Decarbonization of industry: Guidelines towards a harmonized energy efficiency policy program impact evaluation methodology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decarbonization of industry: Guidelines towards a harmonized energy efficiency policy program impact evaluation methodology
    Show others...
    2021 (English)In: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 7, p. 1385-1395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The decarbonization of EU energy system is under way, but manufacturing industry is still using approximately 25% of the EU total final energy use. To maintain long-term competitiveness while contributing to the EU goal of carbon neutrality by 2050, manufacturing industry needs to improve energy efficiency in a cost-effective way. One important way to achieve this is through energy audits. The Energy Efficiency Directive promotes member states development of energy efficiency programs to encourage industry to undergo energy audits. Previous studies have reviewed industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluations and argued that there is no harmonized way to conduct them. This leads to difficulties in: i) comparing energy efficiency and cost saving potentials throughout different programs, and ii) providing necessary information that supports the improvement of the policy program. Therefore, we argue that a harmonized methodology for industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluation is of great importance, and, we have developed a set of five-steps guidelines that lay the foundation for an ex-ante energy efficiency policy program evaluation methodology. The guidelines are to be be conducted during the lifetime of the program, in five steps, as follows: (s1) define key issues, (s2) set the objectives for each key issue, (s3) identify the options for each key issue, (s4) analyze options from an energy and environmental perspective, and (s5) compare options and select the recommended one. Our proposed methodology will support policymakers and evaluators answer questions such as: i) how can the objectives of the policy program be achieved? ii) is there any need to change the policy program? Furthermore, a comparison in terms of relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of all major policy options developed, including the status quo option is proposed in the methodology. This paper can be seen an important step towards the goal of creating a harmonized policy evaluation methodology. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2021
    Keywords
    Decarbonization of industry; Energy efficiency policy programs; Ex-ante policy evaluation; Energy audits; Policy process; Guidelines; Methodology
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-180263 (URN)10.1016/j.egyr.2021.02.067 (DOI)000701614200009 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Energy Agency [302881]; Division of Energy Systems at the Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoping University, Sweden

    Available from: 2021-10-14 Created: 2021-10-14 Last updated: 2023-10-31
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  • 35.
    Andrei, Mariana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reducing the Energy Efficiency Gap by Means of Energy Management Practices2019In: 2019 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry, Portland, August 12-14, 2019: Inspiring Action for a Sustainable Future. Panel 2: People, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency remains a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research onimproved energy efficiency has shown the existence of a gap between the optimal and currentimplementation of energy efficient technologies, which is referred to as the energy efficiencygap. Studies have identified that energy efficiency could be further improved by includingenergy management practices alongside energy-efficient technologies. The inefficiencies ofenergy efficiency are commonly explained by the existence of various barriers to energyefficiency. Energy management is stated to be one of the foremost means of overcoming thesebarriers, and two important factors that can help are energy services and energy data monitoring.The aim of this paper is to address how energy services and energy data monitoring can helpeliminate the energy efficiency gap. The study has been carried out as a multiple case studyusing semi-structured interviews.Two aspects of energy management are included: Energy Performance Contract (EPC)and the concept of “Smart” processes and subprocesses. EPC is a commercial model that ispreferably to be designed in a way that it can remove barriers and allow driving forces to beeffective within the contract, and the concept of smart processes and subprocesses, that implies abetter use of big data from measurements and intra-machine connectivity by using the Internet ofThings. Major barriers to energy efficiency are high transaction costs, problems with financingand competition with in-house expertise. Thus, by introducing the EPC and “Smart” concept, areduction of the energy efficiency gap could be achieved.

  • 36.
    Andrei, Mariana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pierre, Inge
    Energiforetagen Sverige, Sweden.
    Gindroz, Bernard
    CEN CENELEC Sect Forum Energy Management SFEM, Belgium.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Decarbonization of industry: Guidelines towards a harmonized energy efficiency policy program impact evaluation methodology2021In: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 7, p. 1385-1395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decarbonization of EU energy system is under way, but manufacturing industry is still using approximately 25% of the EU total final energy use. To maintain long-term competitiveness while contributing to the EU goal of carbon neutrality by 2050, manufacturing industry needs to improve energy efficiency in a cost-effective way. One important way to achieve this is through energy audits. The Energy Efficiency Directive promotes member states development of energy efficiency programs to encourage industry to undergo energy audits. Previous studies have reviewed industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluations and argued that there is no harmonized way to conduct them. This leads to difficulties in: i) comparing energy efficiency and cost saving potentials throughout different programs, and ii) providing necessary information that supports the improvement of the policy program. Therefore, we argue that a harmonized methodology for industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluation is of great importance, and, we have developed a set of five-steps guidelines that lay the foundation for an ex-ante energy efficiency policy program evaluation methodology. The guidelines are to be be conducted during the lifetime of the program, in five steps, as follows: (s1) define key issues, (s2) set the objectives for each key issue, (s3) identify the options for each key issue, (s4) analyze options from an energy and environmental perspective, and (s5) compare options and select the recommended one. Our proposed methodology will support policymakers and evaluators answer questions such as: i) how can the objectives of the policy program be achieved? ii) is there any need to change the policy program? Furthermore, a comparison in terms of relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of all major policy options developed, including the status quo option is proposed in the methodology. This paper can be seen an important step towards the goal of creating a harmonized policy evaluation methodology. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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  • 37.
    Andrei, Mariana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sannö, Anna
    Research & Development Department, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Knowledge demands for energy management in manufacturing industry - A systematic literature review2022In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 159, article id 112168Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social context in relation to energy policies and advances in more energy efficient technologies is changing constantly, thus driving a need for change in the manufacturing sector. This study presents a knowledge-based framework that enables the understanding of the model for knowledge that has taken industrial energy efficiency to current levels and the analysis of the model in the current context of industry transition. The framework consists of three broader forms of knowledge and specific knowledge attributes that can capture the knowledge employed in industrial energy management. The framework is applied in a systematic literature review, analyzing the forms of knowledge and main aspects of energy management in manufacturing industries from 157 articles published between 2010 and 2020 in various academic journals. Besides the framework, the results show that the technical form of knowledge is the primary type of knowledge employed in energy management and that a paradigm-changing towards Industry 4.0. is seen. Another employed form of knowledge is process knowledge, which is concerned with the prerequisite information needed to implement energy management. Finally, lead- ership knowledge is also employed in energy management and a blend in these three forms of knowledge might move us beyond traditional knowledge towards new forms of knowledge that maximize the potential for energy management in manufacturing industries. The knowledge demands brought by Industry 4.0 for all forms of knowledge are identified and discussed.

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  • 38. Anton, R
    et al.
    Castiella, M
    Jonsson, H
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Smoke and CFD visualization of the flow after an EMC screen in a subrack model2005In: The Therminic,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Anton, R.
    et al.
    Antón, R., TECNUN, University of Navarra, Navarra 31080, Spain.
    Jonsson, H.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm SE-10044, Sweden, Department of Energy Technology, Stockholm 10044, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Compact CFD modeling of EMC screen for radio base stations: A porous media approach and a correlation for the directional loss coefficients2007In: IEEE transactions on components and packaging technologies (Print), ISSN 1521-3331, E-ISSN 1557-9972, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 875-885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology to obtain the directional pressure loss coefficients in a porous media model of an electromagnetically compatible screen of a radio base station model is presented. The directional loss coefficients of this compact model are validated against a detailed computational fluid dynamics model not only by comparing the total pressure drop, but also by evaluating the flow pattern after the screen. The detailed model was validated in an earlier article by the authors. A parametric study is conducted for 174 cases. Seven parameters were investigated: velocity, inlet height, screen porosity, printed circuit board (PCB) thickness, inlet-screen gap, distance between two PCBs and screen thickness. Based on the compact model parametric study, two correlations for the directional loss coefficients are developed as a function of the Reynolds number and the above geometrical parameters. The average disagreement between the compact model that uses the directional loss coefficients from the correlations and the detailed model was of 3% for the prediction of the total pressure drop and less than 6.5% and 9.5% for two coefficients that accurately characterize the flow pattern. © 2007 IEEE.

  • 40.
    Anton, R.
    et al.
    Antón, R., Department of TECNUN, University of Navarra, Navarra 31080, Spain.
    Jonsson, H.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SE-100 44, Sweden, Deparment of Energy Technology, Stockholm SE-100 44, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Detailed CFD modeling of EMC screen for radio base stations: A benchmark study2007In: IEEE transactions on components and packaging technologies (Print), ISSN 1521-3331, E-ISSN 1557-9972, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 754-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of five well-known turbulence models, in order to find a model that predicts the details of the flow patterns through an electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) screen. The turbulence models investigated in the present study are five different eddy-viscosity models, the standard k-e model, the renormalization group (RNG) k-e model, the realizable k-e model, the standard k-? model, as well as the shear stress transport k-? model. A steady-state 3-D detailed model, which serves as the most accurate representation of the model, was used in order to evaluate the details of the airflow paths and pressure field. The flow was assumed to be isothermal, turbulent and incompressible. A general model that covers a considerable range of velocities and geometries was validated experimentally by wind tunnel measurements. The result shows that for most of the k-e models used with correct y+ and mesh strategy, the pressure drop and the velocity field deviation is small compared to experimental data. The k-? models overpredict the overall pressure drop. When using the RNG k-e model, the total static pressure drop predicted differs around 5%-10% and the average velocity deviation at several locations before and after the screen is around 5%. © 2007 IEEE.

  • 41. Antón, R
    et al.
    Jonsson, H
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Detail CFD modelling of EMC Screens for Radio Base Stations, a conjugate Heat Transfer Problem2007In: International journal of heat exchangers, ISSN 1524-5608, Vol. VIII, p. 95-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Apeaning, Raphael Wentemi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy Efficiency and Management in Industries: a case study of Ghana’s largest industrial area.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The judicious use of energy by industries is a key lever for ensuring a sustainable industrial development. The cost effective application of energy management and energy efficiency measures offers industries with an effective means of gaining both economic and social dividend, also reducing the negative environmental effects of energy use. Unfortunately, industries in developing countries are lagging behind in the adoption of energy efficiency and management measures; as such missing the benefits of implementation.

    This study is aims at enhance the knowledge of industrial energy efficiency and management strategies in Ghana, by investigating the present level of energy (and efficiency) management practices in Ghana largest industrial park (i.e. Tema industrial area). The study also incorporates the investigation of also investigation of barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measure; to shed light on the rationale for both the adoption and non-adoption of cost effective industrial energy efficient technologies in Ghana. This study was carried out using a semi-structure interview due to the explorative nature of the study. The interviews were conducted in sessions, in the first session respondents were asked describe the energy management strategies in used in the respective companies. In the second session, respondents were asked to fill a structured questionnaire covering the various aspects of the study.

    The results reveal that energy is poorly managed in the industrial area and there is an energy efficiency gap resulting from the low implementation energy efficiency measures. In addition the reveals that the important barriers impeding the implementation of cost effective energy efficiency technologies or measures in the surveyed firms principally stems from rational behavior economic barriers, which are deeply linked to the lack of government frameworks for industrial energy efficiency. The study also finds that economic gains related to ‘cost reductions resulting from lowered energy use’ and ‘threats of rising energy prices’ are the most important drivers for implementing energy efficiency measures or technologies.

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  • 43.
    Arababadi, Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy Use in the EU Building Stock - Case Study: UK2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies in building energy assessmnet have made it clear that the largest potential energy efficiency improvements are conected to the retrofitting of existing buildings. But, lack of information about the building stock and associated modelling tools is one of the barriers to assessment of energy efficiency strategies in the building stocks. Therefore, a methodology has been developed to describe any building stock by the means of archetype buildings.  The aim has been to assess the effects of energy saving measures. The model which is used for the building energy simulation is called:  Energy, Carbon and Cost Assessment for Buildings Stocks (ECCABS). This model calculated the net energy demand aggregated in heating, cooling, lighting, hotwater and appliances.

     

    This model has already been validated using the Swedish residential stock as a test case. The present work continues the development of the methodology by focusing on the UK building stock by discribing the UK building stock trough archetype buildings and their physical properties which are used as inputs to the ECCABS. In addition, this work seekes to check the adequacy of applying the ECCABS model to the UK building stock. The outputs which are the final energy use of the entire building stock are compared to data available in national and international sources.

     

    The UK building stoch is described by a total of 252 archetype buildings. It is determined by considering nine building typologies, four climate zones, six periods of construction and two types of heating systems. The total final energy demand calculated by ECCABS for the residential sector is 578.83 TWh for the year 2010, which is 2.6 % higher than the statistics provided by the Department of Energy and Climate Change(DECC). In the non-residential sector the total final energy demand is 77.28 TWh for the year 2009, which is about 3.2% lower than the energy demand given by DECC. Potential reasons which could have affected the acuracy of the final resualts are discussed in this master thesis. 

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    Thesis_Reza_Arababadi
  • 44.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Benchmarking av industriella små och medelstora företags energiprestanda: Presentation av en metod för beräkning av energieffektiviseringsindex2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector currently accounts for about 30% of the final energy consumption in the western world, but a significant energy efficiency potential has been identified in the sector. Research has shown that there is a great potential for improving energy efficiency in the industrial sector, particularly among small and medium-sized enterprises. However, there are barriers hindering the implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures. These barriers include lack of knowledge about the industries own energy end-use.

    A tool that can address this barrier among companies is benchmarking of energy end-using processes that allow the companies to compare their energy performance to other companies. Based on previous research and experiences in the field, a new method was developed for calculating an energy efficiency index, which has the possibility to show each company's energy performance relative to other companies.

    The study began with a literature review of scientific articles and reports on the subject studied. In addition, interviews with government agencies and energy auditing companies that have insight into the companies' work with energy efficiency was conducted. The literature and interview study showed a demand of comparing the energy performance of industrial sites through benchmarking. Benchmarking of energy end-use processes was estimated to have particularly good potential to achieve energy saving potentials through identifying energy efficiency measures.

    The proposed method allows the calculation of an energy efficiency index that is based on individual energy end-using processes in an industrial site. This allows benchmarking of energy end-using processes as well as the entire industrial site. The method was tested and validated with data from Swedish small and medium-sized sawmills compiled by the Swedish Energy Agency in conjunction with the Swedish energy audit support program.

    Validation of the developed method demonstrated that the potential for energy efficiency can be identified by calculating the energy efficiency index. The method assumes that the comparison is conducted for each sector separately, particularly regarding the production processes. To strengthen the reliability of the results, the method should be tested on additional industrial sectors and further quality assurance of the data should be conducted for these sectors.

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  • 45.
    Arnoldsson, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Adsorption Chillers: uptake of Ethanol on Type RD Silica gel2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption cooling technology has the potential to replace all vapor compression based chillers in the future. So, in all over the world immense researches are going on in this field. The purpose of this report is to experimentally investigate whether ethanol could serve as a refrigerant in the technology. Compared to water it has freezing point below 0 °C (-114.1 °C) and can therefore in theory be used in refrigeration applications. The report begins with the theory regarding the adsorption cooling process, describing the cycle and parameters that affect the Coefficient of Performance (COP).In the actual experiment, adsorption between the silica gel and the ethanol vapor is studied at various pressures by maintaining isothermal conditions. An experimental apparatus (Constant Volume Variable Pressure apparatus - CVVP) was fabricated, assembled and tested for this project. After the assembly and testing, volume calibration for the apparatus was carried out as it is essential to know in further experimental calculation. All the data related with the fabrication, assembly and testing of the apparatus and the volume calibrations are presented later in this report in detail.Adsorption experiments are conducted at 301.15K, 311.15K, 321.15K and 331.15K with varying inlet pressure condition to the system and then the uptake data is calculated for each and every experiments using ideal gas equation. Subsequently, the validations of the experimental data with the standard adsorption isotherms are done. Dubinin-Astakhov is found to be the most ideal isotherm to simulate the theoretical data. Its RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) value is found to be 0.506%. It is concluded that ethanol valid option for refrigeration, but further research is needed and recommended.

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    Adsorption chillers - uptake of ethanol on type RD silica gel
  • 46.
    Assis Lana e Cruz, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Energy and material balances of wastewater treatment, including biogas production, at a recycled board mill2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Challenges surrounding energy have gained increased attention, which is not least reflected in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Energy issues have also become a pressing matter for most countries in the last decades. The reasons for this are not only related to the effects of the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from fossil fuels and their impact in climate change, but also span through other issues such as security of energy supply with geopolitical considerations and competitiveness of industry. To address these issues, a collection of public policies ranging from the international to local levels have been implemented.

    Sweden has historically had lower energy prices than its European counterparts, which has resulted in its industry having a relatively higher share of electricity in the total energy use by industry. The share of electricity accounts for 35% of total energy use in Swedish industry. This has led to efficiency measures being overlooked by industry, and the pulp and paper industry is by far the biggest energy user, with a share of 51% of the total energy use by industry. The variation of energy prices, and particularly electricity prices have obvious implications on the competitiveness of this sector.

    Production of biogas in pulp and paper mills has been gaining attention, and is now the target of an increasing number of scientific studies. The interest for this industry is not only related to security of energy supply and the environmental performance of the biogas itself, but there are also considerations regarding the biogas plant as an alternative to treat the large flows of wastewaters and other waste stream in this sector. There is an estimated biogas production potential of 1 TWh within this industry in Sweden, which accounts for 60% of the current biogas production in the country.

    Pulp and paper mills commonly rely on aerated biological treatment to deal with waste streams with high organic content This biological process has a high energy demand, and the integration of an anaerobic treatment, along with the use of the biogas for heat and electricity can yield a net positive energy recovery for the combined plant.

    This project analyses the current energy and material performance of an anaerobic biological treatment combined with an aerobic biological treatment in a recycled board mill. The anaerobic treatment is performed upstream of the aerobic one and removes most of the chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater.

    Energy and material balances for the plant are presented, and a comparison of the wastewater treatment plant running before and after the start-up of the biogas plant is made. The plant operation with the anaerobic digestion has shown an increased energy use of 9.4% coupled to an increased flow of wastewater of 7.7%. The average biogas production is 72 Nm³/h, which accounts for 440 kWh and is currently being flared. The introduction of AD has largely decrease the organic load in the aerobic treatment, by nearly 50%. This project ends with an optimisation model implemented with the optimisation tool reMIND to investigate potential optimisation strategies for the operation of the combined plant. The model has shown to be adequate to describe electricity use with mean error below 10%. For the biogas production, the mean error was of 16%.

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    Thesis report Igor Cruz
  • 47.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Efficient improvement of energy efficiency in small and medium- sized Swedish firms2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a dissertation about efficient implementation of energy efficiency measures in small and medium-sized Swedish firms. The aim is to investigate the potential for economically efficient implementation of energy efficiency improvement measures in small and medium-sized firms. The thesis contains five papers that analyse different aspects that have been put forth in policy documents and academic debate as  methods to improve energy efficiency in non-energy intensive sectors.

    By reading policy documents, interviewing representatives of small and medium- sized firms and energy auditors as well as analysing data from the Swedish energy audit program, different aspects of energy management practices, energy services and energy audits are considered. The thesis is the product of an interdisciplinary context but economic theory is at the foundation of the analysis and has helped formulate questions and hypotheses that have been tested and explored with the data.

    The results show that while the potential for improving energy efficiency in the small and medium- sized sector in Sweden is large there are challenges to realizing it in each individual firm. There is potential for improving energy efficiency in the sector and not just for investments in new technology but also for adjusting existing machinery and changing behaviour, but costs for investigating the potential and implementing the measures are large relative to the improvement potential in each company. Energy management practices in this sector are lacking and energy services will only be demanded if reduction in production cost is estimated larger than transaction costs of the service. The Swedish energy audit program has led to the implementation of energy efficiency improvements in the participating firms but compared to other policy instruments it has been a less cost-efficient way to improve energy efficiency in Sweden.

    List of papers
    1. Extending the Energy efficiency gap
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending the Energy efficiency gap
    2012 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, p. 392-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach the EU: s 20–20–20 primary energy savings target, energy efficiency needs to increase. Previous research on energy use and energy efficiency has focused mainly on the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. The discrepancy between optimal and actual implementation of energy efficient technologies has been illustrated in numerous articles and is often referred to as the energy efficiency gap. However, efficient technologies are not the only ways to increase energy efficiency. Empirical studies have found that a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency is to combine investments in energy-efficient technologies with continuous energy management practices. By including energy management into an estimated energy efficiency potential this paper introduces an extended energy efficiency gap, mainly in manufacturing industries and the commercial sector. The inclusion of energy management components in future energy policy will play an important role if the energy savings targets for 2020, and later 2050, are to be met in the EU.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86546 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2012.08.042 (DOI)000312620000042 ()
    Available from: 2012-12-18 Created: 2012-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. The energy service gap: What does it mean?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The energy service gap: What does it mean?
    2011 (English)In: ECEEE 2011 Summer Study; Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society: Conference proceedings, Stockholm Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011, p. 649-656Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the formulation of the 2020-targets, the EU has set as objective to reduce the use of primary energy with 20 % by2020. The target is supposed to be reached through increasedenergy efficiency. Despite a large potential for energy efficiency, cost effective measures are not always implemented which isexplained by market failures and barriers to energy efficiency. This difference between potential energy-efficiency and what is actually implemented, is referred to as the energy-efficiencygap.

    Energy service companies (ESCOs) have been put forth asa potential means of overcoming this gap to energy-efficiency.Well-functioning markets for ESCOs are therefore addressedas one of the key elements in the Energy Services Directive(ESD), a tool for the economy to move towards increased energy efficiency and sustainability. In other words, the developmentof the energy service market is of crucial importance if a Member State is to achieve the ambitious 2020-target.

    The aim of this article is to analyse the market for energyservices towards industrial small- and medium sized Enterprises(SMEs). Focus will be on the Swedish market, howevergeneral conclusions may be drawn from this example. A large part of the potential for energy services is not being implemented today - this is identified as the energy-service gap. The gap is explained by transaction cost economics; relatively hightransaction costs for consulting ESCOs inhibit further marketdevelopment. The ESCO market in Sweden is estimated, by the Swedish state, to still be immature but have potential forfurther development. A government report does not identify the market barriers on the energy service market as market failures. By introducing market development mechanisms (e.g.standardized contracts and an accreditation system) the state could decrease the transaction and thus the energy service gap. Reducing the energy-service gap could be a cost effective wayof reducing the energy efficiency gap and reach the 2020-target.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency, Energy Service, ESCO, Energy Efficiency Gap
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71759 (URN)978-91-633-4455-8 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ECEEE 2011 Summer Study Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society, Belambra Presqu’île de Giens, France, 6–11 June 2011
    Available from: 2011-11-10 Created: 2011-11-03 Last updated: 2014-11-20Bibliographically approved
    3. Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program
    2015 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 82, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program.

    The autis show that the firms’ average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6,980 -11,130 MWh / firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between € 74,100- € 113,000 / firm.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112267 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2014.12.068 (DOI)000351788700005 ()
    Available from: 2014-11-20 Created: 2014-11-20 Last updated: 2015-05-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms
    2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management; information and knowledge gained by continuous work and attention to energy use can help discover inefficiencies, malfunctioning equipment and assess the performance and operation. This paper investigates how small and medium sized firms and energy auditors estimate energy efficiency potentials from energy management measures by studying the firms that have participated in the Swedish energy audit program. The largest potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy audit reports is found in generic technologies and support processes, i.e. cross cutting technologies mainly in ventilation, space heating and lighting. Out of the suggested measures investments in new technology accounts for 48% of the estimated potential, and adjustments of existing technology for 27%. Behavioural changes in the energy audit reports accounts for a vanishingly small percentage of total suggested energy efficiency measures in the energy audit reports. Firms participating in the study estimate a higher potential for energy efficiency from behavioural changes than the energy auditors, as high as a quarter of the total potential. Implementation rates of suggested measures from the energy audit program rates are higher in the behavioural category. Despite this, the study shows that energy management practices at the firms are lacking. Energy auditors argue that energy management has low priority in firms because firm’s main focus on core business.

    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112268 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-11-20 Created: 2014-11-20 Last updated: 2015-01-30Bibliographically approved
    5. Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust
    2013 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 511-521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy services have been highlighted both in European Union directives and in academic literature as an important tool to increase energy efficiency. Performance-based energy services, i.e., outsourcing energy management in performance-based remuneration contracts, is said to overcome many of the barriers that have been used to explain the energy efficiency gap. Energy service companies (ESCOs) help organizations to implement energy-efficient solutions in order to reduce energy costs. By combining science and technology studies (STS) analysis and economics in an interview study of firms, the paper contributes insights on the relational nature of energy service collaborations. The objective of the study is to describe how knowledge and incentives affect trust between partners in performance-remunerated energy service collaborations. Performance-based remuneration is one aspect that makes energy service contracts complex. On the one hand, risk is recognized as an important barrier to energy efficiency. Since remuneration to ESCOs is based on energy savings, they also share the financial and technical project risk with their clients. On the other hand, performance-based remuneration can create a lack of trust. Performance is measured in calculations made by the ESCO, calculations that demand expertise that client firms do not possess. ESCOs are consulted for their knowledge on energy efficiency and therefore an imbalance of knowledge is in the nature of energy service collaborations. The paper concludes that if the initial doubt is overcome, long-term collaborations can be advantageous for both parties, since this builds trust and generates long-term profits.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2013
    Keywords
    ESCO, Energy services, Barriers to energy efficiency, Energy efficiency, Trust
    National Category
    Economics Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87148 (URN)10.1007/s12053-012-9189-z (DOI)000321437000006 ()
    Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2018-01-11
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  • 48.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broberg, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms2012In: : European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy – now introduces a new series of events, focusing on, Papendal Hotel and Conference Centre, Arnhem, The Netherlands 11–14 September 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments in energy efficient technologies. This paper investigates to what extent energy management practices influence firms estimation of energy efficiency potentials. Further it investigates two Swedish policy programs that promote industrial energy management practices: The Programme For improving Energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (PFE) and the energy audit program and whether these have increased energy management practices in Swedish firms. A multiple case study has been conducted in order to investigate energy practices in firms in different industrial sectors. Employment of energy management varies between firms. The firms estimate equal energy efficiency potentials from implementation of energy efficient technology as for energy management practices. In total the firms estimate energy efficiency potentials of 12 %. The study shows that firms that have participated in the programs work more actively with energy management. This can be illustrated by the fact that 75 % of the firms that have not participated in any of the programs lack a person responsible for energy management and 50 % also lack a long term energy strategy. For firms that have participated in the programs the corresponding figures are 30 % and 33 %. The results indicate an untapped potential of energy efficiency measures that could be reached through increased energy management in Swedish industries.

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  • 49.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust2013In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 511-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy services have been highlighted both in European Union directives and in academic literature as an important tool to increase energy efficiency. Performance-based energy services, i.e., outsourcing energy management in performance-based remuneration contracts, is said to overcome many of the barriers that have been used to explain the energy efficiency gap. Energy service companies (ESCOs) help organizations to implement energy-efficient solutions in order to reduce energy costs. By combining science and technology studies (STS) analysis and economics in an interview study of firms, the paper contributes insights on the relational nature of energy service collaborations. The objective of the study is to describe how knowledge and incentives affect trust between partners in performance-remunerated energy service collaborations. Performance-based remuneration is one aspect that makes energy service contracts complex. On the one hand, risk is recognized as an important barrier to energy efficiency. Since remuneration to ESCOs is based on energy savings, they also share the financial and technical project risk with their clients. On the other hand, performance-based remuneration can create a lack of trust. Performance is measured in calculations made by the ESCO, calculations that demand expertise that client firms do not possess. ESCOs are consulted for their knowledge on energy efficiency and therefore an imbalance of knowledge is in the nature of energy service collaborations. The paper concludes that if the initial doubt is overcome, long-term collaborations can be advantageous for both parties, since this builds trust and generates long-term profits.

  • 50.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Energy services in Swedish industrial firms: A multidisciplinary analysis of an emerging market2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European commission highlight the energy service market as an important means to improve energy efficiency. Both the Energy service directive and the new suggested Energy Efficiency Directive urge member states to facilitate market development for energy services. The industrial sector is estimated to have large energy efficiency potential. The aim of this multidisciplinary report is to investigate the state of the Swedish energy service market 2011, both from the supply side and from the industrial demand side in order to contribute with knowledge to the discussion of energy services as a way to improve industrial energy efficiency. Economic market theory and Socio-technical theory (the theory of economization presented by Caliskan and Callon) is used to analyse different aspects of the emerging market. The results show that the market for industrial energy services in Sweden is more extensive than previous reports have assessed. Our study describes how energy service collaborations can be complex and how calculations and measurements of expected energy savings lead to controversies and power imbalances.

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