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  • 1.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Adami, Paolo Emilio
    Health and Science Department, International Association of Athletics Federations IAAF, Monaco / Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome “Foro Italico”, Italy.
    Fagher, Kristina
    Rehabilitation Medicine Research Group, Lund University, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Bargoria, Victor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gauffin, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för kirurgi, ortopedi och onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Ortopedkliniken i Linköping.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Christer A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Ortopedkliniken i Linköping.
    Bermon, Stéphane
    Health and Science Department, International Association of Athletics Federations IAAF, Monaco / LAMHESS, Université Côte d'Azur, France.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Enheten för folkhälsa.
    Efficacy of pre-participation cardiac evaluation recommendations among athletes participating in World Athletics Championships2020Inngår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 27, nr 14, s. 1480-1490Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Athletes competing in athletics (track and field) at international level may be participating with underlying undiagnosed life-threatening cardiovascular conditions. Our objective was to analyse variations in pre-participation cardiac evaluation prevalence among athletes participating in two International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Athletics Championships, with regard to the human developmental level and global region of their home countries, as well as athletes’ age category, gender, event group and medical insurance type.

    Design Cross-sectional web-based survey.MethodsA total of 1785 athletes competing in the IAAF World Under 18 Championships Nairobi 2017 and World Championships London 2017 were invited to complete a pre-participation health questionnaire investigating the experience of a pre-participation cardiac examination.

    Results A total of 704 (39%) of the athletes participated. Among these, 59% (60% of women; 58% of men) reported that they had been provided at least one type of pre-participation cardiac evaluation. Athletes from very high income countries, Europe and Asia, showed a higher prevalence of at least one pre-participation cardiac evaluation.

    Conclusions The prevalence of pre-participation cardiac evaluation in low to middle income countries, and the African continent in particular, needs urgent attention. Furthermore, increases in evaluation prevalence should be accompanied by the development of cost-effective methods that can be adopted in all global regions.

  • 2.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    mRunning: New Ways of Running in Kenya2015Inngår i: Journal of Sports Pedagogy and Physical Education, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues for new ways for Kenyan elite runners to use smartphones. The study focused on everyday use in social and professional practices to understand the interaction between smartphones, learning, and running. Thus, it was a specific example of how mobile technology can become integrated in existing practices, develop them, and become absorbed in daily routines. Thirty elite runners between the ages of 19 and 34 were provided with a simple smartphone in an intervention study that used a participatory action research approach (PAR) for a period of one and half years. The analysis was based on multiple sources of data and the Silverstone et al. (1992) Domestication of Technology Framework. The Kenyan runners in this study had limited educational background and low incomes, but smartphones with internet connectivity became a powerful catalyst for change. This project showed a distinct example of mRunning; considering the runners’ intensive use of the smartphones and their applications for running. The smartphones had an impact on their professions as runners and acted in a practice-building capacity. The runners were armed with better information about their own training, training programs, rehab information, health, race calendars, race venues, courses profiles, etc. Therefore, most of the runners in the study performed better in competitions. Smartphones were a substantial resource that made a significant impact on the Kenyan  runners’ daily practice and became an important and supportive tool for the runner to get out of poverty.

  • 3.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    New ways of learning: Participatory action research and Kenyan runners’ appropriation of smartphones to improve their daily lives and participation in m-learning2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In Kenya, mobile technology is widely used, with more and more people gaining access to the Internet. Mobile technology has the potential to support learning and improve lives, particular those of impoverished people. In this study, 30 Kenyan runners from poor backgrounds and with limited formal education participated. They were provided with a basic smartphone and Internet data bundles for one year so that they could participate in m-learning. The participatory action research approach was used. Sources of data included interviews, observations, fieldnotes, web inquiries, and mobile log files. A sociocultural perspective was used to analyze how the participants learned informally using the smartphones.

    Findings indicate that the Kenyan runners’ rapid appropriation and mastery of the smartphones was based on their curiosity and interest in sports. The runners’ skills and knowledge increased over time, showing how digital resources improved their training, increased their social interactions, developed entrepreneurial skills, created awareness in and with the rest of society, and improved participation in m-learning. Sociocultural analysis showed that feedback from peers and the tool itself were both significant for learning. The participants themselves influenced the research process. From their interest emerged an online course (MOOC) about human rights. Key challenges in the process were power consumption, lack of electricity, and the availability and cost of Internet access. A lack of critical attitude about content on the Internet was also discernible. The main findings highlight how mobile technology can not only improve daily lives, but also develop new ways for people to participate in mlearning.

    Delarbeid
    1. Frontrunners in ICT: Kenyan runners’ improvement in training, informal learning and economic opportunities using smartphones
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Frontrunners in ICT: Kenyan runners’ improvement in training, informal learning and economic opportunities using smartphones
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: ijEDict - International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, E-ISSN 1814-0556, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 4-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this research was to study how mobile technology shapes, changes, and develops informal learning outside the classroom and school environment. In this study we provided each of the 30 Kenyan elite runners with a simple Android smartphone and free Internet for one year. This research project was a developmental intervention with a participatory action research approach, and aimed to facilitate innovation and examine how the runners developed their training, informal learning, and economic opportunities using a smartphone. Logs and tracking of smartphone usage recorded quantitative data, and interviews and participatory observations gathered qualitative data. Key findings were that the smartphone improved the runners’ training and race performance and created business opportunities. Second, a smartphone with an Internet connection empowered marginalized groups and augmented informal learning opportunities. Third, that a smartphone was not a significant technological hurdle for impoverished or uneducated individuals. Fourth, the participants were able to learn with little or no guidance or scaffolding. Fifth, the tracking log data indicated both a breadth and depth to individual learning. This participatory action research made a significant impact on the participants’ lives and the most common statement from the interviews was the statement “it helps us a lot”.

    Emneord
    Mobile learning; informal learning; smartphones; Kenyan runners; ICT4D; M4D
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114854 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-03-05 Laget: 2015-03-05 Sist oppdatert: 2022-04-29bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. mRunning: New Ways of Running in Kenya
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>mRunning: New Ways of Running in Kenya
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Sports Pedagogy and Physical Education, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues for new ways for Kenyan elite runners to use smartphones. The study focused on everyday use in social and professional practices to understand the interaction between smartphones, learning, and running. Thus, it was a specific example of how mobile technology can become integrated in existing practices, develop them, and become absorbed in daily routines. Thirty elite runners between the ages of 19 and 34 were provided with a simple smartphone in an intervention study that used a participatory action research approach (PAR) for a period of one and half years. The analysis was based on multiple sources of data and the Silverstone et al. (1992) Domestication of Technology Framework. The Kenyan runners in this study had limited educational background and low incomes, but smartphones with internet connectivity became a powerful catalyst for change. This project showed a distinct example of mRunning; considering the runners’ intensive use of the smartphones and their applications for running. The smartphones had an impact on their professions as runners and acted in a practice-building capacity. The runners were armed with better information about their own training, training programs, rehab information, health, race calendars, race venues, courses profiles, etc. Therefore, most of the runners in the study performed better in competitions. Smartphones were a substantial resource that made a significant impact on the Kenyan  runners’ daily practice and became an important and supportive tool for the runner to get out of poverty.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Common Ground Publishing, 2015
    Emneord
    ICT4D/M4D, Smartphones, Participatory Action Research
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115801 (URN)
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence day the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-03-20 Laget: 2015-03-20 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-11bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Daily Usage of Smartphones: New Activities for Kenyan Elite Runners
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Daily Usage of Smartphones: New Activities for Kenyan Elite Runners
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Mobile Technologies, Knowledge and Society, E-ISSN 2155-4811, Vol. 2016, artikkel-id 469363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how a group of Kenyan elite runners used smartphones in their daily activities for one year. This study used a participatory action research approach to explore 30 young Kenyan runners’ appropriation and day-to-day use of smartphones. The runners lived in two different low-income areas in Nairobi and were not accustomed to smartphones. The research focused on how the participants utilized the smartphone, its applications, and the Web to improve their learning, training, living conditions, and social interactions. To investigate the participants’ progress, every smartphone was tracked and its usage was analyzed according to Koole’s (2009) FRAME model. Findings highlighted that new activities arose through frequent usage of the Web and smartphone applications. 180,000 different visits to websites were made and the most popular usage was searching with Google and Yahoo, entertainment, social media, news, and sports related websites. In total, 346,832 applications were used and the phone, launcher and contacts were the primary applications. However, the findings showed a significant use of communication, camera, native applications and applications for running. A concluding remark is that the smartphone acted as a powerful tool for real-life improvement such as improved learning, current events awareness and social interactions for poor people in a developing country.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2016
    Emneord
    ICT4D/M4D, smartphones, Kenya, social interaction, learning, running
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115803 (URN)
    Merknad

    The previous status on this article was Manuscript.

    DOI does not work: 10.5171/2016.469363

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-03-20 Laget: 2015-03-20 Sist oppdatert: 2024-05-02bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Putting a MOOC for Human Rights in the hands of Kenyans: The Haki Zangu case for non-formal learning
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Putting a MOOC for Human Rights in the hands of Kenyans: The Haki Zangu case for non-formal learning
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The research goal of this project was to explore the use and effects of non-formal education and incentives in the context of a developing country. The practical aim of this project was to create, implement, and evaluate a platform about human rights that was available to any Kenyan for free in order to increase knowledge and engagement. Therefore, a non-formal massive open online course (MOOC) about human rights was designed and launched. The course was free and open to anyone in Kenya and offered both a digital badge and certificate from Stockholm University in Sweden upon completion. The course was called Haki Zangu (Kiswahili for “My Rights”), and it explored how using incentives such as a digital badge and certificate of completion affected learning outcomes. This course offered ubiquitous access based on principles of responsive web design and used audio recordings of the entire course content. The course is perpetual and still on-going, but after six months there were 160 participants who had enrolled, and ten participants had completed the course and received certificates and digital badges. The participants showed extensive enthusiasm and engagement for human rights issues, and they expressed desires to learn more and further spread knowledge about human rights. The current findings suggest that the availability of digital badges and certificates increased interest for participation and positively affected learning outcomes. Moreover, the use of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) format with incentives proved successful, combined with the contextualization and accessibility of the course content. Furthermore, the technical platform proved adequate for disseminating education for free in a developing country, and allowed for unencumbered access regardless of device. Lastly, a key challenge for future non-formal learning efforts in developing countries is the cost of Internet access.

    Emneord
    mobile learning, non-formal learning, digital badges, ICT4D, human rights
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114857 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-03-05 Laget: 2015-03-05 Sist oppdatert: 2024-01-17bibliografisk kontrollert
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  • 4.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Teaching Practice Online: Challenges in Japan, India and Kenya Under Pandemic2021Inngår i: IAFOR Journal of Education, ISSN 2187-0594, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 77-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The coronavirus pandemic affected the whole world in 2020, with high pressure on the health sector, many deaths, reduced business activity, rising unemployment rates, travel restrictions and social distancing. These developments have had severe consequences for all areas of every society around the globe. This also includes education. In many countries, primary and secondary pupils and university students alike were sent home as schools and universities closed abruptly as part of efforts to control the spread of the virus. As teaching moved online, learners and teachers were unprepared for the new situation, which posed a unique set of challenges. In this context, trainee teachers at a Swedish university were encouraged to support online teaching at schools in Japan, India and Kenya. The purpose of the digital internship was threefold: to continue the trainees’ teaching placements in the absence of opportunities for in-class teaching; to provide an opportunity for trainee teachers to develop their own competence in online teaching; and to assist the foreign schools in the challenging task of delivering online classes. This article aims to investigate the challenges faced by pupils in Japanese, Indian and Kenyan schools and by 27 Swedish trainee teachers during this project. Data collection consisted of interviews, an online questionnaire, lesson observations, assessment forms, and reports given by trainees. The main challenges identified through our findings included internet access in host countries, the use of a teacher-centred approach to learning, and difficulty for trainees to relate to the pupils’ life conditions. However, we conclude that the trainee teachers increased their global awareness through a climate-friendly alternative to the traditional teaching placement abroad.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The use of mobile technology to improve learning, knowledge and skills in shrinking areas2017Inngår i: Dealing with urban and rural shrinkage: formal and informal strategies / [ed] Gert-Jan Hospers, Josefina Syssner, Zürich: LIT Verlag, 2017, Vol. 134-144, s. 134-144Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jansson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Problem based teaching with other focuses than problem solving2015Inngår i: EDULEARN15: 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EDUCATION AND NEW LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES, IATED , 2015, s. 7899-7907Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem based teaching has been on the agenda in higher education for at least the last twenty years and is embedded in professional educations often to prepare students for real life problem solving. However, in when higher education rather aim to provide deeper theoretical and reflective competences promoting the students capacities to address unpredictable challenges in different contexts, there might be other ways of applying and using problem based educational tools. In this paper we describe and discuss our experiences of such attempts in three different higher educational programs.

    The three educational settings are a Master of European and International relations, teacher-training courses on master level and Master of Political Science. The work on our new curriculums and pedagogical approaches has taken place within a development project and we have shared ideas and experiences throughout the project. The approach has been differently designed into the three programs but the common focus has been that we do not take off in the problem, but the students have to find the problem and explain how it fits to the theories they learn. We conclude, so far, that a key for success is to present and introduce the students to the model of teaching to be successful.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jobe, William
    Department of Informatics, University West, Sweden.
    Daily Usage of Smartphones: New Activities for Kenyan Elite Runners2016Inngår i: Journal of Mobile Technologies, Knowledge and Society, E-ISSN 2155-4811, Vol. 2016, artikkel-id 469363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how a group of Kenyan elite runners used smartphones in their daily activities for one year. This study used a participatory action research approach to explore 30 young Kenyan runners’ appropriation and day-to-day use of smartphones. The runners lived in two different low-income areas in Nairobi and were not accustomed to smartphones. The research focused on how the participants utilized the smartphone, its applications, and the Web to improve their learning, training, living conditions, and social interactions. To investigate the participants’ progress, every smartphone was tracked and its usage was analyzed according to Koole’s (2009) FRAME model. Findings highlighted that new activities arose through frequent usage of the Web and smartphone applications. 180,000 different visits to websites were made and the most popular usage was searching with Google and Yahoo, entertainment, social media, news, and sports related websites. In total, 346,832 applications were used and the phone, launcher and contacts were the primary applications. However, the findings showed a significant use of communication, camera, native applications and applications for running. A concluding remark is that the smartphone acted as a powerful tool for real-life improvement such as improved learning, current events awareness and social interactions for poor people in a developing country.

  • 8.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jobe, William
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Frontrunners in ICT: Kenyan runners’ improvement in training, informal learning and economic opportunities using smartphones2014Inngår i: ijEDict - International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, E-ISSN 1814-0556, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 4-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this research was to study how mobile technology shapes, changes, and develops informal learning outside the classroom and school environment. In this study we provided each of the 30 Kenyan elite runners with a simple Android smartphone and free Internet for one year. This research project was a developmental intervention with a participatory action research approach, and aimed to facilitate innovation and examine how the runners developed their training, informal learning, and economic opportunities using a smartphone. Logs and tracking of smartphone usage recorded quantitative data, and interviews and participatory observations gathered qualitative data. Key findings were that the smartphone improved the runners’ training and race performance and created business opportunities. Second, a smartphone with an Internet connection empowered marginalized groups and augmented informal learning opportunities. Third, that a smartphone was not a significant technological hurdle for impoverished or uneducated individuals. Fourth, the participants were able to learn with little or no guidance or scaffolding. Fifth, the tracking log data indicated both a breadth and depth to individual learning. This participatory action research made a significant impact on the participants’ lives and the most common statement from the interviews was the statement “it helps us a lot”.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Powell, Julia
    Linköpings universitet.
    The outcome of teaching is seeing the unseen: awareness of your own attitudes, values and rights2022Inngår i: Reimagining Creative Democracy: ReCreaDe the Book / [ed] Josephine Moate, Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä , 2022, s. 132-147Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, pre-corona, we have seen unprecedented progress towards achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) concerning access to water, sanitation, education, and poverty reduction and increased life expectancy. However, human rights are not a similar success story. During the pandemic we have experienced in many countries police brutality and violation of rights. Post-corona education therefore has an essential role in promoting human rights, gender equality and democracy and thus supporting, strengthening and rebuilding quality education for all. Research has shown that effective education programmes can reduce misinformation, increase knowledge, strengthen positive values and attitudes, increase skills to make informed decisions and act upon them, and improve perceptions of social norms (UNESCO, 2009).  

  • 10.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Development of quality management in education: A comparative case study in the Swedish multi-level governance system2016Inngår i: The 10th International Multi-Conference on Society, Cybernetics and Informatics : July 5-8, 2016-Orlando, Florida, USA : proceedings : IMSCI'16 / [ed] Nagib Callaos et al., International Institute of Informatics and Systemics , 2016, s. 43-48Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New Public Management (NPM) reforms has affected the Swedish school system and its administration over the last 20 years. User choices and competition create new context to promote quality management which are not completely applicable on public services. This paper focus on the growing use of quality management in primary education and on processes at different levels, how processes can be supported either by professionals or/and ICT to improve educational quality. This paper investigates meanings of quality in education by analysing data from Swedish public schools and the municipal administration. Case studies in five municipalities have been conducted, varying in size and thereby also by numbers of schools and structures of quality management. Based on this multi-case study we discuss four implications. First, there is a need to clarify the roles and obligations of the different levels and actors in the education sectors. Second, there is a need to support and develop roles that can strengthen quality in public schools no matter of the size of the municipality administration. Thirdly, such support can be implemented by certain services as quality coordinators in a community of practice. Implementation of ICT to support quality is an another opportunity; people in virtual community of practice collaborate online, share experiences and support each other in legislative matters, human resources etc. Fourthly, there is need to elaborate on the meanings of quality management in public settings and also open up the meanings of quality in relation to education in particular and public services in general.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Swedish Athlet Federat, Sweden.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Enheten för folkhälsa. Swedish Athlet, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Enheten för folkhälsa.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Universal prevention through a digital health platform reduces injury incidence in youth athletics (track and field): a cluster randomised controlled trial2023Inngår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 57, nr 6, s. 364-371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To examine whether universal prevention via a digital health platform can reduce the injury incidence in athletics athletes aged 12-15 years and if club size had an influence on the effect of the intervention. Methods This was a cluster randomised trial where young athletics athletes were randomised through their club following stratification by club size into intervention (11 clubs; 56 athletes) and control (10 clubs; 79 athletes) groups. The primary endpoint was time from baseline to the first self-reported injury. Intervention group parents and coaches were given access to a website with health information adapted to adolescent athletes and were encouraged to log in and explore its content during 16 weeks. The control group continued training as normal. Training exposure and injury data were self-reported by youths/parents every second week, that is, eight times. The primary endpoint data were analysed using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyse the second study aim with intervention status and club size included in the explanatory models. Results The proportion of completed training reports was 85% (n=382) in the intervention group and 86% (n=545) in the control group. The injury incidence was significantly lower (HR=0.62; chi(2)=3.865; p=0.049) in the intervention group. The median time to first injury was 16 weeks in the intervention group and 8 weeks in the control group. An interaction effect between the intervention and stratification factor was observed with a difference in injury risk between athletes in the large clubs in the intervention group versus their peers in the control group (HR 0.491 (95% CI 0.242 to 0.998); p=0.049). Conclusions A protective effect against injury through universal access to health information adapted for adolescent athletes was observed in youth athletics athletes. The efficacy of the intervention was stronger in large clubs.

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  • 12.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Swedish Athletics Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mirkovic, Dejan
    Swedish Athletics Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mann, Robert Henry
    Children's Health and Exercise Research Centre, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Traneus, Ulrika
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Sport Performance and Exercise Research & Innovation Center - Stockholm, SPERIC-S, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden; Unit of Intervention and Implementation for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Youth athletes at Swedish sports high schools with an athletics specialism emphasise environmental support for injury risk management: a focus group study2023Inngår i: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, Vol. 9, nr 2, artikkel-id e001527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined knowledge and understandingof sport-related injuries among youth athletics (track andfield) athletes and assessed their needs in managing anyhealth problems. Qualitative data were collected via 12focus groups with youth athletes (16–19 years) studying atSwedish sports high schools with an athletics specialism. Allfocus group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribedbefore being analysed using a thematic analysis approach.Four researchers independently reviewed the transcripts,generated codes and developed themes. Three overarchingthemes related to the athletes’ knowledge and understandingof sport-related injury were developed: (1) awareness ofinjuries, (2) perception of injuries, and (3) factors contributingto injuries. The youth athletes were typically uncertain abouthow to acknowledge a sport-related injury. They expressed thatknowledge about injuries was obtained in part by reflecting onthe lived experiences of their peers. It was also demonstratedthat there appears to be a ‘culture of acceptance’ regardinginjury occurrence. In contrast, causes of injuries were viewedas dependent on multiple factors (eg, lack of context-specificknowledge about training practices). Regarding athletes’needs in managing injuries, an additional three themes weredeveloped: (1) creating functioning elite sports environments,(2) application of knowledge and (3) fostering athletes. Anapparent lack of structure and organisation related to theschool environment was identified as an important issueto review to create opportunities for sustainable athleticdevelopment. The study identified areas that can be improvedin Swedish sports high schools with an athletic specialism andcould be applied in other youth sports contexts. The resultsof this study guide school stakeholders, alongside the sportgoverning bodies who have the mandate to influence activitiesin youth sports contexts, whereby special attention should bedirected towards improving the social environment for youthathletes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Jobe, William
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Putting a MOOC for Human Rights in the hands of Kenyans: The Haki Zangu case for non-formal learning2014Inngår i: The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The research goal of this project was to explore the use and effects of non-formal education and incentives in the context of a developing country. The practical aim of this project was to create, implement, and evaluate a platform about human rights that was available to any Kenyan for free in order to increase knowledge and engagement. Therefore, a non-formal massive open online course (MOOC) about human rights was designed and launched. The course was free and open to anyone in Kenya and offered both a digital badge and certificate from Stockholm University in Sweden upon completion. The course was called Haki Zangu (Kiswahili for “My Rights”), and it explored how using incentives such as a digital badge and certificate of completion affected learning outcomes. This course offered ubiquitous access based on principles of responsive web design and used audio recordings of the entire course content. The course is perpetual and still on-going, but after six months there were 160 participants who had enrolled, and ten participants had completed the course and received certificates and digital badges. The participants showed extensive enthusiasm and engagement for human rights issues, and they expressed desires to learn more and further spread knowledge about human rights. The current findings suggest that the availability of digital badges and certificates increased interest for participation and positively affected learning outcomes. Moreover, the use of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) format with incentives proved successful, combined with the contextualization and accessibility of the course content. Furthermore, the technical platform proved adequate for disseminating education for free in a developing country, and allowed for unencumbered access regardless of device. Lastly, a key challenge for future non-formal learning efforts in developing countries is the cost of Internet access.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Mwikal, Mutiso Pauline
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kalai, Jeremiah M.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Okoth, Ursula
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Influence of Organizational Values on Job Commitment of Public University Lecturers2023Inngår i: Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP), ISSN 2708-261X, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 65-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Values fostered by various organizations often have the potential to ignite various positive employee outcomes. Whereas previous scholars have documented those values such as corporate social responsibility (CSR), welfare programs, and teamwork are significant in influencing employee behaviour. However, how these values have influenced job commitment among university lecturers has not been highlighted. This is critical especially in universities like Nairobi and South Eastern which have experienced abnormally high turnover, absenteeism, and strike events of lecturer in the last five years. This study investigated the influence of organizational values on job commitment among lecturers at the University of Nairobi and South Eastern University. Specific objectives were to explore the influence of CSR on job commitment, analyse the influence of welfare programs on job commitment, and to determine the influence of teamwork on job commitment. The Theory of Equity by Adams was used to guide the study. Descriptive survey design was used on a target population of 56191 lecturers, deans and students from which 377 was derived as a sample size via Krejcie and Morgan’s (1970) Table. Closed and open-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Findings revealed that organizational values investigated contributes 63.4% variation in job commitment among lecturers in the University of Nairobi and South Eastern Kenya University (R2 =0.634). CSR (B=.473), welfare programs (B=0.488), and teamwork (B=0.484) are significant predictors (p=0.000) of job satisfaction among the lecturers. It is concluded that equitable provision of these values can lead to a significant improvement in lecturers’ job commitment.

  • 15.
    Pauline Mwikali, Mutiso
    et al.
    epartment of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    M. Kalai, Jeremiah
    Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Okoth, Ursullah
    Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Relationship between Goal-Orientation Culture and Job Commitment among Lecturers in Public Universities in Kenya2023Inngår i: International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM), E-ISSN 2321-3418, Vol. 11, nr 09, s. 1495-1507Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the management strategies which guides people and organizations to focus their efforts towards achievement of individual and organizational objectives is goal orientation. While it has been documented by previous researchers that learning goal as well as performance goal orientations are significant in influencing employee behaviour, how the same influence job commitment among university lecturers is still a matter of conjecture. This knowledge would be significant especially in the context of public universities in Kenya where missing lecture sessions are rampant on one hand, while more employers prefer graduates from Technical, Industrial and Vocational Enterprise Training (TIVET) institutions than university graduates, on the other hand. This study explored the influence of goal orientation culture on job commitment among lecturers at the University of Nairobi and South Eastern University. The hypothesis that: Organizational goal orientation culture does not have significant relationship with job commitment among lecturers at the Nairobi University and South Eastern Kenya University was tested. Self-determination theory (SDT) of motivation originated by Ryan and Deci was used to guide the study. Descriptive survey design was used on a target population of 56191 lecturers, Deans and students from which 377 was derived as a sample size via Krejcie and Morgan’s (1970) Table. Closed and open-ended questionnaire was used for data collection, and regressions (at 0.05 level of significance) as well as thematic analyses used respectively to analyse quantitative and qualitative data. Findings revealed that 86.1% of changes in job commitment among the lecturers is attributed to goal-oriented culture (R2 =0.861), with goals related to timelines for examination result submission and number of units taught strictly adhered to. It is concluded that matching of the university and lecturers’ goals related to teaching timelines among others significantly enhance lecturers’ job commitment. Professional development opportunities for lecturers should be enhanced to improve their capacities, while challenges facing lecturers in enhancing their job commitment need further exploration.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Prytz, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ludvigsson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Avdelningen för historia, konstvetenskap och religionsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Höög, Marie-Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Avdelningen för akademisk svenska. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Träning av praktisk ämnesdidaktik i virtuell praktik: pedagogiskt utvecklingsprojekt för e-lärande 20202022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den praktiska ämnesdidaktik som projektet fokuserat på var en virtuell praktik, en lärarledd simuleringsundervisning med fem virtuella elever. Träningen på att undervisa de virtuella eleverna följdes av återkoppling som gavs av en ämnesdidaktiker i historia och en i samhällskunskap. Den virtuella praktiken bakades in som ett obligatoriskt moment i två campusförlagda kurser för blivande ämneslärare, i historia respektive samhällskunskap.

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  • 17.
    Wickström, William
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för verksamhetsstöd och utveckling, Verksamhetsutveckling vård och hälsa.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för verksamhetsstöd och utveckling, Verksamhetsutveckling vård och hälsa.
    Bargoria, Victor
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelning för neurobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för verksamhetsstöd och utveckling, Verksamhetsutveckling vård och hälsa.
    Perceptions of Overuse Injury Among Swedish Ultramarathon and Marathon Runners: Cross-Sectional Study Based on the Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R)2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, s. 1-11, artikkel-id 2406Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Long-distance runners’ understandings of overuse injuries are not well known which decreases the possibilities for prevention. The common sense model (CSM) outlines that runners’ perceptions of a health problem can be described using the categories identity, consequence, timeline, personal control, and cause. The aim of this study was to use the CSM to investigate perceptions of overuse injury among long-distance runners with different exercise loads.

    Methods: The study used a cross-sectional design. An adapted version of the illness perception questionnaire revised (IPQ-R) derived from the CSM was used to investigate Swedish ultramarathon and marathon runners’ perceptions of overuse injuries. Cluster analysis was employed for categorizing runners into high and low exercise load categories. A Principal Component Analysis was thereafter used to group variables describing injury causes. Multiple logistic regression methods were finally applied using high exercise load as endpoint variable and CSM items representing perceptions of injury identity, consequence, timeline, personal control, and causes as explanatory variables.

    Results: Complete data sets were collected from 165/443 (37.2%) runners. The symptoms most commonly associated with overuse injury were pain (80.1% of the runners), stiff muscles (54.1%), and stiff joints (42.0%). Overuse injury was perceived to be characterized by the possibility of personal control (stated by 78.7% of the runners), treatability (70.4%), and that the injury context was comprehensible (69.3%). The main injury causes highlighted were runner biomechanics (stated by 78.3%), the runner’s personality (72.4%), and running surface biomechanics (70.0%). Among men, a belief in that personality contributes to overuse injury increased the likelihood of belonging to the high exercise load category [Odds ratio (OR) 2.10 (95% Confidence interval (95% CI) 1.38–3.19); P = 0.001], while beliefs in that running biomechanics [OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.37–0.85); P = 0.006) and mileage (OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.54–0.96); P = 0.026] causes injury decreased the likelihood. In women, a strong perception that overuse injuries can be controlled by medical interventions decreased the likelihood of high exercise load [OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.52–0.89); P = 0.005].

    Conclusion: This study indicates that recognition among long-distance runners of the association between own decisions in overuse injury causation is accentuated by increased exercise loads.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Perceptions of Overuse Injury Among Swedish Ultramarathon and Marathon Runners: Cross-Sectional Study Based on the Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R)
  • 18.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Internet café as a supportive educational arena: a case study from the urban slum of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to interpret a case study of the unexpected educational impact of an Internet Café – Cyber – in the slum of Kibera, Kenya. Our focus is here to examine the transformation of ICT in development country, and more specific in Nairobi, in Kenya. We consider this an interesting illustration of the spread of globalization to a local community in a development country and how learning takes place in unexpected contexts. Therefore the paper takes off from a comprehensive portrait of one Internet café in the urban slum area and its management, some users and non-regular users. As a part of a long-term field study this analysis is a first analysis of the project and it also aim to illustrate from conception to realization, and implementation of Internet café.

    We are studying one actor, a NGO driven commitment that opened an Internet café in Kibera primary to generate income, provide access to Internet for the local people and a more general ambition to develop the local community.  Field work has been on-going and consists of a series of interviews with key informants in the management, and interviews with adolescent customers (users and non-regular users) of the Cyber. Our findings show that there is a clear ambition from the management of the Internet Café to enable computer literacy and bridge digital divides, as well as social and educational progress. Such learning takes place even if it looks like clients mainly use Facebook or browse the Internet. The findings also show that focus on eco-friendly technique to act as a role model was overshadowed by profit-making aims. Even if Internet Café is managed by a NGO they have a clear profit focus. In the beginning the Cyber had a more educating purpose, or a charity purpose, by letting poor people have access to Internet to a cheaply cost, but when established the economic aspects made it behave like a market actor. The main purpose of the management to empower poor people computer literacy is worthy, however doubtful, because it emerges with training and economy. Recent technological development of Internet on the cell phones has challenged the Internet cafés and there are incentives to use the cell phone even for activities that formerly was performed at the Internet Café. If the Internet is in everyone’s pocket the educational arena of the Internet Cafes’ are threaten, but the Cyber´s advantage is tutorial support from peers and management. The Internet Café promotes learning ambitions in the slum and presents opportunities available for them, but it also shows the divides of the knowledge society. Although youth in the slum with computer skills has got increased access to Internet, and their voices has reached out and in some way the digital divide between North and South has decreased.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Internet café as a supportive educational arena : a case study from the urban slum of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya
  • 19.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Managing quality in education in a multi-level governance system – strategies, constraints and innovations2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When new forms of governance as New Public Management, user choices and competition in public services are becoming the normal praxis in Scandinavian public welfare services provided by municipalities and regions there are increasing demands for quality management. There is a basic need to follow up quality in services in particular when there are several providers of public services. The uses of quality management in private sectors are not completely applicable on these public services and thus the growing use of quality management in public services has to be addressed. In this paper the quality management in primary education is in focus both to focus on how these processes are arranged and what we can learn as more terms for quality management in public services.

    In addition it is far from clear what quality is in these new organizational settings of mixed public-private contexts and actors. The mix of actors are not just public and private, there are also several different organizational levels that interplay here. In spite of the local focus and provision of these services there is a lot of interaction, comparison and structures framed on national and even international levels.

    In this paper we will elaborate on the meanings of quality in education as a public service by analyzing the strategies, constraints and innovative responses in local schools as well as in municipal administration and policy-making processes. Case studies in five municipalities in Sweden is included, varying in size and thereby also by numbers of schools and structures of quality management. Based on this study we draw three types of more general conclusions and discuss three implications. First, we can notice that there is a need to clarify the roles and obligations of the different levels and actors in the education sectors. Second, there is a need to support and develop roles for mediating actors that can translate meanings of quality into public settings. Thirdly, there is need to elaborate on the meanings of quality management in public settings and also open up the meanings of quality in relation to education in particular and public services in general. 

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    fulltext
  • 20.
    Skill, Karin ()
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring.
    Hansson, Per-Olof ()
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Digitalisering av lärares undervisning: Översikt och exempel från examensarbeten vid ämneslärarprogrammet i samhällskunskap2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna publikation är en del av rapportserien DINO – Digitalisering i nya offentligheter. Syftet med rapportserien är att publicera tidiga forskningsresultat som handlar om samhällets digitalisering i vid mening, och särskilt det som sker inom och i relation till offentliga verksamheter.

    Digitaliseringen av skolan handlar om ett offentligt sammanhang i allra högsta grad. Och bland lärarstudenterna som vi handleder på ämneslärarprogrammet i samhällsvetenskap har kraven på att arbeta med digitala verktyg och att ha digital kompetens fångat mångas intresse och uppmärksamhet. Vi vill därför ge en inblick i den kunskap som skapas kring temat i den här rapporten. Rapporten vänder sig till en intresserad allmänhet, men även forskare och universitetslärare som undervisar lärarstudenter, lärarstudenter som står i startgroparna för att skriva examensarbeten, samt aktiva lärare som vill få inblick i kollegors utmaningar och tillvägagångssätt när det gäller digitaliseringen och användningen av digitala verktyg i undervisningen.

    I rapporten vill vi dela med oss av relevanta sätt att studera och förstå hur lärare i grundskola och på gymnasiet kan undervisa med digitala verktyg, hur studenterna kan arbeta för att fånga detta, samt visa på resultat som framkommit ur examensarbetena.

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