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  • 1.
    Svenningsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Carl Mitcham: Descriptions of Technology2019In: Reflections on Technology for Educational Practitioners: Philosophers of Technology Inspiring Technology Education / [ed] Dakers, John R. Hallström, Jonas. de Vries, Marc J., Boston, MA: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 13-24Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Svenningsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science.
    Elevers attityder till teknik2018In: Teknikdidaktisk forskning för lärare: bidrag från en forskningsmiljö / [ed] Karin Stolpe; Gunnar Höst; Jonas Hallström, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018, p. 15-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet kommer elevers attityder till och intresse för teknikämnet diskuteras. De här begreppen talas det en del om, ofta i negativ bemärkelse. Men vad innebär en attityd till och ett intresse för teknikoch teknikundervisning? Resultaten från studien beskriven i kapitlet visar exempelvis att intresse, vilja att arbeta med teknik och hur utförligten elev kan beskriva teknik hänger ihop. Studien visar en koppling mellan viljan att arbeta med teknik och erfarenheter utanför skola ochklassrum. Dessutom beskrivs i studien att flickor generellt är mindreintresserade av skolans teknikundervisning och mindre intresserade avett yrke inom tekniksektorn än pojkar.

  • 3. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Svenningsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Having an attitude toward technology: Rethinking PATT studies from a theoretical perspective to study students’ attitudes toward technology2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Attitudes are complex and consist of emotions, beliefs, and behavior. The overall aim of this thesis is to contribute to a theoretically anchored understanding of attitudes toward technology by exploring the three components of attitudes: affective, cognitive, and behavioral among 12-15-year-old students in Sweden.  

    This thesis includes three research papers (I, II, III) and one book chapter (Paper IV) that are based on data from two studies. Data (student interviews N=6 and survey N=173) from the first study was used in Papers I, II and IV, and data (student survey N=485) from the second study were used in Paper III.     

    In Paper I, an existing attitude survey (PATT) is validated for use in a Swedish context. In Paper II, an instrument to quantify students’ perceptions of technology and technology education is developed This instrument is used to study the cognitive component of attitudes and is named the Mitcham Score. In Paper III, the methods developed in Paper I and II are used to study the relationships among the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of attitudes. In Paper IV, students’ perceptions of technology are discussed as a starting point for teachers, when planning and teaching technology. 

    The methods developed throughout the thesis prove useful to research the different components of attitudes. The Mitcham Score can give insights into students’ perception of technology as well as be used as a construct of the cognitive component of attitudes. The PATT survey categories called Boredom and Interest measure students’ feelings (affect), while the category called Career was seen as assessing the behavioral component. The affective component, Interest, was related to both the cognitive component and the behavioral component. A high Mitcham Score, or in other words a broad perception of technology, seems to be a key concept for girls to consider technological careers.   

    List of papers
    1. Understanding attitude measurement: Exploring meaning and use of the PATT short questionnaire
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding attitude measurement: Exploring meaning and use of the PATT short questionnaire
    2018 (English)In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 67-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The pupils’ attitudes toward technology survey (PATT) has been used for 30 years and is still used by researchers. Since it was first developed, the validity of the questionnaire constructs has primarily been discussed from a statistical point of view, while few researchers have discussed the type of attitudes and interest that the questionnaire measures. The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge about student interpretations and the meaning of their answers in the recently developed PATT short questionnaire (PATT-SQ). To research this, a mixed methods approach was used, where the qualitative data from six interviewees (students aged 14) help to explain and interpret the quantitative data from 173 respondents (students aged 12–15). The interviewed students completed a Swedish version of the PATT-SQ 3 weeks prior a semistructured interview. The results from this study imply that the PATT-SQ survey can be used mostly as it is, but this study also shows that there are some categories that require some caution when being analyzed and discussed. For example, the gender category cannot be used as intended since it does not measure what it is supposed to and it might be gender-biased. The interest category can advantageously be reduced to four items to focus on school technology, which will indicate how deep a student’s well-developed individual interest is. And the career category seems to only detect students’ who urge a career in technology, while the other students lack knowledge about what that career might be and therefore they are not interested in such a career.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2018
    Keywords
    Attitudes; Interest; Technology education; PATT
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133346 (URN)10.1007/s10798-016-9392-x (DOI)000425323800004 ()2-s2.0-85006930137 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-12-21 Created: 2016-12-21 Last updated: 2024-03-19Bibliographically approved
    2. The Mitcham Score: quantifying students’ descriptions of technology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Mitcham Score: quantifying students’ descriptions of technology
    2020 (English)In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 995-1014Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A central issue when measuring students’ attitudes toward an object is the children’s understanding of that object, in this case, technology. Studies have shown that schoolchildren often describe technology narrowly as different kinds of technological objects; more specifically, modern electrical objects. This may mean that we have been measuring students’ attitudes toward modern technological objects for more than 30 years. This study intends to research what other aspects students potentially describe, when describing technology, and how the descriptions can be implemented in attitudes toward technology research. To visualize and analyze different aspects of technology, Carl Mitcham’s philosophical framework of the manifestations of technology is used. The deductive method used for analysis quantifies students’ descriptions of technology, for use in attitude, and other quantitative, studies. In this study, descriptions of technology and technology education from 164 students (aged 12–15) are analyzed, classified and quantified within Mitcham’s typology (technology as Object–Activities–Knowledge–Volition). The student descriptions are compared to the typology and students score a point for every one of the four aspects of technology they describe. The sum of aspects in the description is named The Mitcham Score. The results of this study show that students can describe technology in a broad way using all four aspects of Mitcham’s typology. In line with previous studies, the most common way is to describe technology as objects and activities using the objects. Technological knowledge has not been in focus in previous studies of student descriptions. In this study, 44.5% of the students mention technological knowledge in their descriptions of technology. Measurement using the Mitcham Score provides a method to study both students’ concepts of technology and the factors that might affect this. The Mitcham Score is potentially one more factor to use in analyzing students’ attitudinal profiles. The method is sufficiently reliable and enables a broad understanding of students’ attitudes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2020
    Keywords
    Technology education · Attitudes · Concepts of technology · The Mitcham Score · PATT
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164110 (URN)10.1007/s10798-019-09530-8 (DOI)000574226700010 ()
    Available from: 2020-03-05 Created: 2020-03-05 Last updated: 2024-03-19
    3. Students attitudes toward technology: exploring the relationship among affective, cognitive and behavioral components of the attitude construct
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Students attitudes toward technology: exploring the relationship among affective, cognitive and behavioral components of the attitude construct
    2022 (English)In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 1531-1551Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When studying attitudes toward technology education, the affective attitudinal component has primarily been the focus. This study focuses on how the affective, cognitive and behavioral attitudinal components of technology education can be incorporated using a two-step survey: the traditional PATT-questionnaire (PATT-SQSE) and the recently developed Mitcham Score questionnaire. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship among the cognitive, affective and potential behavioural components of students attitudes toward technology in a Swedish context, using the PATT-SQ-SE instrument including the Mitcham score open items. Results of the analyses show that relationships among the attitudinal components are observable. The results also imply that relationships among the attitudinal components are different for girls than boys. A key factor for the participating students attitudinal relations was interest (affective component) in technology education. An individual interest in technology education was related to both the cognitive component and behavioral intention. Another key relationship, for girls, was that the cognitive component had a strong relationship with behavioral intention, which was not the case for boys. Based on the observed relations between the cognitive, affective and behavioural components we have identified two key implications for educational practice: Girls should learn a broader conception of technology in technology education, if we want them to pursue technology-related careers to a higher degree; Students interest in technology should be stimulated through engaging tasks in technology education.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2022
    Keywords
    Technology education; Attitudes; Attitude measurement; PATT; Mitcham score
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173642 (URN)10.1007/s10798-021-09657-7 (DOI)000617818700001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Linkoping University

    Available from: 2021-02-26 Created: 2021-02-26 Last updated: 2024-03-19
    4. Carl Mitcham: Descriptions of Technology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carl Mitcham: Descriptions of Technology
    2019 (English)In: Reflections on Technology for Educational Practitioners: Philosophers of Technology Inspiring Technology Education / [ed] Dakers, John R. Hallström, Jonas. de Vries, Marc J., Boston, MA: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 13-24Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Boston, MA: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019
    Series
    International Technology Education Studies, ISSN 1879-8748 ; 16
    Keywords
    Mitcham Score, Technology Education, Conceptions of Technology, Descriptions of technology
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157709 (URN)9789004405493 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2024-03-19Bibliographically approved
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  • 4.
    Svenningsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science.
    The Mitcham Score: quantifying students’ descriptions of technology2020In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 995-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central issue when measuring students’ attitudes toward an object is the children’s understanding of that object, in this case, technology. Studies have shown that schoolchildren often describe technology narrowly as different kinds of technological objects; more specifically, modern electrical objects. This may mean that we have been measuring students’ attitudes toward modern technological objects for more than 30 years. This study intends to research what other aspects students potentially describe, when describing technology, and how the descriptions can be implemented in attitudes toward technology research. To visualize and analyze different aspects of technology, Carl Mitcham’s philosophical framework of the manifestations of technology is used. The deductive method used for analysis quantifies students’ descriptions of technology, for use in attitude, and other quantitative, studies. In this study, descriptions of technology and technology education from 164 students (aged 12–15) are analyzed, classified and quantified within Mitcham’s typology (technology as Object–Activities–Knowledge–Volition). The student descriptions are compared to the typology and students score a point for every one of the four aspects of technology they describe. The sum of aspects in the description is named The Mitcham Score. The results of this study show that students can describe technology in a broad way using all four aspects of Mitcham’s typology. In line with previous studies, the most common way is to describe technology as objects and activities using the objects. Technological knowledge has not been in focus in previous studies of student descriptions. In this study, 44.5% of the students mention technological knowledge in their descriptions of technology. Measurement using the Mitcham Score provides a method to study both students’ concepts of technology and the factors that might affect this. The Mitcham Score is potentially one more factor to use in analyzing students’ attitudinal profiles. The method is sufficiently reliable and enables a broad understanding of students’ attitudes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Quantifying students’ descriptions of technology
  • 5.
    Svenningsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Student attitudes toward technology: what is hidden behind the survey answers?2016In: PATT-32 Proceedings Technology Education for 21st Century Skills: Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 2016 / [ed] Marc J. de Vries, Arien Bekker-Holtland, Gerald van Dijk, Utrecht, The Netherlands: University of Applied Sciences , 2016, p. 463-472Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pupils’ attitudes towards technology survey (PATT) has been used for 30 years and is still used by researchers. Since first developed, validity of the questionnaire constructs have primarily been discussed from a statistical point of view, while few have discussed the type of attitudes and interest the questionnaire measure, and in what way.

     

    In order to contribute to an increased understanding of the PATT results we present six 14-year-old Swedish students and their results in the PATT-SQ survey, as well as their thoughts about why they responded to the survey as they did. This is to be able to understand what the student attitudes and interest in technology might mean. In this paper we focus on the categories; Interest, Career and Gender and the students’ interpretations of the statements and the Likert-scale. These six students completed a Swedish version of the PATT-SQ three weeks prior to a 15 minute semi-structured interview.

     

    Even though most of the interviewees use interest as a synonym to enjoyment, this lack of distinction does not seem to affect the survey result. Our interpretation is that the respondents describe interest (and/or enjoyment) as a well-developed interest. An urge for a technological career equals working as an engineer or architect among these interviewees. Those who do not want to pursue such a career refer to this career, rather vaguely as technician. There seem to be an impact from other sources than school, which create this difference in career aspirations. Finally the gender category cannot be used by calculating the mean, since students’ tend to use the same option generally on the Likert-scale independently of how the how the statements are posed.

  • 6.
    Svenningsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Swedish Students’ view on Technology: Results from a pilot study using an adaptation of the PATT-SQ questionnaire2015In: PATT 29 Plurality and Complementarity of Approaches in Design & Technology Education, Marseille, France, April 2015 / [ed] Marjolaine Chatoney, Marseille: Presses Universitaires de Provence , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Svenningsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Understanding attitude measurement: Exploring meaning and use of the PATT short questionnaire2018In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 67-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pupils’ attitudes toward technology survey (PATT) has been used for 30 years and is still used by researchers. Since it was first developed, the validity of the questionnaire constructs has primarily been discussed from a statistical point of view, while few researchers have discussed the type of attitudes and interest that the questionnaire measures. The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge about student interpretations and the meaning of their answers in the recently developed PATT short questionnaire (PATT-SQ). To research this, a mixed methods approach was used, where the qualitative data from six interviewees (students aged 14) help to explain and interpret the quantitative data from 173 respondents (students aged 12–15). The interviewed students completed a Swedish version of the PATT-SQ 3 weeks prior a semistructured interview. The results from this study imply that the PATT-SQ survey can be used mostly as it is, but this study also shows that there are some categories that require some caution when being analyzed and discussed. For example, the gender category cannot be used as intended since it does not measure what it is supposed to and it might be gender-biased. The interest category can advantageously be reduced to four items to focus on school technology, which will indicate how deep a student’s well-developed individual interest is. And the career category seems to only detect students’ who urge a career in technology, while the other students lack knowledge about what that career might be and therefore they are not interested in such a career.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Svenningsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Students attitudes toward technology: exploring the relationship among affective, cognitive and behavioral components of the attitude construct2022In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 1531-1551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When studying attitudes toward technology education, the affective attitudinal component has primarily been the focus. This study focuses on how the affective, cognitive and behavioral attitudinal components of technology education can be incorporated using a two-step survey: the traditional PATT-questionnaire (PATT-SQSE) and the recently developed Mitcham Score questionnaire. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship among the cognitive, affective and potential behavioural components of students attitudes toward technology in a Swedish context, using the PATT-SQ-SE instrument including the Mitcham score open items. Results of the analyses show that relationships among the attitudinal components are observable. The results also imply that relationships among the attitudinal components are different for girls than boys. A key factor for the participating students attitudinal relations was interest (affective component) in technology education. An individual interest in technology education was related to both the cognitive component and behavioral intention. Another key relationship, for girls, was that the cognitive component had a strong relationship with behavioral intention, which was not the case for boys. Based on the observed relations between the cognitive, affective and behavioural components we have identified two key implications for educational practice: Girls should learn a broader conception of technology in technology education, if we want them to pursue technology-related careers to a higher degree; Students interest in technology should be stimulated through engaging tasks in technology education.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
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