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  • 1.
    Aberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Danford, Christopher J.
    Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, MA 02215 USA.
    Thiele, Maja
    Odense Univ Hosp, Denmark; Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Talback, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Rasmussen, Ditlev Nytoft
    Odense Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Jiang, Z. Gordon
    Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, MA 02215 USA.
    Hammar, Niklas
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    But, Anna
    Univ Helsinki, Finland; Helsinki Univ Hosp, Finland.
    Puukka, Pauli
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Krag, Aleksander
    Odense Univ Hosp, Denmark; Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Sundvall, Jouko
    Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Finland.
    Erlund, Iris
    Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Finland.
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Finland.
    Stal, Per
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lai, Michelle
    Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, MA 02215 USA.
    Afdhal, Nezam
    Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, MA 02215 USA.
    Jula, Antti
    Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Finland.
    Mannisto, Satu
    Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Finland.
    Lundqvist, Annamari
    Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Finland.
    Perola, Markus
    Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Finland.
    Farkkila, Martti
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Hagstrom, Hannes
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    A Dynamic Aspartate-to-Alanine Aminotransferase Ratio Provides Valid Predictions of Incident Severe Liver Disease2021In: HEPATOLOGY COMMUNICATIONS, ISSN 2471-254X, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 1021-1035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aspartate-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR) is associated with liver fibrosis, but its predictive performance is suboptimal. We hypothesized that the association between AAR and liver disease depends on absolute transaminase levels and developed and validated a model to predict liver-related outcomes in the general population. A Cox regression model based on age, AAR, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (dynamic AAR [dAAR]) using restricted cubic splines was developed in Finnish population-based health-examination surveys (FINRISK, 2002-2012; n = 18,067) with linked registry data for incident liver-related hospitalizations, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver death. The model was externally validated for liver-related outcomes in a Swedish population cohort (Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk [AMORIS] subcohort; n = 126,941) and for predicting outcomes and/or prevalent fibrosis/cirrhosis in biopsied patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), chronic hepatitis C, or alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). The dynamic AAR model predicted liver-related outcomes both overall (optimism-corrected C-statistic, 0.81) and in subgroup analyses of the FINRISK cohort and identified persons with >10% risk for liver-related outcomes within 10 years. In independent cohorts, the C-statistic for predicting liver-related outcomes up to a 10-year follow-up was 0.72 in the AMORIS cohort, 0.81 in NAFLD, and 0.75 in ALD. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) for detecting prevalent cirrhosis was 0.80-0.83 in NAFLD, 0.80 in hepatitis C, but only 0.71 in ALD. In ALD, model performance improved when using aspartate aminotransferase instead of ALT in the model (C-statistic, 0.84 for outcome; AUC, 0.82 for prevalent cirrhosis). Conclusion: A dAAR score provides prospective predictions for the risk of incident severe liver outcomes in the general population and helps detect advanced liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. The dAAR score could potentially be used for screening the unselected general population and as a trigger for further liver evaluations.

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  • 2.
    Akbari, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dodd, Maja
    Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stål, Per
    Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken. epartment of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Vessby, Johan
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rorsman, Fredrik
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Zhang, Xiao
    Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA.
    Wang, Tongtong
    Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA.
    Jemielita, Thomas
    Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA.
    Fernandes, Gail
    Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA.
    Engel, Samuel S.
    Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA.
    Hagström, Hannes
    Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shang, Ying
    Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Long-term major adverse liver outcomes in 1,260 patients with non-cirrhotic NAFLD2024In: JHEP Reports, ISSN 2589-5559, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 100915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & aims: Long-term studies of the prognosis of NAFLD are scarce. Here, we investigated the risk of major adverse liver outcomes (MALO) in a large cohort of patients with NAFLD.

    Methods: We conducted a cohort study with data from Swedish university hospitals. Patients (n = 1,260) with NAFLD without cirrhosis were diagnosed through biopsy or radiology, and had fibrosis estimated through vibration-controlled transient elastography, biopsy, or FIB-4 score between 1974 and 2020 and followed up through 2020. Each patient was matched on age, sex, and municipality with up to 10 reference individuals from the general population (n = 12,529). MALO were ascertained from Swedish national registers. The rate of events was estimated by Cox regression.

    Results: MALO occurred in 111 (8.8%, incidence rate = 5.9/1,000 person-years) patients with NAFLD and 197 (1.6%, incidence rate = 1.0/1,000 person-years) reference individuals during a median follow up of 13 years. The rate of MALO was higher in patients with NAFLD (hazard ratio = 6.6; 95% CI = 5.2-8.5). The risk of MALO was highly associated with the stage of fibrosis at diagnosis. In the biopsy subcohort (72% of total sample), there was no difference in risk between patients with and without non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The 20-year cumulative incidences of MALO were 2% for the reference population, 3% for patients with F0, and 35% for F3. Prognostic information from biopsy was comparable to FIB-4 (C-indices around 0.73 vs. 0.72 at 10 years).

    Conclusions: This study provides updated information on the natural history of NAFLD, showing a high rate of progression to cirrhosis in F3 and a similar prognostic capacity of non-invasive tests to liver biopsy.

    Impact and implications: Several implications for clinical care and future research may be noted based on these results. First, the risk estimates for cirrhosis development are important when communicating risk to patients and deciding on clinical monitoring and treatment. Estimates can also be used in updated health-economic evaluations, and for regulatory agencies. Second, our results again highlight the low predictive information obtained from ascertaining NASHstatus by histology and call for more objective means by which to define NASH. Such methods may include artificial intelligence-supported digital pathology. We highlight that NASH is most likely the causal factor for fibrosis progression in NAFLD, but the subjective definition makes the prognostic value of a histological NASH diagnosis of limited value. Third, the finding that prognostic information from biopsy and the very simple Fibrosis-4 score were comparable is important as it may lead to fewer biopsies and further move the field towards non-invasive means by which to define fibrosis and, importantly, use non-invasive tests as outcomes in clinical trials. However, all modalities had modest discriminatory capacity and new risk stratification systems are needed in NAFLD. Repeated measures of non-invasive scores may be a potential solution.

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  • 3.
    Balkhed, Wile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Åberg, Fredrik O.
    Transplantation and Liver Surgery Clinic, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Repeated measurements of non-invasive fibrosis tests to monitor the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A long-term follow-up study2022In: Liver international (Print), ISSN 1478-3223, E-ISSN 1478-3231, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 1546-1556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: The presence of advanced hepatic fibrosis is the prime marker for the prediction of liver-related complications in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Blood-based non-invasive tests (NITs) have been developed to evaluate fibrosis and identify patients at risk. Current guidelines propose monitoring the progression of NAFLD using repeated NITs at 2-3-year intervals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of changes in NITs measured at two time points with the progression of NAFLD.

    Methods. We retrospectively included NAFLD patients with NIT measurements in whom the baseline hepatic fibrosis stage had been assessed by biopsy or transient elastography (TE). Subjects underwent follow-up visits at least 1 year from baseline to evaluate the progression of NAFLD. NAFLD progression was defined as the development of end-stage liver disease or fibrosis progression according to repeat biopsy or TE. The following NITs were calculated at baseline and follow-up: Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and dynamic aspartate-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio (dAAR).

    Results: One hundred and thirty-five patients were included with a mean follow-up of 12.6 +/- 8.5 years. During follow-up, 41 patients (30%) were diagnosed with progressive NAFLD. Change in NIT scores during follow-up was significantly associated with disease progression for all NITs tested except for NFS. However, the diagnostic precision was suboptimal with area under the receiver operating characteristics 0.56-0.64 and positive predictive values of 0.28-0.36 at sensitivity fixed at 90%.

    Conclusions: Change of FIB-4, NFS, APRI, and dAAR scores is only weakly associated with disease progression in NAFLD. Our findings do not support repeated measurements of these NITs for monitoring the course of NAFLD.

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  • 4.
    Bergram, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Iredahl, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Åby.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Rådholm, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Kärna.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Low awareness of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes in Swedish Primary Health Care2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 60-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is more common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared to individuals without. Recent guidelines recommend screening for NAFLD in patients with T2DM. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD in patients with T2DM in a Swedish primary health care setting, how they are cared for and assess the risk of biochemical signs of advanced fibrosis. Material and methods In this cohort study, patients with T2DM from five primary health care centers were included. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and living habits, medical history, results of diagnostic imaging and anthropometric and biochemical features were noted in a standardized form. The risk of steatosis and advanced fibrosis was assessed using commonly used algorithms (FLI, HSI, NAFLD-LFS, NAFLD ridge score, FIB-4 and NFS). Results In total 350 patients were included. Diagnostic imaging had been performed in 132 patients and of these, 34 (26%) had steatosis, which was not noted in the medical records in 16 (47%) patients. One patient with steatosis had been referred to a hepatologist. Of assessable patients, 71-97% had a high to intermediate risk of steatosis and 29-65% had an intermediate to high risk of advanced fibrosis according to the algorithms used. Conclusion This study indicates a high prevalence of NAFLD among T2DM patients in Swedish primary care. Patients with known NAFLD were followed up to a very low extent. Using fibrosis algorithms in primary health care would result in many patients needing further assessment in secondary care.

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  • 5.
    Blomdahl, Julia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with advanced fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and shows a synergistic effect with type 2 diabetes mellitus2021In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0026-0495, E-ISSN 1532-8600, Vol. 115, article id 154439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. Whether moderate alcohol consumption plays a role for progression of NAFLD is disputed. Moreover, it is not known which tool is ideal for assessment of alcohol consumption in NAFLD. This study aimed to evaluate if moderate alcohol consumption assessed with different methods, including the biological marker phosphatidylethanol (PEth), is associated with advanced fibrosis in NAFLD. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. All participants were clinically evaluated with medical history, blood tests, and anthropometric measurements. Alcohol consumption was assessed using PEth in blood, the questionnaire AUDIT-C, and clinical interview. Findings: 86 patients were included of which 17% had advanced fibrosis. All participants reported alcohol consumption < 140 g/week. Average weekly alcohol consumption was higher in the group with advanced fibrosis. Moderate alcohol consumption, independently of the method of assessment, was associated with increased probability of advanced fibrosis (adjusted OR 5.5-9.7, 95% CI 1.05-69.6). Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) consuming moderate amounts of alcohol had a significantly higher rate of advanced fibrosis compared with those consuming low amounts (50.0-60.0% vs. 33-21.6%, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Moderate alcohol consumption, irrespective of assessment method (clinical interview, AUDIT-C, and PEth), was associated with advanced fibrosis. PEth in blood >= 50 ng/mL may be a biological marker indicating increased risk for advanced fibrosis in NAFLD. Patients with T2DM consuming moderate amounts of alcohol had the highest risk of advanced fibrosis, indicating a synergistic effect of insulin resistance and alcohol on the histopathological progression of NAFLD. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

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  • 6.
    Blomdahl, Julia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with significant fibrosis progression in NAFLD2023In: HEPATOLOGY COMMUNICATIONS, ISSN 2471-254X, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on NAFLD histology is disputed. Assessment of alcohol consumption is commonly performed with interview or questionnaires. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in blood is a highly sensitive and specific alcohol biomarker, which only forms in the presence of ethanol. PEth has hitherto not been evaluated in longitudinal NAFLD studies. This study aimed to examine the impact of moderate alcohol consumption on histologic progression and evaluate the utility of PEth in NAFLD. NAFLD patients with serial biopsies were reviewed for inclusion in the study. At baseline, all patients reported alcohol consumption <140 g/week. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed at baseline and follow-up. Alcohol consumption was assessed thoroughly at follow-up with clinical interview, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire, and analysis of PEth in whole blood. Eighty-two patients were included. Mean follow-up time was 17.2 years (SD & PLUSMN;6.0). Patients with significant fibrosis progression (defined as progression of & GE;2 stages or development of cirrhosis-related complications) reported higher alcohol consumption and had significantly higher PEth. Consumption >66-96 g/week (but <140 g) (i.e. moderate alcohol consumption) was associated with increased risk of significant fibrosis progression compared with no or low consumption. PEth & GE;48 ng/mL and binge drinking showed the highest risk for significant fibrosis progression (aOR: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.6-21.4) and aOR: 5.1; 95% CI: 1.4-18.1, respectively). NAFLD patients consuming moderate amounts of alcohol are at increased risk for significant fibrosis progression and development of cirrhosis-related complications. PEth is a potential biomarker to assess harmful alcohol consumption in NAFLD. Patients reporting moderate consumption or exhibiting PEth & GE;48 ng/mL should be advised to reduce alcohol consumption.

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  • 7.
    Boursier, Jerome
    et al.
    Ctr Hosp Univ Angers, France; Univ Angers, France.
    Hagstrom, Hannes
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Moreau, Clemence
    Univ Angers, France.
    Bonacci, Martin
    Intercept Pharmaceut, England; Intercept Pharmaceut Inc, NY USA.
    Cure, Sandrine
    Intercept Pharmaceut, England; Intercept Pharmaceut Inc, NY USA.
    Ampuero, Javier
    Univ Seville, Spain.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Tallab, Lilian
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Canivet, Clemence M.
    Ctr Hosp Univ Angers, France; Univ Angers, France.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Sanchez, Yolanda
    Univ Seville, Spain.
    Dincuff, Eloise
    Ctr Hosp Univ Angers, France.
    Lucena, Ana
    Univ Seville, Spain.
    Roux, Marine
    Univ Angers, France.
    Riou, Jeremie
    Univ Angers, France.
    Trylesinski, Aldo
    Intercept Pharmaceut, England; Intercept Pharmaceut Inc, NY USA.
    Romero-Gomez, Manuel
    Univ Seville, Spain.
    Non-invasive tests accurately stratify patients with NAFLD based on their risk of liver-related events2022In: Journal of Hepatology, ISSN 0168-8278, E-ISSN 1600-0641, Vol. 76, no 5, p. 1013-1020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: Previous studies on the prognostic significance of non-invasive liver fibrosis tests in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) lack direct comparison to liver biopsy. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic accuracy of fibrosis-4 (FIB4) and vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE), compared to liver biopsy, for the prediction of liver-related events (LREs) in NAFLD. Methods: A total of 1,057 patients with NAFLD and baseline FIB4 and VCTE were included in a multicenter cohort. Of these patients, 594 also had a baseline liver biopsy. The main study outcome during follow-up was occurrence of LREs, a composite endpoint combining cirrhosis complications and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Discriminative ability was evaluated using Harrells C-index. Results: FIB4 and VCTE showed good accuracy for the prediction of LREs, with Harrells C-indexes >0.80 (0.817 [0.768-0.866] vs. 0.878 [0.835-0.921], respectively, p = 0.059). In the biopsy subgroup, Harrells C-indexes of histological fibrosis staging and VCTE were not significantly different (0.932 [0.910-0.955] vs. 0.881 [0.832-0.931], respectively, p = 0.164), while both significantly outperformed FIB4 for the prediction of LREs. FIB4 and VCTE were independent predictors of LREs in the whole study cohort. The stepwise FIB4-VCTE algorithm accurately stratified the risk of LREs: compared to patients with "FIB4 <1.30", those with "FIB4 >- 1.30 then VCTE <8.0 kPa" had similar risk of LREs (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.3; 95% CI 0.3-6.8), whereas the risk of LREs significantly increased in patients with "FIB4 >1.30 then VCTE 8.0-12.0 kPa" (aHR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-10.9), and even more for those with "FIB4 >-1.30 then VCTE >12.0 kPa" (aHR 12.4; 95% CI 5.1- 30.2). Conclusion: VCTE and FIB4 accurately stratify patients with NAFLD based on their risk of LREs. These non-invasive tests are alternatives to liver biopsy for the identification of patients in need of specialized management. Lay summary: The amount of fibrosis in the liver is closely associated with the risk of liver-related complications in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Liver biopsy currently remains the reference standard for the evaluation of fibrosis, but its application is limited by its invasiveness. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of non-invasive liver fibrosis tests to predict liver-related complications in NAFLD. Our results show that the blood test FIB4 and transient elastography stratify the risk of liver-related complications in NAFLD, and that transient elastography has similar prognostic accuracy as liver biopsy. These results support the use of non-invasive liver fibrosis tests instead of liver biopsy for the management of patients with NAFLD.(C) 2022 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Dulai, Parambir S
    et al.
    University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA..
    Singh, Siddharth
    University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA.
    Patel, Janki
    University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA.
    Soni, Meera
    University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA.
    Prokop, Larry J
    Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
    Younossi, Zobair
    Department of Medicine, Inova Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church, VA.
    Sebastiani, Giada
    McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.
    Hagstrom, Hannes
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Stal, Per
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun
    Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Loomba, Rohit
    University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA.
    Increased risk of mortality by fibrosis stage in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.2017In: Hepatology, ISSN 0270-9139, E-ISSN 1527-3350, Vol. 65, no 5, p. 1557-1565Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is the most important predictor of mortality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Quantitative risk of mortality by fibrosis stage has not been systematically evaluated. We aimed to quantify the fibrosis stage-specific risk of all-cause and liver-related mortality in NAFLD.

    METHODS: Through a systematic review and meta-analysis, we identified 5 adult NAFLD cohort studies reporting fibrosis stage specific mortality (0-4). Using fibrosis stage 0 as a reference population, fibrosis stage-specific mortality rate ratios (MRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for all-cause and liver-related mortality, were estimated. The study is reported according to the PRISMA statement.

    RESULTS: 1,495 NAFLD patients with 17,452 patient years of follow-up were included. Compared to NAFLD patients with no fibrosis (stage 0), NAFLD patients with fibrosis were at an increased risk for all-cause mortality and this risk increased with increase in the stage of fibrosis: stage 1, MRR, 1.58 (95% CI 1.19-2.11); stage 2, MRR, 2.52 (95% CI 1.85-3.42); stage 3, MRR, 3.48 (95% CI 2.51-4.83), and stage 4, MRR, 6.40 (95% CI 4.11-9.95). The results were more pronounced as the risk of liver-related mortality increased exponentially with increase in the stage of fibrosis: stage 1, MRR, 1.41 (95% CI 0.17-11.95); stage 2, MRR, 9.57 (95% CI 1.67-54.93); stage 3, MRR, 16.69 (95% CI 2.92-95.36); and stage 4, MRR, 42.30 (95% CI 3.51-510.34).

    LIMITATIONS: Inability to adjust for co-morbid conditions or demographics known to impact fibrosis progression in NAFLD, and the inclusion of patients with simple steatosis and NASH without fibrosis in the reference comparison group.

    CONCLUSION: The risk of liver-related mortality increases exponentially with increase in fibrosis stage. These data have important implications in assessing utility of each stage and benefits of regression of fibrosis from one stage to another. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Hagström, Hannes
    Unit of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm .
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stal, Per
    Unit of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm .
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Unit of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score and Mortality: Imperfect But Not Insignificant REPLY2016In: Hepatology, ISSN 0270-9139, E-ISSN 1527-3350, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 310-311Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Hagström, Hannes
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stål, Per
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fibrosis stage is the strongest predictor for disease-specific mortality in NAFLD after up to 33 years of follow-up2015In: Hepatology, ISSN 0270-9139, E-ISSN 1527-3350, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 1547-1554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and rationale for the study: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world, strongly associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, i.e. fatty liver accompanied by necroinflammatory changes, is mostly defined by the NAFLD activity score (NAS). The aim of the current study was to determine disease-specific mortality in NAFLD, and evaluate the NAS and fibrosis stage as prognostic markers for overall and disease-specific mortality. Methods: In a cohort study, data from 229 well-characterized patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were collected. Mean follow-up was 26.4 (± 5.6, range 6-33) years. A reference population was obtained from the National Registry of Population, and information on time and cause of death were obtained from the Registry of Causes of Death. Main results: NAFLD patients had an increased mortality compared with the reference population (HR 1.29, CI 1.04-1.59, p=0.020), with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (HR 1.55, CI 1.11-2.15, p=0.01), hepatocellular carcinoma (HR 6.55, CI 2.14-20.03, p=0.001), infectious disease (HR 2.71, CI 1.02-7.26, p=0.046), and cirrhosis (HR 3.2, CI 1.05-9.81, p=0.041). Overall mortality was not increased in patients with NAS 5-8 and fibrosis stage 0-2 (HR 1.41, CI 0.97-2.06, p=0.07), whereas patients with fibrosis stage 3-4, irrespective of NAS, had increased mortality (HR 3.3, CI 2.27-4.76, p<0.001). Conclusions: NAFLD patients have increased risk of death, with a high risk of death from cardiovascular disease and liver-related disease. The NAS was not able to predict overall mortality, whereas fibrosis stage predicted both overall and disease-specific mortality.

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  • 11.
    Ericson, Elke
    et al.
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Bergenholm, Linnea
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Anne-Christine
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Dix, Carly I
    AstraZeneca, England.
    Knöchel, Jane
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Hansson, Sara F.
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Lee, Richard
    Ionis Pharmaceut, CA USA; Verve Therapeut, MA USA.
    Schumi, Jennifer
    AstraZeneca, MD USA.
    Antonsson, Madeleine
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Fjellström, Ola
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Liljeblad, Mathias
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Björn
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Linden, Daniel
    AstraZeneca, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Hepatic patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 levels are increased in I148M risk allele carriers and correlate with NAFLD in humans2022In: Hepatology Communications, ISSN 2471-254X, Vol. 6, no 10, p. 2689-2701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 variant is a contributor. In mice, the Pnpla3 148M variant accumulates on lipid droplets and probably leads to sequestration of a lipase cofactor leading to impaired mobilization of triglycerides. To advance our understanding of the localization and abundance of PNPLA3 protein in humans, we used liver biopsies from patients with NAFLD to investigate the link to NAFLD and the PNPLA3 148M genotype. We experimentally qualified an antibody against human PNPLA3. Hepatic PNPLA3 protein fractional area and localization were determined by immunohistochemistry in biopsies from a well-characterized NAFLD cohort of 67 patients. Potential differences in hepatic PNPLA3 protein levels among patients related to degree of steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning, and fibrosis, and PNPLA3 I148M gene variants were assessed. Immunohistochemistry staining in biopsies from patients with NAFLD showed that hepatic PNPLA3 protein was predominantly localized to the membranes of small and large lipid droplets in hepatocytes. PNPLA3 protein levels correlated strongly with steatosis grade (p = 0.000027) and were also significantly higher in patients with lobular inflammation (p = 0.009), ballooning (p = 0.022), and significant fibrosis (stage 2-4, p = 0.014). In addition, PNPLA3 levels were higher in PNPLA3 rs738409 148M (CG, GG) risk allele carriers compared to 148I (CC) nonrisk allele carriers (p = 0.0029). Conclusion: PNPLA3 protein levels were associated with increased hepatic lipid content and disease severity in patients with NAFLD and were higher in PNPLA3 rs738409 (148M) risk allele carriers. Our hypothesis that increased hepatic levels of PNPLA3 may be part of the pathophysiological mechanism of NAFLD is supported.

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  • 12.
    Forsgren, Mikael F
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Karlsson, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics.
    Dahlström, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Norén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Ignatova, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical pathology.
    Sinkus, Ralph
    King's College London, United Kingdom.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Biomarkers of liver fibrosis: prospective comparison of multimodal magnetic resonance, serum algorithms and transient elastography.2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 848-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Accurate biomarkers for quantifying liver fibrosis are important for clinical practice and trial end-points. We compared the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including gadoxetate-enhanced MRI and 31P-MR spectroscopy, with fibrosis stage and serum fibrosis algorithms in a clinical setting. Also, in a subset of patients, MR- and transient elastography (MRE and TE) was evaluated when available.

    METHODS: Patients were recruited prospectively if they were scheduled to undergo liver biopsy on a clinical indication due to elevated liver enzyme levels without decompensated cirrhosis. Within a month of the clinical work-up, an MR-examination and liver needle biopsy were performed on the same day. Based on late-phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI, a mathematical model calculated hepatobiliary function (relating to OATP1 and MRP2). The hepatocyte gadoxetate uptake rate (KHep) and the normalised liver-to-spleen contrast ratio (LSC_N10) were also calculated. Nine serum fibrosis algorithms were investigated (GUCI, King's Score, APRI, FIB-4, Lok-Index, NIKEI, NASH-CRN regression score, Forns' score, and NAFLD-fibrosis score).

    RESULTS: The diagnostic performance (AUROC) for identification of significant fibrosis (F2-4) was 0.78, 0.80, 0.69, and 0.78 for MRE, TE, LSC_N10, and GUCI, respectively. For the identification of advanced fibrosis (F3-4), the AUROCs were 0.93, 0.84, 0.81, and 0.82 respectively.

    CONCLUSION: MRE and TE were superior for non-invasive identification of significant fibrosis. Serum fibrosis algorithms developed for specific liver diseases are applicable in this cohort of diverse liver diseases aetiologies. Gadoxetate-MRI was sufficiently sensitive to detect the low function losses associated with fibrosis. None was able to efficiently distinguish between stages within the low fibrosis stages.Lay summaryExcessive accumulation of scar tissue, fibrosis, in the liver is an important aspect in chronic liver disease. To replace the invasive needle biopsy, we have explored non-invasive methods to assess liver fibrosis. In our study we found that elastographic methods, which assess the mechanical properties of the liver, are superior in assessing fibrosis in a clinical setting. Of interest from a clinical trial point-of-view, none of the tested methods was sufficiently accurate to distinguish between adjacent moderate fibrosis stages.

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  • 13.
    Hagstrom, Hannes
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Bu, Dawei
    Univ Texas Southwestern Med Ctr Dallas, TX USA.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Hegmar, Hannes
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Zhang, Ningyan
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    An, Zhiqiang
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Stal, Per
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Scherer, Philipp E.
    Univ Texas Southwestern Med Ctr Dallas, TX USA; Univ Texas Southwestern Med Ctr Dallas, TX 75390 USA.
    Serum levels of endotrophin are associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 437-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    There are no currently available biomarkers that can accurately indicate the presence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated the association between endotrophin, a cleavage product of collagen type 6α3, and disease severity in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Methods

    We measured serum endotrophin levels in 211 patients with NAFLD and nine healthy controls. Liver biopsy data was available for 141 (67%) of the patients. Associations between endotrophin and the presence of NASH and advanced fibrosis were investigated alone and in combination with standard clinical parameters using logistic regression.

    Results

    A total of 211 patients were enrolled in this study, consisting of 108 (51%) men and 103 (49%) women with a mean age of 55.6 years. 58 (27%) of the patients had advanced fibrosis. Of those with biopsy data, 87 (62%) had NASH. Serum levels of endotrophin were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than those in healthy controls (37[±12] vs. 17[±7] ng/mL, p<.001). Serum levels of endotrophin were also significantly higher in patients with NASH than in those without NASH (40[±12] vs. 32[±13] ng/mL, p<.001). A model using age, sex, body mass index and levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose and endotrophin effectively predicted the presence of NASH in a derivation (AUROC 0.83, 95%CI = 0.74–0.92) and validation cohort (AUROC 0.71, 95%CI = 0.54–0.88). There was no significant association between serum levels of endotrophin and advanced fibrosis.

    Conclusions

    These data suggest that serum endotrophin could be a valuable biomarker for diagnosing NASH, but not for detecting advanced fibrosis in NAFLD.

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  • 14.
    Hagstrom, Hannes
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Hammar, Ulf
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Stal, Per
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Askling, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Cardiovascular risk factors in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease2019In: Liver international (Print), ISSN 1478-3223, E-ISSN 1478-3231, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background amp; Aims Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is unclear whether histological variables may help predict CVD risk. We evaluated histology and traditional CV risk factors as predictors of CVD outcomes in a large NAFLD cohort. Methods We included 603 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients free of baseline CVD and matched these (1:10, by age, sex and municipality) to 6269 population controls. All individuals were cross-linked to national registries to ascertain incident CVD events, defined as acute ischaemic heart disease or stroke. The presence of CV risk factors and liver histology were available in NAFLD patients only. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for incident CVD. Results During a mean follow-up of 18.6 years, 168 (28%) of NAFLD patients and 1325 (21%) of controls experienced a CVD event (HR 1.54, 95%CI 1.30-1.83). Within the NAFLD cohort, age, male sex, type 2 diabetes, smoking and triglycerides were associated with risk of CVD. Taking these CV risk factors into account, no histological parameter, including presence of NASH and fibrosis stage, were associated with incident CVD. Conclusions Patients with NAFLD are at an increased risk for CVD compared to matched controls, but histological parameters do not seem to independently predict this risk.

  • 15.
    Hagstrom, Hannes
    et al.
    Department of Upper GI, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Stål, Per
    Department of Upper GI, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Department of Upper GI, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Accuracy of Noninvasive Scoring Systems in Assessing Risk of Death and Liver-Related Endpoints in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease2019In: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN 1542-3565, E-ISSN 1542-7714, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1148-1156.e4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims

    Several non-invasive scoring systems have been developed to determine risk of advanced fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined the association between 4 scoring systems and incident severe liver disease and overall mortality in a large cohort of patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.

    Methods

    We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 646 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD, recruited from 2 hospitals in Sweden, from 1971 through 2009. The NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), FIB-4, APRI, and BARD scores were calculated at the time of the liver biopsy. Based on each score, patients were assigned to categories of low, intermediate, or high risk for advanced fibrosis. Overall mortality and severe liver disease (cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma) were ascertained through linkage with national registers until the end of 2014. Cox regression, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, and C-statistic analyses were used to study the predictive capacity of each scoring system.

    Results

    During a mean follow-up time of 19.9±8.7 years, there were 214 deaths and 76 cases of severe liver disease. For overall mortality, AUROC curve values were: NFS, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.68–0.76); FIB-4, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.68–0.76); BARD, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.58–0.66); and APRI, 0.52 (95% CI, 0.47–0.57). For severe liver disease, AUROC curve values were: NFS, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.66–0.78); FIB-4, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.66–0.79); BARD, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.55–0.69); APRI, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.63–0.76). C-statistics for all scores were of moderate capacity to predict outcomes.

    Conclusions

    In a retrospective analysis of data from 646 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD, we found the NFS and the FIB-4 scores to most accurately determine risk of overall death or severe liver disease. However, the AUROC values for these scoring systems are not high enough for use in the clinic; new systems are needed to determine prognoses of patients with NAFLD.

  • 16.
    Hagström, Hannes
    et al.
    Center for Digestive Diseases, Unit of Hepatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Center for Digestive Diseases, Unit of Hepatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stål, Per
    Center for Digestive Diseases, Unit of Hepatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elevated serum ferritin is associated with increased mortality in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease after 16 years of follow-up2016In: Liver international (Print), ISSN 1478-3223, E-ISSN 1478-3231, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 1688-1695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High levels of ferritin in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are associated with significant fibrosis and higher NAFLD activity score (NAS). It is unclear if this association has an impact on mortality. We investigated if high levels of ferritin, with or without iron overload, were associated with an increased mortality in NAFLD.

    METHODS: We included 222 patients between 1979 and 2009 with biopsy-proven NAFLD and available serum ferritin concentrations. The cohort was divided into "high" (n = 89) and "normal" (n = 133) ferritin values, using a cut-point of 350 μg/L in males, and 150 μg/L in females, and stratified upon iron overload status. Data on mortality was obtained from a national, population based register. Poisson regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality. The estimates were adjusted for age at biopsy, sex, smoking, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and fibrosis stage at the time of biopsy.

    RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 15.6 years (range: 0.5-34.2). Patients with high ferritin had more advanced fibrosis and higher NAS than patients with normal ferritin (p < 0.05). Fifteen years after diagnosis, and after adjusting for confounders, the high-ferritin group showed an increasingly higher mortality that was statistically significant (Hazard ratio = 1.10 per year, 95% Confidence interval 1.01-1.21, p < 0.05). There was no difference in mortality between patients with different iron overload patterns.

    CONCLUSIONS: High levels of ferritin are associated with a long-term increased risk of death. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Hagström, Hannes
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Hammar, Ulf
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Stal, Per
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Fibrosis stage but not NASH predicts mortality and time to development of severe liver disease in biopsy-proven NAFLD2017In: Journal of Hepatology, ISSN 0168-8278, E-ISSN 1600-0641, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 1265-1273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background amp; Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is very common in the general population, but identifying patients with increased risk of mortality and liver-specific morbidity remains a challenge. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is thought to enhance this risk; therefore, resolution of NASH is a major endpoint in current pharmacologic studies. Herein, we aim to investigate the long-term prognosis of a large cohort of NAFLD patients, and to study the specific effect of NASH and fibrosis stage on prognosis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 646 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. Each case was matched for age, sex and municipality to ten controls. Outcomes on mortality and severe liver disease, defined as cirrhosis, liver decompensation/failure or hepatocellular carcinoma, were evaluated using population-based registers. Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex and type 2 diabetes were used to examine the long-term risk according to fibrosis stage. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess whether adding NASH to these models increased the predictive capacity. Laplace regression was used to estimate the time to severe liver disease according to stage of fibrosis. Results: During a follow-up of mean 20 years (range 0-40) equivalent to 139,163 person-years, 12% of NAFLD patients and 2.2% of controls developed severe liver disease (p amp;lt; 0.001). Compared to controls, the risk of severe liver disease increased per stage of fibrosis (hazard ratio ranging from 1.9 in F0 to 104.9 in F4). Accounting for the presence of NASH did not change these estimates significantly (likelihood ratio test amp;gt; 0.05 for all stages of fibrosis). Similar results were seen for overall mortality. The lower end of the 95% confidence interval for the 10th percentile of time to development of severe liver disease was 22-26 years in F0-1, 9.3 years in F2, 2.3 years in F3, and 0.9 years to liver decompensation in F4. Conclusions: In this, the largest ever study of biopsy-proven NAFLD, the presence of NASH did not increase the risk of liver-specific morbidity or overall mortality. Knowledge of time to development of severe liver disease according to fibrosis stage can be used in individual patient counselling and for public health decisions. (C) 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Hagström, Hannes
    et al.
    Center for Digestive Diseases, Division of Hepatology Karolinska University HospitalStockholm Sweden. Department of Medicine, Huddinge Karolinska Institute Stockholm Sweden. Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute Stockholm Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Hammar, Ulf
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute Stockholm Sweden.
    Stål, Per
    Center for Digestive Diseases, Division of Hepatology Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm Sweden. Department of Medicine and Huddinge Karolinska Institute Stockholm Sweden..
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Center for Digestive Diseases, Division of Hepatology Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm Sweden. Department of Medicine and Huddinge Karolinska Institute Stockholm Sweden..
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Risk for development of severe liver disease in lean patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A long-term follow-up study.2018In: Hepatology communications, ISSN 2471-254X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are overweight or obese. However, a significant proportion of patients have a normal body mass index (BMI), denoted as lean NAFLD. The long-term prognosis of lean NAFLD is unclear. We conducted a cohort study of 646 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Patients were defined as lean (BMI < 25.0), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9), or obese (BMI ≥ 30.0) at the time of biopsy. Each case was matched for age, sex, and municipality to 10 controls. Overall mortality and development of severe liver disease were evaluated using population-based registers. Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, and fibrosis stage were used to examine the long-term risk of mortality and liver-related events in lean and nonlean NAFLD. Lean NAFLD was seen in 19% of patients, while 52% were overweight and 29% were obese. Patients with lean NAFLD were older, had lower transaminases, lower stages of fibrosis, and lower prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at baseline compared to patients with a higher BMI. During a mean follow-up of 19.9 years (range 0.4-40 years) representing 12,631 person years and compared to patients who were overweight, patients with lean NAFLD had no increased risk for overall mortality (hazard ratio 1.06; P =  0.73) while an increased risk for development of severe liver disease was found (hazard ratio 2.69; P =  0.007). Conclusion: Although patients with lean NAFLD have lower stages of fibrosis, they are at higher risk for development of severe liver disease compared to patients with NAFLD and a higher BMI, independent of available confounders. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:48-57).

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  • 19.
    Hagström, Hannes
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Hammar, Ulf
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Widman, Linnea
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Henriksson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stål, Per
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Health Care Costs of Patients With Biopsy-Confirmed Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Are Nearly Twice Those of Matched Controls2020In: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN 1542-3565, E-ISSN 1542-7714, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 1592-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Data on healthcare resource use and costs associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in clinical practice are lacking. We compared real-life healthcare costs of patients with NAFLD to matched controls. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 646 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD in Sweden from 1971 through 2009. Each patient was matched for age, sex, and county of residence with 10 persons from the general population (controls). We retrieved all healthcare contacts through Dec 31, 2014 from national registers. Unit costs were assigned to arrive at a total healthcare cost (in USD [$]) per study subject. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 19.9 years, we recorded a mean of 0.27 hospitalizations per year for patients with NAFLD vs 0.16 for controls (P &lt;.001). This corresponded to an incremental cost of $635 per year for patients with NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD had a higher mean use of outpatient care visits: 1.46 contacts per year compared with 0.86 per year in controls, corresponding to $255 in additional costs (P &lt;.001). Total costs incurred by patients with stage 3-4 fibrosis were higher than by patients with fibrosis stage 0-2 (mean annual costs, $4397 vs $629). Cumulative costs were higher for all stages of fibrosis compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare costs are nearly twice as high in patients with NAFLD than in matched controls. This is mostly attributable to higher costs for hospitalizations, but also to more outpatient visits. Patients with advanced fibrosis had the highest costs.

  • 20.
    Hagström, Hannes
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Onnerhag, Kristina
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Rorsman, Fredrik
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden.
    Sheikhi, Reza
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden.
    Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Stal, Per
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Low to moderate lifetime alcohol consumption is associated with less advanced stages of fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 159-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a lower risk of disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is unclear if this reflects current or lifetime drinking, or can be attributed to confounders such as diet and exercise. We evaluated the impact of lifetime alcohol consumption on fibrosis severity in NAFLD. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 120 subjects with biopsy-proven NAFLD and through detailed questionnaires examined lifetime alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity. Main outcome measures were odds ratios (OR) for fibrosis stage, calculated through ordinal regression after adjustment for body mass index, diabetes mellitus type 2, smoking and age at biopsy. A biomarker for recent alcohol consumption, phosphatidyl ethanol (PEth) was sampled. Results: An increase in median weekly alcohol consumption to a maximum of 13 drinks per week was associated with lower fibrosis stage (adjusted OR for each incremental unit, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.97; p = .017). The lowest risk for fibrosis was found with the lowest odds seen in the top quartile of alcohol consumption (aOR 0.23; 95% CI 0.08-0.66; p = .006). Adding soft drink and coffee consumptions, and physical activity to the model did not change the estimates. Subjects with PEth amp;gt;= 0.3 mu mol/L had higher ORs for a higher fibrosis stage (aOR 2.77; 95% CI 1.01-7.59; p = .047). Conclusion: Lifetime alcohol consumption with up to 13 units per week is associated with lower fibrosis stage in NAFLD. Elevated PEth is associated with higher stages of fibrosis.

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  • 21.
    Hagström, Hannes
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Stal, Per
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bedossa, Pierre
    University of Paris Diderot, France.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    SAF score and mortality in NAFLD after up to 41 years of follow-up2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 87-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: A new score for the histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), called SAF (Steatosis, Activity and Fibrosis) has been developed. We aimed to evaluate the impact of this score on overall mortality. Methods: We used data from 139 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. All biopsies were graded according to the SAF scoring system and disease severity was classified as mild, moderate or severe. Causes of death were extracted from a national, population-based register. A Cox regression model, adjusted for sex, body mass index (BMI) and diabetes mellitus type 2, was applied. Results: At baseline 35 patients presented with mild or moderate disease respectively, and 69 patients with severe disease. During follow-up (median 25.3 years, range 1.7-40.8) 74 patients died, 11 in the mild group (31%), 18 in the moderate group (51%) and 45 in the severe group (65%), p=.002. Compared to patients with mild disease, patients with moderate disease did not have a significant increase in overall mortality (HR 1.83, 95% CI 0.89-3.77, p=.10). Patients with severe disease had a significant increase in mortality (HR 2.65, 95% CI 1.19-5.93, p=.017). However, when adjusting for fibrosis stage, significance was lost (HR 1.85, 95% CI 0.76-4.54, p=.18). NASH, defined as per the FLIP algorithm, was not associated with mortality compared to not having NASH (HR 1.46, 95% CI 0.74-2.90, p=.28). Conclusions: After adjustment for fibrosis, the SAF score was not associated with increased mortality in NAFLD. This finding should be corroborated in larger cohorts with similar follow-up time.

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  • 22.
    Hardy, Timothy
    et al.
    Newcastle Univ, England; Newcastle Tyne Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Wonders, Kristy
    Newcastle Univ, England.
    Younes, Ramy
    Newcastle Univ, England; Univ Torino, Italy.
    Aithal, Guruprasad P.
    Nottingham Univ Hosp NHS Trust, England; Univ Nottingham, England.
    Aller, Rocio
    Univ Valladolid, Spain.
    Allison, Michael
    Cambridge Univ NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Bedossa, Pierre
    Newcastle Univ, England.
    Betsou, Fay
    Integrated BioBank Luxembourg IBBL, Luxembourg.
    Boursier, Jerome
    Univ Angers, France.
    Brosnan, M. Julia
    Pfizer Inc, MA USA.
    Burt, Alastair
    Newcastle Univ, England; Newcastle Tyne Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Cobbold, Jeremy
    CHU Angers, France; Oxford Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Cortez-Pinto, Helena
    Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Day, Chris P.
    Newcastle Univ, England; Newcastle Tyne Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Dufour, Jean-Francois
    Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Francque, Sven
    Antwerp Univ Hosp, Belgium; Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Harrison, Stephen
    Univ Oxford, Japan.
    Miele, Luca
    Univ Cattolica S Cuore, Italy; Fdn Pol Gemelli IRCCS Hosp, Italy.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Papatheodoridis, George
    Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Greece.
    Petta, Salvatore
    Univ Palermo, Italy.
    Tiniakos, Dina
    Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Greece.
    Torstenson, Richard
    Allergan Marlow Int, England.
    Valenti, Luca
    Univ Milan, Italy.
    Holleboom, Adriaan G.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele
    Univ Helsinki, Finland; Minerva Fdn, Finland.
    Geier, Andreas
    Univ Wurzburg, Germany.
    Romero-Gomez, Manuel
    Univ Seville, Spain.
    Ratziu, Vlad
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Bugianesi, Elisabetta
    Univ Torino, Italy.
    Schattenberg, Jorn M.
    Univ Med Ctr, Germany.
    Anstee, Quentin M.
    Newcastle Univ, England; Newcastle Tyne Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    The European NAFLD Registry: A real-world longitudinal cohort study of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease2020In: Contemporary Clinical Trials, ISSN 1551-7144, E-ISSN 1559-2030, Vol. 98, article id 106175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), a progressive liver disease that is closely associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia, represents an increasing global public health challenge. There is significant variability in the disease course: the majority exhibit only fat accumulation in the liver but a significant minority develop a necroinflammatory form of the disease (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. At present our understanding of pathogenesis, disease natural history and long-term outcomes remain incomplete. There is a need for large, well characterised patient cohorts that may be used to address these knowledge gaps and to support the development of better biomarkers and novel therapies. The European NAFLD Registry is an international, prospectively recruited observational cohort study that aims to establish a large, highly-phenotyped patient cohort and linked bioresource. Here we describe the infrastructure, data management and monitoring plans, and the standard operating procedures implemented to ensure the timely and systematic collection of high-quality data and samples. Already recruiting subjects at secondary/tertiary care centres across Europe, the Registry is supporting the European Union IMI2-funded LITMUS Liver Investigation: Testing Marker Utility in Steatohepatitis consortium, which is a major international effort to robustly validate biomarkers that diagnose, risk stratify and/or monitor NAFLD progression and liver fibrosis stage. The European NAFLD Registry has the demonstrable capacity to support research and biomarker development at scale and pace.

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  • 23.
    Holmer, Magnus
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Zenlander, Robin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Wester, Axel
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Tavaglione, Federica
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Romeo, Stefano
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Stål, Per
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hagström, Hannes
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Effect of common genetic variants on the risk of cirrhosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease during 20 years of follow-up2022In: Liver international (Print), ISSN 1478-3223, E-ISSN 1478-3231, Vol. 42, no 12, p. 2769-2780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims Several genotypes associate with a worse histopathological profile in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether genotypes impact long-term outcomes is unclear. We investigated the importance of PNPLA3, TM6SF2, MBOAT7 and GCKR genotype for the development of severe outcomes in NAFLD. Method DNA samples were collected from 546 patients with NAFLD. Advanced fibrosis was diagnosed by liver biopsy or elastography. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was histologically defined. Additionally, 5396 controls matched for age, sex and municipality were identified from population-based registers. Events of severe liver disease and all-cause mortality were collected from national registries. Hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and type 2 diabetes were estimated with Cox regression. Results In NAFLD, the G/G genotype of PNPLA3 was associated with a higher prevalence of NASH at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 3.67, 95% CI = 1.66-8.08), but not with advanced fibrosis (OR 1.81, 95% CI = 0.79-4.14). After up to 40 years of follow-up, the PNPLA3 G/G genotype was associated with a higher rate of severe liver disease (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.27, 95% CI = 1.15-4.47) compared with the C/C variant. NAFLD patients developed cirrhosis at a higher rate than controls (aHR 9.00, 95% CI = 6.85-11.83). The PNPLA3 G/G genotype accentuated this rate (aHR 23.32, 95% = CI 9.14-59.47). Overall mortality was not affected by any genetic variant. Conclusion The PNPLA3 G/G genotype is associated with an increased rate of cirrhosis in NAFLD. Our results suggest that assessment of the PNPLA3 genotype is of clinical relevance in patients with NAFLD to individualize monitoring and therapeutic strategies.

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  • 24.
    Homeyer, Andre
    et al.
    Fraunhofer MEVIS, Germany.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Engel, Christiane
    Fraunhofer MEVIS, Germany.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Kost, Henning
    Fraunhofer MEVIS, Germany.
    Weiss, Nick
    Fraunhofer MEVIS, Germany.
    Palmer, Tim
    University of Leeds, England.
    Karl Hahn, Horst
    Fraunhofer MEVIS, Germany.
    Treanor, Darren
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Leeds, England; Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, England.
    Lundström, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Automated quantification of steatosis: agreement with stereological point counting2017In: Diagnostic Pathology, ISSN 1746-1596, E-ISSN 1746-1596, Vol. 12, article id 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Steatosis is routinely assessed histologically in clinical practice and research. Automated image analysis can reduce the effort of quantifying steatosis. Since reproducibility is essential for practical use, we have evaluated different analysis methods in terms of their agreement with stereological point counting (SPC) performed by a hepatologist. Methods: The evaluation was based on a large and representative data set of 970 histological images from human patients with different liver diseases. Three of the evaluated methods were built on previously published approaches. One method incorporated a new approach to improve the robustness to image variability. Results: The new method showed the strongest agreement with the expert. At 20x resolution, it reproduced steatosis area fractions with a mean absolute error of 0.011 for absent or mild steatosis and 0.036 for moderate or severe steatosis. At 10x resolution, it was more accurate than and twice as fast as all other methods at 20x resolution. When compared with SPC performed by two additional human observers, its error was substantially lower than one and only slightly above the other observer. Conclusions: The results suggest that the new method can be a suitable automated replacement for SPC. Before further improvements can be verified, it is necessary to thoroughly assess the variability of SPC between human observers.

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  • 25.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Simonsson, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Non-invasive diagnosis and staging of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease2022In: Hormones, ISSN 1109-3099, Vol. 21, p. 346-368Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is characterized by ectopic accumulation of triglycerides in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, i.e., steatosis. NAFLD has become the most common chronic liver disease, with an estimated global prevalence of 25%. Although the majority of NAFLD patients will never experience liver-related complications, the progressive potential of NAFLD is indisputable, with 5-10% of subjects progressing to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, or hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD patients with advanced fibrosis are at the highest risk of developing cardiovascular and cirrhosis-related complications. Liver biopsy has hitherto been considered the reference method for evaluation of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis stage. Given the limitations of biopsy for widescale screening, non-invasive tests (NITs) for assessment of steatosis and fibrosis stage, including serum-based algorithms and ultrasound- and magnetic resonance-based methods, will play an increasing role in the management of NAFLD patients. This comprehensive review presents the advantages and limitations of NITs for identification of steatosis and advanced fibrosis in NAFLD. The clinical implications of using NITs to identify and manage NAFLD patients are also discussed.

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  • 26.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Blomdahl, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Established and emerging factors affecting the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease2020In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0026-0495, E-ISSN 1532-8600, Vol. 111, article id 154183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease affecting approximately 25% of the global population. Although a majority of NAFLD patients will never experience liver-related symptoms it is estimated that 5-10% will develop cirrhosis-related complications with risk of death or need for liver transplantation. NAFLD is closely associated with cardiovascular disease and components of the metabolic syndrome. However, NAFLD is not uncommon in lean individuals and may in these subjects represent a different entity with separate pathophysiological mechanisms involved implying a higher risk for development of end-stage liver disease. There is considerable fluctuation in the histopathological course of NAFLD that may partly be attributed to lifestyle factors and dietary composition. Nutrients such as fructose, monounsaturated fatty acids, and trans-fatty acids may aggravate NAFLD. Presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus seems to be the most important clinical predictor of liver-related morbidity and mortality in NAFLD. Apart from severity of the metabolic syndrome, genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors, such as moderate alcohol consumption, may explain the variation in histopathological and clinical outcome among NAFLD patients. (c) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • 27.
    Knochel, Jane
    et al.
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Bergenholm, Linnea
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Eman
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Hansson, Sara
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Liljeblad, Mathias
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Carlsson, Bjorn
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ueckert, Sebastian
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    A Markov model of fibrosis development in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease predicts fibrosis progression in clinical cohorts2023In: CPT: Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology (PSP), E-ISSN 2163-8306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disease progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is highly heterogenous and remains poorly understood. Fibrosis stage is currently the best predictor for development of end-stage liver disease and mortality. Better understanding and quantifying the impact of factors affecting NASH and fibrosis is essential to inform a clinical study design. We developed a population Markov model to describe the transition probability between fibrosis stages and mortality using a unique clinical nonalcoholic fatty liver disease cohort with serial biopsies over 3 decades. We evaluated covariate effects on all model parameters and performed clinical trial simulations to predict the fibrosis progression rate for external clinical cohorts. All parameters were estimated with good precision. Age and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) were found to be significant predictors in the model. Increase in hepatic steatosis between visits was the most important predictor for progression of fibrosis. Fibrosis progression rate (FPR) was twofold higher for fibrosis stages 0 and 1 (F0-1) compared to fibrosis stage 2 and 3 (F2-3). A twofold increase in FPR was observed for T2D. A two-point steatosis worsening increased the FPR 11-fold. Predicted fibrosis progression was in good agreement with data from external clinical cohorts. Our fibrosis progression model shows that patient selection, particularly initial fibrosis stage distribution, can significantly impact fibrosis progression and as such the window for assessing drug efficacy in clinical trials. Our work highlights the increase in hepatic steatosis as the most important factor in increasing FPR, emphasizing the importance of well-defined lifestyle advise for reducing variability in NASH progression during clinical trials.

  • 28.
    Linge, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. AMRA Med AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Sanyal, Arun J.
    VCU Sch Med, VA USA.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). AMRA Med AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Adverse muscle composition is a significant risk factor for all-cause mortality in NAFLD2023In: JHEP REPORTS, ISSN 2589-5559, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 100663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: Adverse muscle composition (MC) (i.e., low muscle volume and high muscle fat) has previously been linked to poor functional performance and comorbidities in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study we aimed to investigate associations of all-cause mortality with liver fat, NAFLD, and MC in the UK Biobank imaging study.Methods: Magnetic resonance images of 40,174 participants were analyzed for liver proton density fat fraction (PDFF), thigh fat-free muscle volume (FFMV) z-score, and muscle fat infiltration (MFI) using the AMRA (R) Researcher. Participants with NAFLD were sex-, age-, and BMI-matched to participants without NAFLD with low alcohol consumption. Adverse MC was identified using previously published cut-offs. All-cause mortality was investigated using Cox regression. Models within NAFLD were crude and subsequently adjusted for sex, age, BMI (M1), hand grip strength, physical activity, smoking, alcohol (M2), and previous cancer, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes (M3).Results: A total of 5,069 participants had NAFLD. During a mean (+/- SD) follow-up of 3.9 (+/- 1.4) years, 150 out of the 10,138 participants (53% men, age 64.4 [+/- 7.6] years, BMI 29.7 [+/- 4.4] kg/m2) died. In the matched dataset, neither NAFLD nor liver PDFF were associated with all-cause mortality, while all MC variables achieved significance. Within NAFLD, adverse MC, MFI and FFMV z-score were significantly associated with all-cause mortality and remained so in M1 and M2 (crude hazard ratios [HRs] 2.84, 95% CI 1.70-4.75, p &lt;0.001; 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.24, p &lt;0.001; 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.88, p &lt;0.001). In M3, the rela-tionship was attenuated for adverse MC and FFMV z-score (adjusted HRs 1.72, 95% CI 1.00-2.98, p = 0.051; 0.77, 95% CI 0.58-1.02, p = 0.069) but remained significant for MFI (adjusted HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26, p = 0.026).Conclusions: Neither NAFLD nor liver PDFF was predictive of all-cause mortality. Adverse MC was a strong predictor of all -cause mortality in individuals with NAFLD.Impact and implications: Individuals with fatty liver disease and poor muscle health more often suffer from poor functional performance and comorbidities. This study shows that they are also at a higher risk of dying. The study results indicate that measuring muscle health (the patients muscle volume and how much fat they have in their muscles) could help in the early detection of high-risk patients and enable targeted preventative care.(c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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  • 29.
    Lundberg, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Forsgren, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Ignatova, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Dahlström, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Kvantifiering av leversteatos: diagnostisk utvärdering av protonmagnetresonansspektroskopi jämfört med histologiska metoder2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Leversteatos är den vanligaste manifestationen av leversjukdom i västvärlden. Leverbiopsi med semikvantitativ histologisk gradering är referensmetod vid gradering av leversteatos. Med protonmagnetsresonansspektroskopi (1H-MRS), en metod som föreslagits ersätta leverbiopsi för värdering av steatos, kan leverns innehåll av triglycerider mätas icke-invasivt. Triglyceridinnehåll >5,00 % används ofta som ett diagnostiskt kriterium för leversteatos vid undersökning med 1H-MRS. Syftet med studien var att jämföra 1H-MRS med semikvantitativ histologisk steatosgradering och kvantitativ histologisk steatosmätning.

    Metod

    Patienter remitterade för utredning av förhöjda leverenzymer in-kluderades i studien. Samtliga patienter genomgick klinisk undersökning, laboratorieprovtagning samt 1H-MRS direkt följd av leverbiopsi. För konventionell histologisk semikvantitativ gradering av steatos användes kriterierna utarbetade av Brunt och medarbetare. Kvantitativ mätning av fett i biopsierna utfördes genom att med hjälp av stereologisk punkträkning (SPC) mäta andelen av ytan som innehöll fettvakuoler.

    Resultat

    I studien inkluderades 94 patienter, varav 37 hade icke-alkoholor-sakad fettleversjukdom (NAFLD), 49 hade andra leversjukdomar och 8 hade normal leverbiopsi. En stark korrelation noterades mel-lan 1H-MRS och SPC (r=0,92, p<0,0001; к=0.82). Korrelationen mellan 1H-MRS och Brunts kriterier (к=0.26) samt mellan SPC och Brunts kriterier (к=0.38) var betydligt sämre. När patologens gradering (Brunts kriterier) användes som referensmetod för diag-nos av leversteatos så hade alla patienter med triglyceridinnehåll >5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS steatos (specificitet 100 %). Emellertid hade 22 av 69 patienter med triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % också le-versteatos enligt Brunts kriterier (sensitivitet 53 %). Motsvarande siffror när man använde gränsvärdet 3,02 % var sensitivitet 79 % och specificitet 100 %. Vid ytterligare reduktion av gränsvärdet för triglyceridinnehåll till 2,00 % ökade sensitiviteten till 87 % med upprätthållande av hög specificitet (94 %).

    Slutsats

    1H-MRS och SPC uppvisade en mycket hög korrelation vid kvantifiering av leversteatos. SPC borde därför föredras framför Brunts kriterier när noggrann histologisk kvantifiering av leversteatos är önskvärd. Många patienter kan ha histologisk leversteatos trots triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS. Gränsvärdet för diagnostisering av leversteatos med 1H-MRS bör därför reduceras.

  • 30.
    Mozes, Ferenc E.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Lee, Jenny A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Vali, Yasaman
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Alzoubi, Osama
    Univ Jordan, Jordan.
    Staufer, Katharina
    Med Univ Vienna, Austria; Med Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Trauner, Michael
    Med Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Paternostro, Rafael
    Med Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Stauber, Rudolf E.
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Holleboom, Adriaan G.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Dijk, Anne-Marieke
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Mak, Anne Linde
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Boursier, Jerome
    Univ Angers, France; Ctr Hosp Univ Angers, France.
    Loup, Marc de Saint
    Ctr Hosp Univ Angers, France.
    Shima, Toshihide
    Saiseikai Suita Hosp, Japan.
    Bugianesi, Elisabetta
    Univ Turin, Italy.
    Gaia, Silvia
    Univ Turin, Italy.
    Armandi, Angelo
    Univ Turin, Italy.
    Shalimar,
    All India Inst Med Sci, India.
    Lupsor-Platon, Monica
    Iuliu Haieganu Univ Med & Pharm, Romania.
    Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Li, Guanlin
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Wong, Grace Lai-Hung
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Cobbold, Jeremy
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Karlas, Thomas
    Univ Hosp Leipzig, Germany.
    Wiegand, Johannes
    Univ Hosp Leipzig, Germany.
    Sebastiani, Giada
    McGill Univ, Canada; McGill Univ, Canada.
    Tsochatzis, Emmanuel
    Royal Free London NHS Fdn Trust, England; UCL, England.
    Liguori, Antonio
    Royal Free London NHS Fdn Trust, England; UCL, England; Univ Cattol Sacro Cuore, Italy.
    Yoneda, Masato
    Yokohama City Univ, Japan.
    Nakajima, Atsushi
    Yokohama City Univ, Japan.
    Hagstrom, Hannes
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Dept Med, Sweden.
    Akbari, Camilla
    Dept Med, Sweden.
    Hirooka, Masashi
    Ehime Univ, Japan.
    Chan, Wah-Kheong
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Mahadeva, Sanjiv
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Rajaram, Ruveena
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Zheng, Ming-Hua
    Wenzhou Med Univ, Peoples R China; Wenzhou Med Univ, Peoples R China; Key Lab Diag & Treatment Dev Chron Liver Dis Zhej, Peoples R China.
    George, Jacob
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Eslam, Mohammed
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Petta, Salvatore
    PROMISE, Italy.
    Pennisi, Grazia
    PROMISE, Italy.
    Vigano, Mauro
    ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Italy.
    Ridolfo, Sofia
    Univ Milan, Italy.
    Aithal, Guruprasad Padur
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Palaniyappan, Naaventhan
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Lee, Dae Ho
    Gachon Univ, South Korea.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Cassinotto, Christophe
    Univ Hosp Montpellier, France; Univ Hosp Montpellier, France.
    de Ledinghen, Victor
    Bordeaux Univ Hosp, France; Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Berzigotti, Annalisa
    Univ Hosp Bern, Switzerland; Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Mendoza, Yuly P.
    Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Noureddin, Mazen
    Houston Methodist Hosp, TX USA.
    Truong, Emily
    Cedars Sinai Med Ctr, CA USA.
    Fournier-Poizat, Celine
    Echosens, France.
    Geier, Andreas
    Univ Hosp Wurzburg, Germany.
    Martic, Miljen
    Novartis Inst Biomed Res, Switzerland.
    Tuthill, Theresa
    Pfizer, MA USA.
    Anstee, Quentin M.
    Newcastle Univ, Australia; Newcastle Tyne Hosp NHS Trust, Australia.
    Harrison, Stephen A.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Bossuyt, Patrick M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Pavlides, Michael
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Performance of non-invasive tests and histology for the prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an individual participant data meta-analysis2023In: The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, ISSN 2468-1253, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 704-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Histologically assessed liver fibrosis stage has prognostic significance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is accepted as a surrogate endpoint in clinical trials for non-cirrhotic NAFLD. Our aim was to compare the prognostic performance of non-invasive tests with liver histology in patients with NAFLD. Methods This was an individual participant data meta-analysis of the prognostic performance of histologically assessed fibrosis stage (F0-4), liver stiffness measured by vibration-controlled transient elastography (LSM-VCTE), fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) in patients with NAFLD. The literature was searched for a previously published systematic review on the diagnostic accuracy of imaging and simple non-invasive tests and updated to Jan 12, 2022 for this study. Studies were identified through PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL, and authors were contacted for individual participant data, including outcome data, with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, or cirrhosis complications (ie, ascites, variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, or progression to a MELD score &gt;= 15). We calculated aggregated survival curves for trichotomised groups and compared them using stratified log-rank tests (histology: F0-2 vs F3 vs F4; LSM: &lt;10 vs 10 to &lt;20 vs &gt;= 20 kPa; FIB-4: &lt;1&lt;middle dot&gt;3 vs 1&lt;middle dot&gt;3 to &lt;= 2&lt;middle dot&gt;67 vs &gt;2&lt;middle dot&gt;67; NFS: &lt;-1&lt;middle dot&gt;455 vs -1&lt;middle dot&gt;455 to &lt;= 0&lt;middle dot&gt;676 vs &gt;0&lt;middle dot&gt;676), calculated areas under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves (tAUC), and performed Cox proportional-hazards regression to adjust for confounding. This study was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42022312226.Findings Of 65 eligible studies, we included data on 2518 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD from 25 studies (1126 [44&lt;middle dot&gt;7%] were female, median age was 54 years [IQR 44-63), and 1161 [46&lt;middle dot&gt;1%] had type 2 diabetes). After a median follow-up of 57 months [IQR 33-91], the composite endpoint was observed in 145 (5&lt;middle dot&gt;8%) patients. Stratified log-rank tests showed significant differences between the trichotomised patient groups (p&lt;0&lt;middle dot&gt;0001 for all comparisons). The tAUC at 5 years were 0&lt;middle dot&gt;72 (95% CI 0&lt;middle dot&gt;62-0&lt;middle dot&gt;81) for histology, 0&lt;middle dot&gt;76 (0&lt;middle dot&gt;70-0&lt;middle dot&gt;83) for LSM-VCTE, 0&lt;middle dot&gt;74 (0&lt;middle dot&gt;64-0&lt;middle dot&gt;82) for FIB-4, and 0&lt;middle dot&gt;70 (0&lt;middle dot&gt;63-0&lt;middle dot&gt;80) for NFS. All index tests were significant predictors of the primary outcome after adjustment for confounders in the Cox regression.Interpretation Simple non-invasive tests performed as well as histologically assessed fibrosis in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with NAFLD and could be considered as alternatives to liver biopsy in some cases.

  • 31. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Aspects on Diagnosis and Long-term Prognosis2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease affecting approximately 25% of the global population and is commonly recognized as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The histological spectrum of NAFLD ranges from isolated steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with risk of developing fibrosis and subsequent cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD is liver biopsy. However, because of its invasive nature, several non-invasive methods have been developed and validated in evaluating fat and fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

    Liver fat content can be assessed using various methods. The conventional histopathological method consists of a visual semiquantitative approach in which the pathologist uses a four-point scale: grade 0 corresponds to fat deposition in <5% of hepatocytes and grade 1−3 (which is needed for the diagnosis of NAFLD) corresponds to ≥5%. An alternate approach is to quantitatively assess steatosis using stereological point counting (SPC) – which rely on liver biopsy. However, in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is a reliable noninvasive method that can be used to quantitatively assess total hepatic lipid content, or proton density fat fraction (PDFF).

    In Paper I we compared the conventional semiquantitative histological method (grade 0-3) with SPC and 1H-MRS. We found a strong positive correlation between 1H-MRS and SPC, whereas the correlations between 1H-MRS or SPC and histopathological grading were substantially weaker. Using the widely used cut-off value of PDFF ≥5%, all participants were found to have steatosis (specificity 100%, sensitivity 53%). Reducing the cut-off value to 3% maintained 100% specificity while increasing sensitivity to 79%.

    In Paper IV we evaluated quantitative steatosis, by SPC, in 106 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients during a 20-year follow-up. SPC was independently associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and development of T2DM. Moreover, in the 59 patients with sequential biopsies (approximately 10 years apart), a reduction of quantitative hepatic steatosis decreased the all-time risk of developing T2DM.

    NASH is commonly seen as a histological feature portending a worse prognosis in NAFLD. Interestingly, no dual biopsy study has ever shown that NASH predicts fibrosis progression. Yet, NASH is seen as a surrogate marker in pharmaceutical trials – were resolution in NASH is equivalent to future resolution of fibrosis.

    In Paper II we conducted a long-term follow-up study (20 years) in a large cohort of biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (n=646), in a collaboration with Karolinska Institute. We could not ascertain that NASH had any effect on all-cause, or disease-specific mortality. However, higher stages of fibrosis predicted all-cause and disease specific mortality. In Paper III, we present 129 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients, in which we had prospective, longitudinal data. They were included between 1988 and 1993. All patients alive, were re-invited 2003-2005 and 2013-2015. Dual biopsies were present in 68 patients, and three consecutive biopsies were available in 33 patients. Results showed that NAFLD is a highly heterogeneous disease, with 9.3% developing end-stage liver disease and 16% progressing to advanced stages of fibrosis without any clinically significant baseline data predicting disease progression. In summary, when using 1H-MRS as a diagnostic method for NAFLD, the diagnostic cut-off should be reduced from 5% to 3%. Furthermore, quantitative amount of hepatic steatosis could be used to stratify patients with NAFLD related to future risk of developing T2DM. Moreover, we have shown that NASH does not predict future all-cause or disease-specific mortality nor end-stage liver disease, therefore a different surrogate marker should be used in clinical trials when assessing NAFLD improvement, so to not imbue false reliance in new therapies. Lastly, we have shown that NAFLD has a more dismal prognosis than previously reported, and that it is unexpectedly difficult to predict fibrosis progression in individual NAFLD patients, emphasizing the need for robust non-invasive biomarkers suitable to monitor large number of patients.

    List of papers
    1. Using a 3% Proton Density Fat Fraction as a Cut-off Value Increases Sensitivity of Detection of Hepatic Steatosis, Based on Results from Histopathology Analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using a 3% Proton Density Fat Fraction as a Cut-off Value Increases Sensitivity of Detection of Hepatic Steatosis, Based on Results from Histopathology Analysis
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    2017 (English)In: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, E-ISSN 1528-0012, Vol. 153, no 1, p. 53-+Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is possible to estimate hepatic triglyceride content by calculating the proton density fat fraction (PDFF), using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (less thansuperscriptgreater than1less than/superscriptgreater thanH-MRS), instead of collecting and analyzing liver biopsies to detect steatosis. However, the current PDFF cut-off value (5%) used to define steatosis by magnetic resonance was derived from studies that did not use histopathology as the reference standard. We performed a prospective study to determine the accuracy of less thansuperscriptgreater than1less than/superscriptgreater thanH-MRS PDFF in measurement of steatosis using histopathology analysis as the standard. We collected clinical, serologic, less thansuperscriptgreater than1less than/superscriptgreater thanH-MRS PDFF, and liver biopsy data from 94 adult patients with increased levels of liver enzymes (6 months or more) referred to the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Linköping University Hospital in Sweden from 2007 through 2014. Steatosis was graded using the conventional histopathology method and fat content was quantified in biopsy samples using stereological point counts (SPCs). We correlated less thansuperscriptgreater than1less than/superscriptgreater thanH-MRS PDFF findings with SPCs (r = 0.92; P less than.001). less thansuperscriptgreater than1less than/superscriptgreater thanH-MRS PDFF results correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.87; P less than.001), and SPCs correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.88; P less than.001). All 25 subjects with PDFF values of 5.0% or more had steatosis based on histopathology findings (100% specificity for PDFF). However, of 69 subjects with PDFF values below 5.0% (negative result), 22 were determined to have steatosis based on histopathology findings (53% sensitivity for PDFF). Reducing the PDFF cut-off value to 3.0% identified patients with steatosis with 100% specificity and 79% sensitivity; a PDFF cut-off value of 2.0% identified patients with steatosis with 94% specificity and 87% sensitivity. These findings might be used to improve non-invasive detection of steatosis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    National Category
    Gastroenterology and Hepatology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136544 (URN)10.1053/j.gastro.2017.03.005 (DOI)000403918300022 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council/Medicine and Health [VR/M 2007-2884, VR/M 2012-3199]; Swedish Research Council/Natural and Engineering Sciences [VR/NT 2014-6157]; Swedish Innovation Agency VINNOVA [2013-01314]; Region Ostergotland (ALF)

    Available from: 2017-04-19 Created: 2017-04-19 Last updated: 2023-09-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Fibrosis stage but not NASH predicts mortality and time to development of severe liver disease in biopsy-proven NAFLD
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fibrosis stage but not NASH predicts mortality and time to development of severe liver disease in biopsy-proven NAFLD
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Hepatology, ISSN 0168-8278, E-ISSN 1600-0641, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 1265-1273Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background amp; Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is very common in the general population, but identifying patients with increased risk of mortality and liver-specific morbidity remains a challenge. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is thought to enhance this risk; therefore, resolution of NASH is a major endpoint in current pharmacologic studies. Herein, we aim to investigate the long-term prognosis of a large cohort of NAFLD patients, and to study the specific effect of NASH and fibrosis stage on prognosis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 646 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. Each case was matched for age, sex and municipality to ten controls. Outcomes on mortality and severe liver disease, defined as cirrhosis, liver decompensation/failure or hepatocellular carcinoma, were evaluated using population-based registers. Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex and type 2 diabetes were used to examine the long-term risk according to fibrosis stage. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess whether adding NASH to these models increased the predictive capacity. Laplace regression was used to estimate the time to severe liver disease according to stage of fibrosis. Results: During a follow-up of mean 20 years (range 0-40) equivalent to 139,163 person-years, 12% of NAFLD patients and 2.2% of controls developed severe liver disease (p amp;lt; 0.001). Compared to controls, the risk of severe liver disease increased per stage of fibrosis (hazard ratio ranging from 1.9 in F0 to 104.9 in F4). Accounting for the presence of NASH did not change these estimates significantly (likelihood ratio test amp;gt; 0.05 for all stages of fibrosis). Similar results were seen for overall mortality. The lower end of the 95% confidence interval for the 10th percentile of time to development of severe liver disease was 22-26 years in F0-1, 9.3 years in F2, 2.3 years in F3, and 0.9 years to liver decompensation in F4. Conclusions: In this, the largest ever study of biopsy-proven NAFLD, the presence of NASH did not increase the risk of liver-specific morbidity or overall mortality. Knowledge of time to development of severe liver disease according to fibrosis stage can be used in individual patient counselling and for public health decisions. (C) 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
    Keywords
    Steatosis; Cirrhosis; Epidemiology
    National Category
    Gastroenterology and Hepatology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143355 (URN)10.1016/j.jhep.2017.07.027 (DOI)000415325900019 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences; Bengt Ihre scholarship; Swedish Gastroenterology Fund

    Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2020-08-14
    3. Natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A prospective follow-up study with serial biopsies.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A prospective follow-up study with serial biopsies.
    2018 (English)In: Hepatology communications, ISSN 2471-254X, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 199-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in the world. The complete natural history of NAFLD is unknown because few high-quality follow-up studies have been conducted. Our aim was to find variables predicting disease severity through an extended follow-up with serial biopsies. In a prospective cohort study, 129 patients who enrolled between 1988 and 1993 were asked to participate in a follow-up study on two occasions; biochemical, clinical, and histologic data were documented. The mean time between biopsies was 13.7 (±1.7) and 9.3 (±1.0) years, respectively. At the end of the study period, 12 patients (9.3%) had developed end-stage liver disease and 34% had advanced fibrosis. Out of the 113 patients with baseline low fibrosis (<3), 16% developed advanced fibrosis. Fibrosis progression did not differ among the different stages of baseline fibrosis (P = 0.374). Fifty-six patients (43%) had isolated steatosis, of whom 9% developed advanced fibrosis (3 patients with biopsy-proven fibrosis stage F3-F4 and 2 patients with end-stage liver disease). Fibrosis stage, ballooning, and diabetes were more common in patients who developed end-stage liver disease; however, there were no baseline clinical, histologic, or biochemical variables that predicted clinical significant disease progression. Conclusion: NAFLD is a highly heterogeneous disease, and it is surprisingly hard to predict fibrosis progression. Given enough time, NAFLD seems to have a more dismal prognosis then previously reported, with 16% of patients with fibrosis stage <3 developing advanced fibrosis and 9.3% showing signs of end-stage liver disease. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:199-210).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2018
    National Category
    Gastroenterology and Hepatology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146233 (URN)10.1002/hep4.1134 (DOI)29404527 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2020-08-14
    4. The Amount of Liver Fat Predicts Mortality and Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Amount of Liver Fat Predicts Mortality and Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
    2020 (English)In: Liver international, ISSN 1478-3223, E-ISSN 1478-3231, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 1069-1078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to evaluate whether conventional histological grading of steatosis and accurate quantification of fat content in liver biopsies using stereological point counting (SPC) can predict mortality and future development of T2DM in NAFLD patients.

    METHODS: 129 patients with biopsy proven NAFLD, enrolled between 1988 and 1992, were re-evaluated on two occasions, after 13.7 (±1.5) and 23.2 (±6.8) years. In patients accepting to undergo the procedure, repeat liver biopsies were performed on each follow-up and were evaluated with conventional histopathological methodology and SPC.

    RESULTS: Of the 106 patients without T2DM at baseline, 66 (62%) developed T2DM during a mean follow-up of 23.2 (± 6.8) years. Steatosis grade and liver fat measured with SPC independently (adjusted for age, BMI, fibrosis stage) predicted development of T2DM with an aHR of 1.60 per grade and 1.03 for each SPC percentage increase, respectively. Overall mortality and development of T2DM was more common in patients with grade 3 steatosis compared to lower grades of steatosis. Liver fat measured with SPC was significant for overall mortality (aHR 1.04). In patients that underwent repeat biopsy, reduction of liver fat measured with SPC was associated with decreased risk of developing T2DM (aHR 0.91 for each SPC percentage decrease).

    CONCLUSION: Steatosis grade and liver fat measured with SPC predict mortality and the risk of developing T2DM in NAFLD. Reduction of liver fat decreases the risk of developing T2DM.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2020
    Keywords
    Stereological point count (SPC), hepatic steatosis, quantitative steatosis
    National Category
    Gastroenterology and Hepatology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163934 (URN)10.1111/liv.14414 (DOI)000518832100001 ()32087038 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
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  • 32.
    Nasr, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Blomdahl, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Modifiers of Liver-Related Manifestation in the Course of NAFLD2020In: Current pharmaceutical design, ISSN 1381-6128, E-ISSN 1873-4286, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1062-1078Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease affecting approximately 25% of the global population. There is a strong association between the severity, of NAFLD and the components of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is also independently associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The progressive potential of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is indisputable today, and the histological spectrum of NAFLD ranges from isolated steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with risk of developing :fibrosis and subsequent cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is a substantial inter-patient variation in disease progression, therefore, this review will focus on potential modifiers of fibrosis progression, development of liver cirrhosis, decompensation and liver-related mortality. The potential drivers of disease progression that is discussed are; T2DM and Insulin Resistance, body weight, alcohol consumption, genetics (including HFE and alfa-1-antitrypsin) as well as histological features predictive of disease progression.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Nasr, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Forsgren, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). AMRA Med AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Balkhed, Wile
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Simonsson, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Cai, Shan
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Cederborg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stjernman, Henrik
    Ryhov Hosp Jonkoping, Sweden.
    Rejler, Martin
    Reg Jonkoping Cty Council, Sweden; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Sjoegren, Daniel
    Reg Jonkoping Cty Council, Sweden.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Orebro Univ, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Bartholomä, Wolf
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Rydén, Ingvar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Reg Kalmar Cty, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). AMRA Med AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    A rapid, non-invasive, clinical surveillance for CachExia, sarcopenia, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma in end-stage liver disease: the ACCESS-ESLD study protocol2023In: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundLiver cirrhosis, the advanced stage of many chronic liver diseases, is associated with escalated risks of liver-related complications like decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis patients are linked to portal hypertension, sarcopenia, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although conventional cirrhosis management centered on treating complications, contemporary approaches prioritize preemptive measures. This study aims to formulate novel blood- and imaging-centric methodologies for monitoring liver cirrhosis patients.MethodsIn this prospective study, 150 liver cirrhosis patients will be enrolled from three Swedish liver clinics. Their conditions will be assessed through extensive blood-based markers and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI protocol encompasses body composition profile with Muscle Assement Score, portal flow assessment, magnet resonance elastography, and a abbreviated MRI for HCC screening. Evaluation of lifestyle, muscular strength, physical performance, body composition, and quality of life will be conducted. Additionally, DNA, serum, and plasma biobanking will facilitate future investigations.DiscussionThe anticipated outcomes involve the identification and validation of non-invasive blood- and imaging-oriented biomarkers, enhancing the care paradigm for liver cirrhosis patients. Notably, the temporal evolution of these biomarkers will be crucial for understanding dynamic changes.Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov, registration identifier NCT05502198. Registered on 16 August 2022. Link: https://classic.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05502198.

  • 34.
    Nasr, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Forsgren, Mikael F.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Wolfram MathCore AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ignatova, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical pathology.
    Dahlström, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Norén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Using a 3% Proton Density Fat Fraction as a Cut-off Value Increases Sensitivity of Detection of Hepatic Steatosis, Based on Results from Histopathology Analysis2017In: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, E-ISSN 1528-0012, Vol. 153, no 1, p. 53-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is possible to estimate hepatic triglyceride content by calculating the proton density fat fraction (PDFF), using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (less thansuperscriptgreater than1less than/superscriptgreater thanH-MRS), instead of collecting and analyzing liver biopsies to detect steatosis. However, the current PDFF cut-off value (5%) used to define steatosis by magnetic resonance was derived from studies that did not use histopathology as the reference standard. We performed a prospective study to determine the accuracy of less thansuperscriptgreater than1less than/superscriptgreater thanH-MRS PDFF in measurement of steatosis using histopathology analysis as the standard. We collected clinical, serologic, less thansuperscriptgreater than1less than/superscriptgreater thanH-MRS PDFF, and liver biopsy data from 94 adult patients with increased levels of liver enzymes (6 months or more) referred to the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Linköping University Hospital in Sweden from 2007 through 2014. Steatosis was graded using the conventional histopathology method and fat content was quantified in biopsy samples using stereological point counts (SPCs). We correlated less thansuperscriptgreater than1less than/superscriptgreater thanH-MRS PDFF findings with SPCs (r = 0.92; P less than.001). less thansuperscriptgreater than1less than/superscriptgreater thanH-MRS PDFF results correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.87; P less than.001), and SPCs correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.88; P less than.001). All 25 subjects with PDFF values of 5.0% or more had steatosis based on histopathology findings (100% specificity for PDFF). However, of 69 subjects with PDFF values below 5.0% (negative result), 22 were determined to have steatosis based on histopathology findings (53% sensitivity for PDFF). Reducing the PDFF cut-off value to 3.0% identified patients with steatosis with 100% specificity and 79% sensitivity; a PDFF cut-off value of 2.0% identified patients with steatosis with 94% specificity and 87% sensitivity. These findings might be used to improve non-invasive detection of steatosis.

  • 35.
    Nasr, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Forum Östergötland.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    The Amount of Liver Fat Predicts Mortality and Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.2020In: Liver international, ISSN 1478-3223, E-ISSN 1478-3231, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 1069-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to evaluate whether conventional histological grading of steatosis and accurate quantification of fat content in liver biopsies using stereological point counting (SPC) can predict mortality and future development of T2DM in NAFLD patients.

    METHODS: 129 patients with biopsy proven NAFLD, enrolled between 1988 and 1992, were re-evaluated on two occasions, after 13.7 (±1.5) and 23.2 (±6.8) years. In patients accepting to undergo the procedure, repeat liver biopsies were performed on each follow-up and were evaluated with conventional histopathological methodology and SPC.

    RESULTS: Of the 106 patients without T2DM at baseline, 66 (62%) developed T2DM during a mean follow-up of 23.2 (± 6.8) years. Steatosis grade and liver fat measured with SPC independently (adjusted for age, BMI, fibrosis stage) predicted development of T2DM with an aHR of 1.60 per grade and 1.03 for each SPC percentage increase, respectively. Overall mortality and development of T2DM was more common in patients with grade 3 steatosis compared to lower grades of steatosis. Liver fat measured with SPC was significant for overall mortality (aHR 1.04). In patients that underwent repeat biopsy, reduction of liver fat measured with SPC was associated with decreased risk of developing T2DM (aHR 0.91 for each SPC percentage decrease).

    CONCLUSION: Steatosis grade and liver fat measured with SPC predict mortality and the risk of developing T2DM in NAFLD. Reduction of liver fat decreases the risk of developing T2DM.

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  • 36.
    Nasr, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Hilliges, Annette
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thorelius, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography could be a non-invasive method for differentiating none or mild from severe fibrosis in patients with biopsy proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 1126-1132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The gold standard for diagnosing fibrosis stage in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is liver biopsy. The aim of this study was to determine whether contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with transit time measurements could be a non-invasive alternative for differentiating none or mild from severe fibrosis in NAFLD patients. Various serum markers and clinical variables were also evaluated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with NAFLD underwent CEUS prior to liver biopsy. All patients were also evaluated according to the Göteborg University Cirrhosis Index (GUCI), the AST-Platelet Ratio Index (APRI), the NAFLD fibrosis score, and the FIB-4 and BARD score.

    RESULTS: The hepatic vein arrival time (HV) was shorter in patients with severe fibrosis (25.9 ± 4.8 vs 29.5 ± 4.7 s, p = 0.023), and the difference between the hepatic and portal vein (ΔHV-PV) was shorter (2.3 ± 2.8 vs 6.4 ± 2.8 s, p < 0.0001) while the difference in arrival time between the portal vein and hepatic artery (ΔPV-HA) arrival time was significantly longer (6.0 ± 2.2 vs 3.6 ± 1.6 s, p < 0.0001). The area under receiver operating characteristics curve values for HV, ΔHV-PV and ΔPV-HA to separate none or mild from severe fibrosis was 0.71, 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. The corresponding figures for GUCI, APRI, NAFLD fibrosis score, FIB-4 and BARD score were 0.93, 0.92, 0.86, 0.90 and 0.77, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: CEUS and non-invasive scoring systems could exclude severe fibrosis in NAFLD patients.

  • 37.
    Nasr, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Ignatova, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical pathology.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A prospective follow-up study with serial biopsies.2018In: Hepatology communications, ISSN 2471-254X, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 199-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in the world. The complete natural history of NAFLD is unknown because few high-quality follow-up studies have been conducted. Our aim was to find variables predicting disease severity through an extended follow-up with serial biopsies. In a prospective cohort study, 129 patients who enrolled between 1988 and 1993 were asked to participate in a follow-up study on two occasions; biochemical, clinical, and histologic data were documented. The mean time between biopsies was 13.7 (±1.7) and 9.3 (±1.0) years, respectively. At the end of the study period, 12 patients (9.3%) had developed end-stage liver disease and 34% had advanced fibrosis. Out of the 113 patients with baseline low fibrosis (<3), 16% developed advanced fibrosis. Fibrosis progression did not differ among the different stages of baseline fibrosis (P = 0.374). Fifty-six patients (43%) had isolated steatosis, of whom 9% developed advanced fibrosis (3 patients with biopsy-proven fibrosis stage F3-F4 and 2 patients with end-stage liver disease). Fibrosis stage, ballooning, and diabetes were more common in patients who developed end-stage liver disease; however, there were no baseline clinical, histologic, or biochemical variables that predicted clinical significant disease progression. Conclusion: NAFLD is a highly heterogeneous disease, and it is surprisingly hard to predict fibrosis progression. Given enough time, NAFLD seems to have a more dismal prognosis then previously reported, with 16% of patients with fibrosis stage <3 developing advanced fibrosis and 9.3% showing signs of end-stage liver disease. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:199-210).

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  • 38.
    Nasr, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ignatova, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical pathology.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Low hepatic manganese concentrations in patients with hepatic steatosis: A cohort study of copper, iron and manganese in liver biopsies2021In: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0946-672X, E-ISSN 1878-3252, Vol. 67, article id 126772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Hepatic steatosis is the most common histopathological finding on liver biopsy, with the most prevalent etiology being NAFLD. The pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and NAFLD is multifactorial, however, studies on the importance of manganese in NAFLD are limited. We aimed to study hepatic manganese content, and other trace elements, in relation to hepatic steatosis in patients with chronic liver diseases of different etiology, mainly NAFLD. Methods: Patients with chronically elevated liver function tests underwent a diagnostic work-up, including routine blood tests and two liver biopsies. One of the biopsies was sent for histopathological evaluation, and the other for ultra-trace elemental determinations. Steatosis was graded using conventional histopathological methodology, and fat content was also quantitated in biopsy samples by measuring the steatotic area of the section using stereological point counting (SPC). Ultra-trace elemental analysis was utilized for determining manganese, iron, and copper using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Results: 76 patients were included in the study. Hepatic manganese concentrations in patients with steatosis were lower than in patients without hepatic steatosis (3.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.4 +/- 1.8, P &lt; 0.001). Similar results were seen for blood manganese levels and hepatic steatosis. We found a strong inverse correlation between steatosis grade and hepatic manganese content (rho=-0.743, P &lt; 0.001). Also, low levels of manganese independently predicted the presence of steatosis (aOR 0.07 [95%CI: 0.01-0.63]). Conclusion: Patients with NAFLD, or other CLD and concomitant hepatic steatosis, showed lower levels of hepatic manganese content with increasing grade of steatosis.

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  • 39.
    Nasr, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Iredahl, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Åby.
    Dahlström, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Rådholm, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Kärna.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). AMRA Med AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Region Östergötland, Heart Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Carlhäll, Carljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Evaluating the prevalence and severity of NAFLD in primary care: the EPSONIP study protocol2021In: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 20-30% of the general adult population. NAFLD patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at an increased risk of advanced fibrosis, which puts them at risk of cardiovascular complications, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver failure. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for assessing hepatic fibrosis. However, its utility is inherently limited. Consequently, the prevalence and characteristics of T2DM patients with advanced fibrosis are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to evaluate the prevalence and severity of NAFLD in patients with T2DM by recruiting participants from primary care, using the latest imaging modalities, to collect a cohort of well phenotyped patients.MethodsWe will prospectively recruit 400 patients with T2DM using biomarkers to assess their status. Specifically, we will evaluate liver fat content using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); hepatic fibrosis using MR elastography and vibration-controlled transient elastography; muscle composition and body fat distribution using water-fat separated whole body MRI; and cardiac function, structure, and tissue characteristics, using cardiovascular MRI.DiscussionWe expect that the study will uncover potential mechanisms of advanced hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD and T2DM and equip the clinician with better diagnostic tools for the care of T2DM patients with NAFLD.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT03864510. Registered 6 March 2019, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03864510.

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  • 40.
    Nasr, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    von Seth, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Mayerhofer, Raphaela
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ndegwa, Nelson
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F. F.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Columbia Univ, NY USA; Orebro Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Hagstrom, Hannes
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Incidence, prevalence and mortality of chronic liver diseases in Sweden between 2005 and 20192023In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 973-984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundUpdated data on the incidence, prevalence, and regional differences of chronic liver disease are missing from many countries. In this study, we aimed to describe time trends, incidence, prevalence, and mortality of a wide range of chronic liver diseases in Sweden.MethodsIn this register-based, nationwide observational study, patients with a register-based diagnosis of chronic liver disease, during 2005-2019, were retrieved from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Annual age-standardized incidence and mortality rates, and prevalence per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated and stratified on age, sex, and geographical region.ResultsThe incidence of alcohol-related cirrhosis increased by 47% (2.6% annually), reaching an incidence rate of 13.1/100,000 inhabitants. The incidence rate of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and unspecified liver cirrhosis increased by 217% and 87% (8.0 and 4.3% annually), respectively, reaching an incidence rate of 15.2 and 18.7/100,000 inhabitants, and a prevalence of 24.7 and 44.8/100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore, incidence rates of chronic hepatitis C declined steeply, but liver malignancies have become more common. The most common causes of liver-related mortality were alcohol-related liver disease and unspecified liver disease.ConclusionThe incidence rates of diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol-related cirrhosis, unspecified liver cirrhosis, and liver malignancies have increased during the last 15 years. Worryingly, mortality in several liver diseases increased, likely reflecting increasing incidences of cirrhosis in spite of a decreasing rate of hepatitis C. Significant disparities exist across sex and geographical regions, which need to be considered when allocating healthcare resources.

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  • 41.
    Shang, Ying
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Widman, Linnea
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Stål, Per
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Hagström, Hannes
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease does not increase dementia risk although histology data might improve risk prediction2021In: JHEP Reports, ISSN 2589-5559, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 100218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common in the general population, but its association with dementia is unclear. We aimed to assess the risk of dementia related to NAFLD, and to determine whether histological parameters could improve the predictive capacity of a conventional risk model for dementia in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Methods: A retrospective matched cohort study of 656 NAFLD patients underwent liver biopsy at 2 hospitals between 1971 and 2009. Up to 10 individuals (controls) from the general population (n = 6,436) were matched for age, sex, and municipality to each patient. Dementia was ascertained from National registers until 2014. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios for dementia with 95% confidence intervals. In the biopsy cohort, the discriminative power of adding histological markers to a conventional risk model was assessed by Harrells C-index and compared with a likelihood-ratio test. Results: During a mean follow-up of 19.7 +/- 8.7 years, 3.3% of the NAFLD patients and 4.9% of the controls developed dementia (p = 0.07). Overall, NAFLD was not significantly associated with incident dementia. In the biopsy cohort, the model of conventional risk factors (age, sex, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases) had a C-index of 0.912 to predict incident dementia. Adding individual histological parameters significantly increased the prediction of dementia, with the most pronounced improvement for fibrosis stage (C-index = 0.938, p &lt;0.05). Conclusions: Although NAFLD was not associated with the risk of dementia, we found that adding histological markers to a conventional risk model for dementia enhanced the predictive capacity, indicating a shared metabolic origin. Lay summary: Both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dementia are increasing in prevalence because of a more sedentary lifestyle, increased prevalence of obesity and population ageing. However, the link between these 2 diseases is not well studied. We investigated the association between NAFLD and the risk of dementia and found no association. However, liver histology parameters, especially fibrosis, could significantly improve the prediction of dementia risk. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL).

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  • 42.
    Shang, Ying
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Widman, Linnea
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hagström, Hannes
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Risk of cardiovascular disease and loss in life expectancy in NAFLD2022In: Hepatology, ISSN 0270-9139, E-ISSN 1527-3350, Vol. 76, no 5, p. 1495-1505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims Conflicting evidence exists on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with NAFLD, and data are lacking on whether NAFLD increases mortality after a CVD event. Moreover, life expectancy in NAFLD has not been studied. We therefore examined CVD risk and life expectancy in patients with NAFLD compared with the general population. Approach and Results In this nationwide population-based cohort, all patients with NAFLD diagnosis and without baseline CVD (ascertaining from the Swedish National Patient Register from 1987 to 2016, n = 10,023) were matched 10:1 on age, sex, and municipality to individuals from the general population (controls, n = 96,313). CVD diagnosis and mortality were derived from national registers. Multistate models and flexible parametric survival models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for CVD risk and loss in life expectancy due to NAFLD. We identified 1037 (10.3%) CVD events in patients with NAFLD and 4041 (4.2%) in controls. CVD risk was 2.6-fold higher in NAFLD compared with controls (aHR = 2.61, 95% CI = 2.36-2.88) and was strongest for nonfatal CVD (aHR = 3.71, 95% CI = 3.29-4.17). After a nonfatal CVD event, the risk for all-cause mortality was similar between patients with NAFLD and controls (aHR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.64-1.25). Life expectancy in patients with NAFLD was, on average, 2.8 years lower than controls, with the highest loss of life-years when NAFLD was diagnosed in middle age (40-60 years). Conclusions NAFLD was associated with a higher risk of nonfatal CVD but did not affect post-CVD mortality risk. Patients diagnosed with NAFLD have a lower life expectancy than the general population.

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  • 43.
    Taylor, Rod S.
    et al.
    Univ Glasgow, Scotland.
    Taylor, Rebecca J.
    R2 Consultancy, Scotland.
    Bayliss, Sue
    Univ Birmingham, England.
    Hagstrom, Hannes
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Schattenberg, Jorn M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Germany.
    Ishigami, Masatoshi
    Nagoya Univ, Japan.
    Toyoda, Hidenori
    Ogaki Municipal Hosp, Japan.
    Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Peleg, Noam
    Beilinson Med Ctr, Israel; Tel Aviv Univ, Israel; Beilinson Med Ctr, Israel.
    Shlomai, Amir
    Tel Aviv Univ, Israel.
    Sebastiani, Giada
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Seko, Yuya
    Kyoto Prefectural Univ Med, Japan.
    Bhala, Neeraj
    Univ Hosp Birmingham NHS Fdn Trust, England; Univ Birmingham, England.
    Younossi, Zobair M.
    Inova Fairfax Hosp, VA USA.
    Anstee, Quentin M.
    Newcastle Univ, England; Newcastle Natl Inst Hlth Res Biomed Res Ctr, England; Newcastle Tyne Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    McPherson, Stuart
    Newcastle Tyne Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England; Newcastle Univ, England; Newcastle Natl Inst Hlth, England.
    Newsome, Philip N.
    Univ Hosp Birmingham NHS Fdn Trust, England; Univ Birmingham, England; Univ Birmingham, England; Univ Hosp Birmingham NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Association Between Fibrosis Stage and Outcomes of Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta -Analysis2020In: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, E-ISSN 1528-0012, Vol. 158, no 6, p. 1611-+Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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