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  • 1.
    Mastantuoni, Gabriella G.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Tran, Van Chinh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    In Situ Lignin Sulfonation for Highly Conductive Wood/Polypyrrole Porous Composites2023In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 2201597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the rising need of sustainable solutions in electronic devices, the development of electronically conductive composites based on lightweight but mechanically strong wood structures is highly desirable. Here, a facile approach for the fabrication of highly conductive wood/polypyrrole composites through top-down modification of native lignin followed by polymerization of pyrrole in wood cell wall. By sodium sulfite treatment under neutral condition, sulfonated wood veneers with increased porosity but well-preserved cell wall structure containing native lignin and lignosulfonates are obtained. The wood structure has a content of sulfonic groups up to 343 mu mol g(-1) owing to in situ sulfonated lignin which facilitates subsequent oxidative polymerization of pyrrole, achieving a weight gain of polypyrrole as high as 35 wt%. The lignosulfonates in the wood structure act as dopant and stabilizer for the synthesized polypyrrole. The composite reaches a high conductivity of 186 S m(-1) and a specific pseudocapacitance of 1.71 F cm(-2) at the current density of 8.0 mA cm(-2). These results indicate that tailoring the wood/polymer interface in the cell wall and activating the redox activity of native lignin by sulfonation are important strategies for the fabrication of porous and lightweight wood/conductive polymer composites with potential for sustainable energy applications.

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  • 2. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Tran, Van Chinh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wood Templated Organic Electronics2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s digital era, electronics are integral to most activities in our daily lives, offering swift and global communication, powerful data processing tools, and advanced sensor devices. However, there are drawbacks to the exponentially growing demand for electronics, such as the depletion of fossil resources, and the complexities surrounding recycling electronic waste (E-waste). As we gradually step into the era of sustainability, it is necessary to explore alternative resources and develop greener electronic technologies. For this purpose, organic electronics (OE) has emerged as an interesting alternative, owning to its potential for low-energy fabrication and use of organic materials composed of Earth-abundant elements.

    The term "organic electronics" has been used widely to refer to electrical devices crafted from organic materials, typically semiconducting polymers (sCPs). This arises from the fact that most developed OE devices such as solar cells, transistors, supercapacitors, and batteries are centered around such materials. Along with the development of different semiconducting polymer varieties, materials from various natural resources have also been explored for devices’ electrodes, binders, and electrolytes. Among them, materials from the forest have emerged as abundant, renewable, and valuable options. For many years, wood has been tailored and utilized as a device template, while its components including cellulose fibrils and lignin have been widely used as structural or active components in OE. Lignin has now become an important electrode and electrolyte active material in energy storage devices.

    This thesis presents new approaches and findings in the utilization of wood and lignin as active components in different OE applications. The thesis centers around two primary themes, in which the first involves the development and utilization of conductive wood (CW), containing lignin, and lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) for supercapacitors and battery applications. The second theme focuses on developing and employing conductive wood as an active electrode in the creation of a wood electrochemical transistor. Within the first theme, I have uncovered the potential of storing electricity in wood utilizing its redox-active component, native lignin. The discovery is reinforced by the successful employment of LNPs as active materials in an organic battery. Within the second theme, I have demonstrated the world's first wooden transistor, characterized its electronic performance, and discussed the pretreatment procedure of the wood substrate that is necessary for achieving a working device. This thesis is anticipated to contribute to new and valuable knowledge for encouraging the development of low-cost and sustainable OE in the future.

    List of papers
    1. Utilizing native lignin as redox-active material in conductive wood for electronic and energy storage applications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilizing native lignin as redox-active material in conductive wood for electronic and energy storage applications
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    2022 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 10, no 29, p. 15677-15688Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured wood veneer with added electroactive functionality combines structural and functional properties into eco-friendly, low-cost nanocomposites for electronics and energy technologies. Here, we report novel conducting polymer-impregnated wood veneer electrodes where the native lignin is preserved, but functionalized for redox activity and used as an active component. The resulting electrodes display a well-preserved structure, redox activity, and high conductivity. Wood samples were sodium sulfite-treated under neutral conditions at 165 degrees C, followed by the tailored distribution of PEDOT:PSS, not previously used for this purpose. The mild sulfite process introduces sulfonic acid groups inside the nanostructured cell wall, facilitating electrostatic interaction on a molecular level between the residual lignin and PEDOT. The electrodes exhibit a conductivity of up to 203 S m(-1) and a specific pseudo-capacitance of up to 38 mF cm(-2), with a capacitive contribution from PEDOT:PSS and a faradaic component originating from lignin. We also demonstrate an asymmetric wood pseudo-capacitor reaching a specific capacitance of 22.9 mF cm(-2) at 1.2 mA cm(-2) current density. This new wood composite design and preparation scheme will support the development of wood-based materials for use in electronics and energy storage.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187502 (URN)10.1039/d1ta10366k (DOI)000823818600001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Wallenberg Wood Science Center (Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation); Karl-Erik Onnesjo Foundation; Treesearch, a collaboration platform for Swedish forest industrial research

    Available from: 2022-08-25 Created: 2022-08-25 Last updated: 2024-01-10
    2. In Situ Lignin Sulfonation for Highly Conductive Wood/Polypyrrole Porous Composites
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Situ Lignin Sulfonation for Highly Conductive Wood/Polypyrrole Porous Composites
    Show others...
    2023 (English)In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 2201597Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To address the rising need of sustainable solutions in electronic devices, the development of electronically conductive composites based on lightweight but mechanically strong wood structures is highly desirable. Here, a facile approach for the fabrication of highly conductive wood/polypyrrole composites through top-down modification of native lignin followed by polymerization of pyrrole in wood cell wall. By sodium sulfite treatment under neutral condition, sulfonated wood veneers with increased porosity but well-preserved cell wall structure containing native lignin and lignosulfonates are obtained. The wood structure has a content of sulfonic groups up to 343 mu mol g(-1) owing to in situ sulfonated lignin which facilitates subsequent oxidative polymerization of pyrrole, achieving a weight gain of polypyrrole as high as 35 wt%. The lignosulfonates in the wood structure act as dopant and stabilizer for the synthesized polypyrrole. The composite reaches a high conductivity of 186 S m(-1) and a specific pseudocapacitance of 1.71 F cm(-2) at the current density of 8.0 mA cm(-2). These results indicate that tailoring the wood/polymer interface in the cell wall and activating the redox activity of native lignin by sulfonation are important strategies for the fabrication of porous and lightweight wood/conductive polymer composites with potential for sustainable energy applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2023
    Keywords
    composites; conductivity; energy; polypyrrole; sulfonated wood
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189462 (URN)10.1002/admi.202201597 (DOI)000865839600001 ()2-s2.0-85139530190 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Wallenberg Wood Science Center - Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

    Available from: 2022-10-25 Created: 2022-10-25 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
    3. Electrical current modulation in wood electrochemical transistor
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical current modulation in wood electrochemical transistor
    Show others...
    2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 120, no 118, article id e2218380120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of mass transport in plants has recently inspired the development of low-cost and sustainable wood-based electronics. Herein, we report a wood electrochemical transistor (WECT) where all three electrodes are fully made of conductive wood (CW). The CW is prepared using a two-step strategy of wood delignification followed by wood amalgamation with a mixed electron-ion conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The modified wood has an electrical conductivity of up to 69 Sm−1 induced by the formation of PEDOT:PSS microstructures inside the wood 3D scaffold. CW is then used to fabricate the WECT, which is capable of modulating an electrical current in a porous and thick transistor channel (1 mm) with an on/off ratio of 50. The device shows a good response to gate voltage modulation and exhibits dynamic switching properties similar to those of an organic electrochemical transistor. This wood-based device and the proposed working principle demonstrate the possibility to incorporate active electronic functionality into the wood, suggesting different types of bio-based electronic devices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2023
    Keywords
    conductivity, electrochemistry, PEDOT:PSS, transistor, wood
    National Category
    Polymer Chemistry Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-197080 (URN)10.1073/pnas.2218380120 (DOI)001025817800003 ()37094114 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85153687393 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    QC 20230713

    Available from: 2023-08-22 Created: 2023-08-22 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
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  • 3.
    Tran, Van Chinh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mastantuoni, Gabriella G.
    Division of Glycoscience, Department of Chemistry and Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Lengwan
    Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglund, Lars
    Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhou, Qi
    Division of Glycoscience, Department of Chemistry and Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrical current modulation in wood electrochemical transistor2023In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 120, no 118, article id e2218380120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of mass transport in plants has recently inspired the development of low-cost and sustainable wood-based electronics. Herein, we report a wood electrochemical transistor (WECT) where all three electrodes are fully made of conductive wood (CW). The CW is prepared using a two-step strategy of wood delignification followed by wood amalgamation with a mixed electron-ion conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The modified wood has an electrical conductivity of up to 69 Sm−1 induced by the formation of PEDOT:PSS microstructures inside the wood 3D scaffold. CW is then used to fabricate the WECT, which is capable of modulating an electrical current in a porous and thick transistor channel (1 mm) with an on/off ratio of 50. The device shows a good response to gate voltage modulation and exhibits dynamic switching properties similar to those of an organic electrochemical transistor. This wood-based device and the proposed working principle demonstrate the possibility to incorporate active electronic functionality into the wood, suggesting different types of bio-based electronic devices.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
1 - 3 of 3
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  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • Other style
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  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
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