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  • 101.
    Ahlberg, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Generating web applications containing XSS and CSRF vulnerabilities2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the people in the industrial world are using several web applications every day. Many of those web applications contain vulnerabilities that can allow attackers to steal sensitive data from the web application's users. One way to detect these vulnerabilities is to have a penetration tester examine the web application. A common way to train penetration testers to find vulnerabilities is to challenge them with realistic web applications that contain vulnerabilities. The penetration tester's assignment is to try to locate and exploit the vulnerabilities in the web application. Training on the same web application twice will not provide any new challenges to the penetration tester, because the penetration tester already knows how to exploit all the vulnerabilities in the web application. Therefore, a vast number of web applications and variants of web applications are needed to train on.

    This thesis describes a tool designed and developed to automatically generate vulnerable web applications. First a web application is prepared, so that the tool can generate a vulnerable version of the web application. The tool injects Cross Site Scripting (XSS) and Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) vulnerabilities in prepared web applications. Different variations of the same vulnerability can also be injected, so that different methods are needed to exploit the vulnerability depending on the variation. A purpose of the tool is that it should generate web applications which shall be used to train penetration testers, and some of the vulnerabilities the tool can inject, cannot be detected by current free web application vulnerability scanners, and would thus need to be detected by a penetration tester.

    To inject the vulnerabilities, the tool uses abstract syntax trees and taint analysis to detect where vulnerabilities can be injected in the prepared web applications.

    Tests confirm that web application vulnerability scanners cannot find all the vulnerabilities on the web applications which have been generated by the tool.

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    Generating web applications containing XSS and CSRF vulnerabilities
  • 102.
    Ahlforn, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Kommunicera och rapportera: En undersökning av sjukvårdsrådgivares syn på patientsäkerhet och inflytandet på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon har kommit att bli ett allt vanligare sätt att kontakta vården. Det är också ett smidigt sätt att i dagens mobila samhälle utnyttja tiden effektivt. Denna typ av sjukvårdsrådgivning skiljer sig från det annars traditionella sättet där sjuksköterskan fysiskt möter patienten till exempel på en vårdcentral. I anslutning till den tidigare sjukvården finns också etablerade metoder och riktlinjer för patientsäkerhet, vilket bidrar till att kontinuerligt sträva efter att upprätthålla god vårdkvalitet och trygghet för patienten. En metod är exempelvis det avvikelserapporteringssystem som sedan tidigare används inom bland annat Landstinget i Östergötland, vilket också har kommit att användas på Sjukvårdsrådgivningen i Linköping.

    Syftet med denna studie var att inom en verksamhet för sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon undersöka vilka attityder personalen har till patientsäkerhet, samt hur de själva beskriver sina åsikter angående detta ämne. Baserat på tidigare forskning relateras resultaten till vilken påverkan de uppskattas ha på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur.

    En webbenkät användes som instrument i studiens datainsamling. Frågorna var sedan tidigare framtagna för att mäta patientsäkerhet inom traditionell sjukvård, vilka grundade sig på element från säkerhetskulturforskning. En av studiens centrala upptäckter tyder på att personalen tycker att det är svårt att hinna med att rapportera avvikelser. Det fanns också en tendens att flera sjukvårdsrådgivare berättar om avvikelser för arbetskamrater när de väl upptäcks, än antal som avvikelserapporterar på formellt vis. Vidare påträffades också att respondenterna inte är rädda för att be om hjälp när oklarheter i arbetet uppstår. En av studiens slutsatser var att sjukvårdsrådgivarna behöver mer tid till att kunna prioritera att rapportera avvikelser som upptäcks för att minimera informationsbortfall.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 103.
    Ahlgren, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    MobiAnn: androidapplikationen som underlättar lärares arbetsuppgifter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet diskuterar behovet av ett stödsystem för lärare vid undervisning och tar upp olika aspekter utifrån lärarnas arbetssituation. Som en del av denna diskussion finns en implementation av ett system i form av en Androidapplikation.

    Applikationen ger lärarna möjlighet till ett stödsystem med olika användningsområde som närvarokontroll, anmärkningsmöjligheter om förseningar och stök under lektionstid, verktyg för att anteckna elevarbete och motivera betyg direkt på plats.

    Stor vikt har lagts på att göra applikationen lättanvänd och användarvänlig och därför har tester med användare varit en stor del under utvecklingen.

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    MobiAnn
  • 104.
    Ahlgren, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Aini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Conversion and Analysis of Telemetric Data from the CCSDS Standard2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When communicating with spacecrafts, the international standard is to use the protocols defined by CCSDS. In this study, the Space Packet Protocol from CCSDS is converted to the Digital Recording Standard used in aviation. The goal of the study is to find out in what way such a conversion can be made, as well as analyzing the efficiency of different packing methods for the Digital Recording Standard. An application is developed in order to perform the conversion, and the performance of said application is profiled using different packet sizes. In the end the results are evaluated and an optimal packet size is found in terms of runtime and memory usage. In the end we conclude that a packet size of 216 bytes is best when prioritizing speed, and a packet size of 219 bytes is best when prioritizing memory.

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    fulltext
  • 105.
    Ahlmann, Jacob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Bergström, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Erholm, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Freyschuss, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hartikainen, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Holm Eriksson, Liv
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Jacobson, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Oskarsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Utveckling av applikationen Hokus Bokus: En praktisk tillämpning av agil programutvecklingsmetodik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver utvecklandet av applikationen Hokus Bokus, en plattform för försäljning av begagnad studentlitteratur på Linköpings Tekniska Högskola. Det som adresseras är dels utvecklingsprocessen men även den tekniska aspekten. För att förbereda Hokus Bokus för marknaden har en marknadsplan gjorts som inkluderar nulägesanalys, konkurrentanalys och identifiering av kundsegment. Teamet har arbetat enligt arbetsmetoden scrum och i rapporten görs en analys av hur detta implementerats. Läsaren får även ta del av den resulterande applikationens utformning och funktionalitet. En beskrivning av systemet och en utvärdering i form av användartester genomfördes. Slutsatsen som dras av arbetet är att en e-handel kan öka försäljningen och minska priset på kurslitteratur genom att samla marknaden på en enklare, gemensam och mer effektiv plattform som Hokus Bokus. Rapporten tar även upp etiska aspekter såsom hantering av användardata och kommunikationskryptering. Slutligen diskuteras applikationens styrkor, svagheter samt framtida möjligheter.

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    fulltext
  • 106.
    Ahlqvist, Erica
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Implementation And Evaluation of Gamification Elements In An E-learning Platform For Engineering Education2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-learning and online courses are widely used today, with different platforms being available for the user. When implementing and evaluating such a platform relevant research is required, therefore a pre-study was conducted. The pre-study showed that the platforms used at Linköpings University have a variety of available platform of which the teachers can use, however, some of there lack the features and it is therefore common for teachers to use more than one platform for a course. The goal of the thesis has been to answer the research question and to do so a platform was implemented, with focus on the gamification elements. The thesis answered the research question through the implementation of the platform and the user test. The user test was held on the target audience. The participants of the user test were faced with a short course on the developed platform. The test results show that the combination of gamification elements used motivated the participants towards the presented course and the assignments within it. During the user test a questionnaire, based on Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, was used. The result from this showed that the platform and its gamification elements increased the enjoyment, interest, perceived competence and effort towards the course.

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    fulltext
  • 107.
    Ahlstedt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Annerwall, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Björklund, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Cedenheim, Oliver
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Eriksson, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lehtonen, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lorentzon, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Olofsson, Gustaf
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    BryggaHem – Development of an E-commerce Web Application with a Usability Focus2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is part of a bachelor’s project conducted at Linköping University and addresses the development of an e-commerce web application with a usability focus. A market survey was conducted as part of the project to establish the orientation of the web application. Furthermore, the Scrum methodology is described and analyzed, and the team’s experiences of the project are documented. Research relevant to designing an application with high usability is detailed. Additionally the thesis addresses the tools and frameworks used during the development of the application, as well as ethical aspects of handling user information and selling products related to home-brewing of alcoholic beverages. The conclusion drawn from the project regarding the methodology is that Scrum is a viable methodology for this type of development work, although it requires small teams as well as previous experience of Scrum to yield high efficiency. The conclusion drawn from the project regarding usability is that it is achieved through a combination of variables that to a large extent is based on users’ distinct perceptions of the given application. 

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    fulltext
  • 108.
    Ahlström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Minimizing memory requirements for deterministic test data in embedded testing2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded and automated tests reduce maintenance costs for embedded systems installed in remote locations. Testing multiple components of an embedded system, connected on a scan chain, using deterministic test patterns stored in a system provide high fault coverage but require large system memory. This thesis presents an approach to reduce test data memory requirements by the use of a test controller program, utilizing the observation of that there are multiple components of the same type in a system. The program use deterministic test patterns specific to every component type, which is stored in system memory, to create fully defined test patterns when needed. By storing deterministic test patterns specific to every component type, the program can use the test patterns for multiple tests and several times within the same test. The program also has the ability to test parts of a system without affecting the normal functional operation of the rest of the components in the system and without an increase of test data memory requirements. Two experiments were conducted to determine how much test data memory requirements are reduced using the approach presented in this thesis. The results for the experiments show up to 26.4% reduction of test data memory requirements for ITC´02 SOC test benchmarks and in average 60% reduction of test data memory requirements for designs generated to gain statistical data.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 109.
    Ahlström, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Permutationer av omskrivningsregler: Egenskaper hos omskrivningsregler till lättläst svenska2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien ar en analysering av omskrivningsregler framtagna av Decker (2003), dessa omskrivningsregler har implementerats i ett verktyg som heter CogFLUX. Syftet med dessa omskrivningsregler ar att forenkla det svenska spraket och gora det mer lattlast. CogFLUX tar en given text som input och omskrivningsregler valjs ut och appliceras pa texterna med hjalp av verktyget. Detta verktyg returnerar sedan en omskriven text och de tre olika lasbarhetsmatten LIX, OVIX och NR for texten. Syftet med studien har varit att se huruvida olika permutationer av en given uppsattning omskrivningsregler ger olika resultat matt med lasbarhetsmatten samt om det finns kombinationer av omskrivningsregler som fungerar battre an andra. Utvardering har skett pa tre olika texttyper pa vardera ca 5000 ord. Resultaten har visat att olika permutationer av omskrivningsregler inte ger nagon matbar effekt matt med lasbarhetsmatt. Av totalt atta applicerade omskrivningsregler har fyra visat sig vara effektiva och forenkla texter matt med lasbarhetsmatten.

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    permutationer av omskrivningsregler
  • 110.
    Ahlström, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    User-centred redesign of a business systemusing the Star Life Cycle method2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this thesis was to study user activities in a business system, MediusFlow. The overall objective was to identify user related problems and to analyse which of the usability data gathering methods to use in the future development process of the company Medius.

    The outcome of this study indicated that a cognitive related user problem was the most important problem to solve. A Star Life Cycle method was preferred. Two low-fidelity prototypes were developed to exemplify an alternative design solution to the identified cognitive user problem. Furthermore, the two best methods to use when gathering user related requirements were heuristic evaluation and expert review.

    In addition a company specific Style Guide was created with generic guidelines as a foundation for development of future applications within Medius.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 111.
    Ahlström, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Affärsstrategier för seniorbostadsmarknaden2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den demografiska utvecklingen i Sverige går mot en befolkningssammansättning med allt högre medelålder. Enligt svenska befolkningsprognoser kommer nästan var fjärde svensk år 2025 att vara över 65 år. Den äldre andelen av befolkningen utgör en välbeställd grupp med relativt stora realekonomiska tillgångar. Attitydundersökningar på morgondagens pensionärer talar för att denna grupp ställer högre krav på boendeutformning, kringservice, vård och omsorg än tidigare generationer. Flera studier visar på en ökad betalningsvilja och betalningsförmåga för alternativa service- och boendeformer. Samtidigt försöker olika marknadsaktörer att positionera ett produkt- och tjänsteutbud inom en bostadsmarknadens nischer, här definierad som seniorbostadsmarknaden. På seniorbostadsmarknaden har ett särskilt segment identifierats där utöver seniorboende även service-, vård- och omsorgsrelaterade kringtjänster bjuds ut. Mot den bakgrunden har avhandlingens problemställning formulerats enligt följande: vad skapar en stark marknadsposition för en aktör på seniorbostadsmarknaden med integrerad service, vård och omsorg?

    Utgångspunkten har varit ett sannolikt scenario där privata initiativ i allt större utsträckning kommer att bidra till framtida boendelösningar riktade till samhällets seniora och äldrebefolkningsgrupper. Syftet med avhandlingen har varit dels att identifiera de framgångsfaktorer som kan antas ligger till grund för en stark marknadsposition, dels att skapa en typologi över olika affärsstrategier. Genom en branschanalys har det i avhandlingen påvisats att seniorbostadsmarknaden är en nischmarknad med marginell omfattning. Avhandlingens empiriska undersökning har designats som en fältstudie. Fältstudien har i sin tur bl.a. genomförts i form av en förstudie och en intervjustudie. Intervjustudien ägde rum under hösten 2004 med platsbesök och intervjuer av verksamhetsföreträdare för elva utvalda fallstudieorganisationer. Utifrån ett antal i förhand uppställda kriterier har marknadsaktörernas framgångsfaktorer identifierats. Den bearbetnings- och analysmodell som konstruerats för detta syfte och som använts för att analysera fältstudiens empiri är baserad på studier inom strategiområdet. Modellen har bl.a. inspirerats av forskare som Miles & Snow (1978), Porter (1980) och Gupta & Govindarajan (1984). Vidare bygger den på antagandena om resursers och kompetensers betydelse för strategiformuleringen. Service management, och då särskilt tjänsters sammansättning, är ett annat område som beaktas. Analysmodellen har byggts upp kring fem dimensioner: omgivning, strategi, resurser, tjänstekoncept och konkurrens. De identifierade framgångsfaktorerna har baserats på intervjustudiens två mest framgångsrika aktörer. Resultatet har formulerats i ett antal strategiska vägval vilka kan sammanfattas i begreppen: differentiering, fokus, integration, samverkan, kontroll, verksamhetsutveckling, kärnkompetens och resurser. I avhandlingen påvisas att aktörer som bedriver framgångsrik verksamhet på seniorbostadsmarknaden till stora delar följer det Porter (1980) definierat som en differentieringsstrategi med fokus. Avhandlingen har också utmynnat i en affärsstrategisk typologi för seniorbostadsmarknaden. Dessa tentativa slutsatser har formulerats i fyra strategiska idealtyper: förvaltare, konceptbyggare, entreprenörer och idealister.

  • 112.
    Ahlström, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems.
    Affärsstrategier och seniorbostadsmarknaden2005In: Fastighetsnytt, ISSN 1104-8913, Vol. 12 nr 5, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

      Artikeln beskriver några av resultaten från licentiatavhandlingen "Affärsstrategier för seniorbostadsmarknaden" av Petter Ahlström.      

  • 113.
    Ahlström, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interaktivt forskningssamarbete med seniorbostadsentreprenörer2003In: The 17th Nordic Conference on Business Studies in Reykjavik, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Ahlström, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Olve, Nils-Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems.
    Att mobilisera och vårda samverkan i forskning2007In: Högskolor och samhälle i samverkan 2007 HSS07,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Kunskapsutveckling är en långsiktig process där kontaktskapande och kontaktvård ofta har stor omfattning jämfört med den konkreta forskningsinsatsen. Utmaningen är att mobilisera och vårda en allians där forskare och praktiker samverkar. Ibland kan även finansiärer ha en aktiv roll. Intresse för forskningsinsatsen är en viktig utgångspunkt för samverkan men inte sällan finns det ytterligare orsaker till att ett samarbete kommer till stånd och består. Teoretisk inspiration för att diskutera detta kan hämtas från studier av s.k. imaginära och virtuella organisationer. I uppsatsen diskuteras detta mot bakgrund av erfarenheter från faktiska forskningsprojekt.     

  • 115.
    Ahlström, Vincent
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques.
    Improvement of simulation software for test equipment used in radio design and development2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global engineering design house Syntronic has requested a further development of the open source Python framework PyVISA-sim to enable dynamic simulations of signals and measuring instruments which would streamline development of their internal radio equipment testing tool. This tool is used by a world leading telecommunications company when developing their next generation radio equipment. PyVISA-sim is used in lab environments to test applications without access to real connected instruments. The project detailed in this thesis strives to pinpoint Syntronic’s needs, develop the requested functionality within the framework and have the changes implemented as part of the official GitHub repository, thereby making them available for anyone wanting to utilize them. To achieve this agile software development methods are utilized combined with an open source mindset. The resulting additions to PyVISA-sim can reduce the workload for all users in need of a more complex simulation method.   

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    fulltext
  • 116.
    Ahmad, Azeem
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Evaluation of Machine Learning Methods for Predicting Flaky Tests2020In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Quantitative Approaches to Software Quality (QuASoQ 2020) / [ed] Horst Lichter, Selin Aydin, Thanwadee Sunetnanta, Toni Anwar, CEUR-WS , 2020, Vol. 2767, p. 37-46Conference paper (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 117.
    Ahmad, Azeem
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Contributions to Improving Feedback and Trust in Automated Testing and Continuous Integration and Delivery2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An integrated release version (also known as a release candidate in software engineering) is produced by merging, building, and testing code on a regular basis as part of the Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (CI/CD) practices. Several benefits, including improved software quality and shorter release cycles, have been claimed for CI/CD. On the other hand, recent research has uncovered a plethora of problems and bad practices related to CI/CD adoption, necessitating some optimization. Some of the problems addressed in this work include the ability to respond to practitioners’ questions and obtain quick and trustworthy feedback in CI/CD. To be more specific, our effort concentrated on: 1) identifying the information needs of software practitioners engaged in CI/CD; 2) adopting test optimization approaches to obtain faster feedback that are realistic for use in CI/CD environments without introducing excessive technical requirements; 3) identifying perceived causes and automated root cause analysis of test flakiness, thereby providing developers with guidance on how to resolve test flakiness; and 4) identifying challenges in addressing information needs, providing faster and more trustworthy feedback. 

    The findings of the research reported in this thesis are based on data from three single-case studies and three multiple-case studies. The research uses quantitative and qualitative data collected via interviews, site visits, and workshops. To perform our analyses, we used data from firms producing embedded software as well as open-source repositories. The following are major research and practical contributions. 

    • Information Needs: The initial contribution to research is a list of information needs in CI/CD. This list contains 27 frequently asked questions on continuous integration and continuous delivery by software practitioners. The identified information needs have been classified as related to testing, code & commit, confidence, bug, and artifacts. We investigated how companies deal with information needs, what tools they use to deal with them, and who is interested in them. We concluded that there is a discrepancy between the identified needs and the techniques employed to meet them. Since some information needs cannot be met by current tools, manual inspections are required, which adds time to the process. Information about code & commit, confidence level, and testing is the most frequently sought for and most important information. 
    • Evaluation of Diversity Based Techniques/Tool: The contribution is to conduct a detailed examination of diversity-based techniques using industry test cases to determine if there is a difference between diversity functions in selecting integrationlevel automated test. Additionally, how diversity-based testing compares to other optimization techniques used in industry in terms of fault detection rates, feature coverage, and execution time. This enables us to observe how coverage changes when we run fewer test cases. We concluded that some of the techniques can eliminate up to 85% of test cases (provided by the case company) while still covering all distinct features/requirements. The techniques are developed and made available as an open-source tool for further research and application. 
    • Test Flakiness Detection, Prediction & Automated Root Cause Analysis: We identified 19 factors that professionals perceive affect test flakiness. These perceived factors are divided into four categories: test code, system under test, CI/test infrastructure, and organizational. We concluded that some of the perceived factors of test flakiness in closed-source development are directly related to non-determinism, whereas other perceived factors concern different aspects e.g., lack of good properties of a test case (i.e., small, simple and robust), deviations from the established  processes, etc. To see if the developers’ perceptions were in line with what they had labelled as flaky or not, we examined the test artifacts that were readily available. We verified that two of the identified perceived factors (i.e., test case size and simplicity) are indeed indicative of test flakiness. Furthermore, we proposed a light weight technique named trace-back coverage to detect flaky tests. Trace-back coverage was combined with other factors such as test smells indicating test flakiness, flakiness frequency and test case size to investigate the effect on revealing test flakiness. When all factors are taken into consideration, the precision of flaky test detection is increased from 57% (using single factor) to 86% (combination of different factors). 
    List of papers
    1. Data visualisation in continuous integration and delivery: Information needs, challenges, and recommendations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data visualisation in continuous integration and delivery: Information needs, challenges, and recommendations
    2022 (English)In: IET Software, ISSN 1751-8806, E-ISSN 1751-8814, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 331-349Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Several operations, ranging from regular code updates to compiling, building, testing, and distribution to customers, are consolidated in continuous integration and delivery. Professionals seek additional information to complete the mission at hand during these tasks. Developers who devote a large amount of time and effort to finding such information may become distracted from their work. We will better understand the processes, procedures, and resources used to deliver a quality product on time by defining the types of information that software professionals seek. A deeper understanding of software practitioners information needs has many advantages, including remaining competitive, growing knowledge of issues that can stymie a timely update, and creating a visualisation tool to assist practitioners in addressing their information needs. This is an extension of a previous work done by the authors. The authors conducted a multiple-case holistic study with six different companies (38 unique participants) to identify information needs in continuous integration and delivery. This study attempts to capture the importance, frequency, required effort (e.g. sequence of actions required to collect information), current approach to handling, and associated stakeholders with respect to identified needs. 27 information needs associated with different stakeholders (i.e. developers, testers, project managers, release team, and compliance authority) were identified. The identified needs were categorised as testing, code & commit, confidence, bug, and artefacts. Apart from identifying information needs, practitioners face several challenges in developing visualisation tools. Thus, 8 challenges that were faced by the practitioners to develop/maintain visualisation tools for the software team were identified. The recommendations from practitioners who are experts in developing, maintaining, and providing visualisation services to the software team were listed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY, 2022
    National Category
    Software Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-176847 (URN)10.1049/sfw2.12030 (DOI)000660517400001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Linkoping University

    Available from: 2021-06-22 Created: 2021-06-22 Last updated: 2022-10-20
    2. Improving continuous integration with similarity-based test case selection
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving continuous integration with similarity-based test case selection
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Automation of Software Test, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 39-45Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated testing is an essential component of Continuous Integration (CI) and Delivery (CD), such as scheduling automated test sessions on overnight builds. That allows stakeholders to execute entire test suites and achieve exhaustive test coverage, since running all tests is often infeasible during work hours, i.e., in parallel to development activities. On the other hand, developers also need test feedback from CI servers when pushing changes, even if not all test cases are executed. In this paper we evaluate similarity-based test case selection (SBTCS) on integration-level tests executed on continuous integration pipelines of two companies. We select test cases that maximise diversity of test coverage and reduce feedback time to developers. Our results confirm existing evidence that SBTCS is a strong candidate for test optimisation, by reducing feedback time (up to 92% faster in our case studies) while achieving full test coverage using only information from test artefacts themselves.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: ACM Digital Library, 2018
    Series
    International Workshop on Automation of Software Test, ISSN 2377-8628
    Keywords
    Similarity based test case selection, Continuous integration, Automated testing
    National Category
    Software Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152002 (URN)10.1145/3194733.3194744 (DOI)000458922700009 ()978-1-4503-5743-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    AST'18 2018 ACM/IEEE 13th International Workshop on Automation of Software Test
    Note

    Funding agencies: Chalmers Software Center7 [30]

    Available from: 2018-10-14 Created: 2018-10-14 Last updated: 2022-08-23
    3. Empirical analysis of practitioners perceptions of test flakiness factors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empirical analysis of practitioners perceptions of test flakiness factors
    2021 (English)In: Software testing, verification & reliability, ISSN 0960-0833, E-ISSN 1099-1689, Vol. 31, no 8, article id e1791Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the root causes of test flakiness is one of the challenges faced by practitioners during software testing. In other words, the testing of the software is hampered by test flakiness. Since the research about test flakiness in large-scale software engineering is scarce, the need for an empirical case-study where we can build a common and grounded understanding of the problem as well as relevant remedies that can later be evaluated in a large-scale context is a necessity. This study reports the findings from a multiple-case study. The authors conducted an online survey to investigate and catalogue the root causes of test flakiness and mitigation strategies. We attempted to understand how practitioners perceive test flakiness in closed-source development, such as how they define test flakiness and what practitioners perceive can affect test flakiness. The perceptions of practitioners were compared with the available literature. We investigated whether practitioners perceptions are reflected in the test artefacts such as what is the relationship between the perceived factors and properties of test artefacts. This study reported 19 factors that are perceived by professionals to affect test flakiness. These perceived factors are categorized as test code, system under test, CI/test infrastructure, and organization-related. The authors concluded that some of the perceived factors in test flakiness in closed-source development are directly related to non-determinism, whereas other perceived factors concern different aspects, for example, lack of good properties of a test case, deviations from the established processes, and ad hoc decisions. Given a data set from investigated cases, the authors concluded that two of the perceived factors (i.e., test case size and test case simplicity) have a strong effect on test flakiness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2021
    Keywords
    flaky tests; non-deterministic tests; practitioners perceptions; software testing; test smells
    National Category
    Software Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-178938 (URN)10.1002/stvr.1791 (DOI)000687875100001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Chalmers Tekniska Hogskola; Linkopings Universitet

    Available from: 2021-09-06 Created: 2021-09-06 Last updated: 2022-08-23
    4. An Evaluation of Machine Learning Methods for Predicting Flaky Tests
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Evaluation of Machine Learning Methods for Predicting Flaky Tests
    2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Quantitative Approaches to Software Quality (QuASoQ 2020) / [ed] Horst Lichter, Selin Aydin, Thanwadee Sunetnanta, Toni Anwar, CEUR-WS , 2020, Vol. 2767, p. 37-46Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    CEUR-WS, 2020
    Series
    CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073
    National Category
    Software Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-174179 (URN)2-s2.0-85097906339 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    27th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC 2020) Singapore (virtual), December 1, 2020.
    Available from: 2021-03-15 Created: 2021-03-15 Last updated: 2022-10-14Bibliographically approved
    5. A Multi-factor Approach for Flaky Test Detection and Automated Root Cause Analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multi-factor Approach for Flaky Test Detection and Automated Root Cause Analysis
    Show others...
    2021 (English)In: 2021 28TH ASIA-PACIFIC SOFTWARE ENGINEERING CONFERENCE (APSEC 2021), IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2021, p. 338-348Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developers often spend time to determine whether test case failures are real failures or flaky. The flaky tests, also known as non-deterministic tests, switch their outcomes without any modification in the codebase, hence reducing the confidence of developers during maintenance as well as in the quality of a product. Re-running test cases to reveal flakiness is resource-consuming, unreliable and does not reveal the root causes of test flakiness. Our paper evaluates a multi-factor approach to identify flaky test executions implemented in a tool named MDFlaker. The four factors are: trace-back coverage, flaky frequency, number of test smells, and test size. Based on the extracted factors, MDFlaker uses k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) to determine whether failed test executions are flaky. We investigate MDFlaker in a case study with 2166 test executions from different open-source repositories. We evaluate the effectiveness of our flaky detection tool. We illustrate how the multi-factor approach can be used to reveal root causes for flakiness, and we conduct a qualitative comparison between MDFlaker and other tools proposed in literature. Our results show that the combination of different factors can be used to identify flaky tests. Each factor has its own trade-off, e.g., trace-back leads to many true positives, while flaky frequency yields more true negatives. Therefore, specific combinations of factors enable classification for testers with limited information (e.g., not enough test history information).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE COMPUTER SOC, 2021
    Series
    Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, ISSN 1530-1362
    Keywords
    flaky tests; non-deterministic tests; flaky test detection; automated root-cause analysis; trace-back
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-186181 (URN)10.1109/APSEC53868.2021.00041 (DOI)000802192700034 ()9781665437844 (ISBN)9781665437851 (ISBN)
    Conference
    28th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC), ELECTR NETWORK, dec 06-09, 2021
    Available from: 2022-06-23 Created: 2022-06-23 Last updated: 2022-09-22
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  • 118.
    Ahmad, Azeem
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Software professionals' information needs in continuous integration and delivery2021In: SAC '21: Proceedings of the 36th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied ComputingMarch 2021, New York, NY, USA, 2021, p. 1513-1520Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous integration and delivery consolidate several activities, ranging from frequent code changes to compiling, building, testing, and deployment to customers. During these activities, software professionals seek additional information to perform the task at hand. Developers that spend a considerable amount of time and effort to identify such information can be distracted from doing productive work. By identifying the types of information that software professionals seek, we can better understand the processes, practices, and tools that are required to develop a quality product on time. A better understanding of the information needs of software practitioners has several benefits, such as staying competitive, increasing awareness of the issues that can hinder a timely release, and building a visualization tool that can help practitioners to address their information needs. We conducted a multiple-case holistic study with 5 different companies (34 unique participants) to identify information needs in continuous integration and delivery. This study attempts to capture the importance, frequency, required effort (e.g., sequence of actions required to collect information), current approach to handling, and associated stakeholders with respect to identified needs. We identified 27 information needs associated with different stakeholders (i.e., developers, testers, project managers, release team, and compliance authority). The identified needs were categorized as testing, code & commit, confidence, bug, and artifacts. We discussed whether the information needs were aligned with the tools used to address them.

  • 119.
    Ahmad, Azeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    de Oliveira Neto, Francisco Gomes
    Chalmers & Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shi, Zhixiang
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Multi-factor Approach for Flaky Test Detection and Automated Root Cause Analysis2021In: 2021 28TH ASIA-PACIFIC SOFTWARE ENGINEERING CONFERENCE (APSEC 2021), IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2021, p. 338-348Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developers often spend time to determine whether test case failures are real failures or flaky. The flaky tests, also known as non-deterministic tests, switch their outcomes without any modification in the codebase, hence reducing the confidence of developers during maintenance as well as in the quality of a product. Re-running test cases to reveal flakiness is resource-consuming, unreliable and does not reveal the root causes of test flakiness. Our paper evaluates a multi-factor approach to identify flaky test executions implemented in a tool named MDFlaker. The four factors are: trace-back coverage, flaky frequency, number of test smells, and test size. Based on the extracted factors, MDFlaker uses k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) to determine whether failed test executions are flaky. We investigate MDFlaker in a case study with 2166 test executions from different open-source repositories. We evaluate the effectiveness of our flaky detection tool. We illustrate how the multi-factor approach can be used to reveal root causes for flakiness, and we conduct a qualitative comparison between MDFlaker and other tools proposed in literature. Our results show that the combination of different factors can be used to identify flaky tests. Each factor has its own trade-off, e.g., trace-back leads to many true positives, while flaky frequency yields more true negatives. Therefore, specific combinations of factors enable classification for testers with limited information (e.g., not enough test history information).

  • 120.
    Ahmad, Azeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Held, Erik Norrestam
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Identifying Randomness related Flaky Tests through Divergence and Execution Tracing2022In: 2022 IEEE 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE TESTING, VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION WORKSHOPS (ICSTW 2022), IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2022, p. 293-300Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developers often spend time to determine whether test case failures are real failures or flaky. The flaky tests, known as non-deterministic tests, change their outcomes without any changes in the codebase, thus reducing the trust of developers during a software release as well as in the quality of a product. While rerunning test cases is a common approach, it is resource intensive, unreliable, and does not uncover the actual cause of test flakiness. Our paper evaluates an approach to identify randomness-related flaky. This paper used a divergence algorithm and execution tracing techniques to identify flaky tests, which resulted in the FLAKYPY prototype. In addition, this paper discusses the cases where FLAKYPY successfully identified the flaky test as well as those cases where FLAKYPY failed. The papers discuss how the reporting mechanism of FLAKYPY can help developers in identifying the root cause of randomness-related test flakiness. Thirty-two open-source projects were used in this. We concluded that FLAKYPY can detect most of the randomness-related test flakiness. In addition, the reporting mechanism of FLAKYPY reveals sufficient information about possible root causes of test flakiness.

  • 121.
    Ahmad, Azeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Data visualisation in continuous integration and delivery: Information needs, challenges, and recommendations2022In: IET Software, ISSN 1751-8806, E-ISSN 1751-8814, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 331-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several operations, ranging from regular code updates to compiling, building, testing, and distribution to customers, are consolidated in continuous integration and delivery. Professionals seek additional information to complete the mission at hand during these tasks. Developers who devote a large amount of time and effort to finding such information may become distracted from their work. We will better understand the processes, procedures, and resources used to deliver a quality product on time by defining the types of information that software professionals seek. A deeper understanding of software practitioners information needs has many advantages, including remaining competitive, growing knowledge of issues that can stymie a timely update, and creating a visualisation tool to assist practitioners in addressing their information needs. This is an extension of a previous work done by the authors. The authors conducted a multiple-case holistic study with six different companies (38 unique participants) to identify information needs in continuous integration and delivery. This study attempts to capture the importance, frequency, required effort (e.g. sequence of actions required to collect information), current approach to handling, and associated stakeholders with respect to identified needs. 27 information needs associated with different stakeholders (i.e. developers, testers, project managers, release team, and compliance authority) were identified. The identified needs were categorised as testing, code & commit, confidence, bug, and artefacts. Apart from identifying information needs, practitioners face several challenges in developing visualisation tools. Thus, 8 challenges that were faced by the practitioners to develop/maintain visualisation tools for the software team were identified. The recommendations from practitioners who are experts in developing, maintaining, and providing visualisation services to the software team were listed.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 122.
    Ahmad, Azeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Empirical analysis of practitioners perceptions of test flakiness factors2021In: Software testing, verification & reliability, ISSN 0960-0833, E-ISSN 1099-1689, Vol. 31, no 8, article id e1791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the root causes of test flakiness is one of the challenges faced by practitioners during software testing. In other words, the testing of the software is hampered by test flakiness. Since the research about test flakiness in large-scale software engineering is scarce, the need for an empirical case-study where we can build a common and grounded understanding of the problem as well as relevant remedies that can later be evaluated in a large-scale context is a necessity. This study reports the findings from a multiple-case study. The authors conducted an online survey to investigate and catalogue the root causes of test flakiness and mitigation strategies. We attempted to understand how practitioners perceive test flakiness in closed-source development, such as how they define test flakiness and what practitioners perceive can affect test flakiness. The perceptions of practitioners were compared with the available literature. We investigated whether practitioners perceptions are reflected in the test artefacts such as what is the relationship between the perceived factors and properties of test artefacts. This study reported 19 factors that are perceived by professionals to affect test flakiness. These perceived factors are categorized as test code, system under test, CI/test infrastructure, and organization-related. The authors concluded that some of the perceived factors in test flakiness in closed-source development are directly related to non-determinism, whereas other perceived factors concern different aspects, for example, lack of good properties of a test case, deviations from the established processes, and ad hoc decisions. Given a data set from investigated cases, the authors concluded that two of the perceived factors (i.e., test case size and test case simplicity) have a strong effect on test flakiness.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 123.
    Ahmad, Azeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berglund, Aseel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Perceived Effects of Introducing Coaching on the Development of Student's Soft Skills Managing Software Quality.2021In: Proceedings of 4th Software Engineering Education Workshop (SEED 2021) co-located with APSEC 2021, 06-Dec, 2021, Taipei, Taiwan, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical abilities (also known as hard skills) are just as crucial as soft skills (such as communication, cooperation, teamwork, etc.) in attaining professional success. Therefore it is important to pay much attention to soft skills when developing the curriculum of engineering educations. Many elements can have a direct or indirect impact on students’ soft skills, including course topic, course module (i.e., laboratories, seminars, etc.), the medium of instruction, and learning activities. Many academics have investigated the development of soft skills in a variety of disciplines, including engineering, science, and business. The purpose of this study is to assess the perceived impact of coaching on the development of soft skills in MS and BS engineering students. During four planned sessions over a six-month period, MS students acted as coachers, while BS students received coaching from MS students. After each coaching session, all students were asked to complete a survey to evaluate their perception for how their soft skills had developed. The results of the perceived effects of introducing coaching activities are presented in this article. This article is a first step, in the series of our investigation, in identifying the students’ perceptions about the development of soft skills. According to the survey, the MS engineering students who were the coachers had perceived to improve most of their soft skills. However, in the perception of BS students, their soft skills did not improve as compared to MS students, prompting us to conduct additional research in the future to discover what hampered the growth of BS students’ soft skills as well as how MS students’ soft skills were enhanced.

  • 124.
    Ahmad, Fozail
    et al.
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Rangappa, Maruthi
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Katiyar, Neeraj
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Staniszewski, Martin
    Siemens Energy, Canada.
    Varro, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. McGill Univ, Canada.
    Hybrid Cloudification of Legacy Software for Efficient Simulation of Gas Turbine Designs2023In: 2023 IEEE/ACM 45TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING: SOFTWARE ENGINEERING IN PRACTICE, ICSE-SEIP, IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2023, p. 384-395Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing aeroderivative gas turbines at Siemens Energy, engine models are subject to complex simulation campaigns for finite element analysis carried out by a legacy simulation tool. This paper presents results of a multi-year software modernization project to provide a software-as-a-service (SaaS) framework that enables the distributed and automated execution of simulation jobs over a hybrid cloud platform containing both private cloud and public cloud nodes. Our framework allows to significantly reduce the net time required for completing complex simulation campaigns, thus increasing the effectiveness of engineers. The performance of our framework is evaluated in various cloud configurations with complex simulation campaigns performed in the context of a real simulation task.

  • 125.
    Ahmad, Ijaz
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Kumar, Tanesh
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Liyanage, Madhusanka
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Okwuibe, Jude
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Ylianttila, Mika
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Gurtov, Andrei
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    5G Security: Analysis of Threats and Solutions2017In: 2017 IEEE CONFERENCE ON STANDARDS FOR COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING (CSCN), IEEE , 2017, p. 193-199Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    5G will provide broadband access everywhere, entertain higher user mobility, and enable connectivity of massive number of devices (e.g. Internet of Things (IoT)) in an ultrareliable and affordable way. The main technological enablers such as cloud computing, Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) are maturing towards their use in 5G. However, there are pressing security challenges in these technologies besides the growing concerns for user privacy. In this paper, we provide an overview of the security challenges in these technologies and the issues of privacy in 5G. Furthermore, we present security solutions to these challenges and future directions for secure 5G systems.

  • 126.
    Ahmad, Ijaz
    et al.
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Liyanage, Madhusanka
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Ylianttila, Mika
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Gurtov, Andrei
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analysis of Deployment Challenges of Host Identity Protocol2017In: 2017 EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS (EUCNC), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Host Identity Protocol (HIP), a novel internetworking technology proposes separation of the identity-location roles of the Internet Protocol (IP). HIP has been successful from the technological perspectives for network security and mobility, however, it has very limited deployment. In this paper we assess HIP to find the reasons behind its limited deployment and highlight the challenges faced by HIP for its commercial use. We propose technological development and outline deployment strategies for the wide use of HIP. Furthermore, this paper investigates the use of HIP in Software Defined Networks (SDN) to evaluate its performance in new disruptive networking technologies. In a nutshell, this paper presents revealing challenges for the deployment of innovative networking protocols and a way ahead for successful and large scale deployment.

  • 127.
    Ahmad, Ijaz
    et al.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Finland.
    Shahabuddin, Shariar
    Nokia, Finland.
    Malik, Hassan
    Edge Hill Univ, England.
    Harjula, Erkki
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Leppanen, Teemu
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Loven, Lauri
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Anttonen, Antti
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Finland.
    Sodhro, Ali Hassan
    Mid Sweden Univ, Sweden.
    Mahtab Alam, Muhammad
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Estonia.
    Juntti, Markku
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Yla-Jaaski, Antti
    Aalto Univ, Finland.
    Sauter, Thilo
    TU Wien, Austria; Danube Univ Krems, Austria.
    Gurtov, Andrei
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ylianttila, Mika
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Riekki, Jukka
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Machine Learning Meets Communication Networks: Current Trends and Future Challenges2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 223418-223460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing network density and unprecedented increase in network traffic, caused by the massively expanding number of connected devices and online services, require intelligent network operations. Machine Learning (ML) has been applied in this regard in different types of networks and networking technologies to meet the requirements of future communicating devices and services. In this article, we provide a detailed account of current research on the application of ML in communication networks and shed light on future research challenges. Research on the application of ML in communication networks is described in: i) the three layers, i.e., physical, access, and network layers; and ii) novel computing and networking concepts such as Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC), Software Defined Networking (SDN), Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), and a brief overview of ML-based network security. Important future research challenges are identified and presented to help stir further research in key areas in this direction.

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  • 128.
    Ahmad, Ijaz
    et al.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Finland.
    Suomalainen, Jani
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Finland.
    Porambage, Pawani
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Finland; Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Gurtov, Andrei
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huusko, Jyrki
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Finland.
    Höyhtyä, Marko
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Finland.
    Security of Satellite-Terrestrial Communications: Challenges and Potential Solutions2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 96038-96052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of satellite and terrestrial networks has become inevitable in the next generations of communications networks due to emerging needs of ubiquitous connectivity of remote locations. New and existing services and critical infrastructures in remote locations in sea, on land and in space will be seamlessly connected through a diverse set of terrestrial and non-terrestrial communication technologies. However, the integration of terrestrial and non-terrestrial systems will open up both systems to unique security challenges that can arise due to the migration of security challenges from one to another. Similarly, security challenges can also arise due to the incompatibility of distinct systems or incoherence of security policies. The resulting security implications, thus, can be highly consequential due to the criticality of the infrastructures such as space stations, autonomous ships, and airplanes, for instance. Therefore, in this article we study existing security challenges in satellite-terrestrial communication systems and discuss potential solutions for those challenges. Furthermore, we provide important research directions to encourage future research on existing security gaps.

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  • 129.
    Ahmadian, Amirhossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ding, Yifan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eilertsen, Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Lindsten, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Unsupervised Novelty Detection in Pretrained Representation Space with Locally Adapted Likelihood Ratio2024In: International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics 2024, Proceedings of Machine Learning Research, 2024Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Ahmadian, Amirhossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindsten, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enhancing Representation Learning with Deep Classifiers in Presence of Shortcut2023In: Proceedings of IEEE ICASSP 2023, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A deep neural classifier trained on an upstream task can be leveraged to boost the performance of another classifier in a related downstream task through the representations learned in hidden layers. However, presence of shortcuts (easy-to-learn features) in the upstream task can considerably impair the versatility of intermediate representations and, in turn, the downstream performance. In this paper, we propose a method to improve the representations learned by deep neural image classifiers in spite of a shortcut in upstream data. In our method, the upstream classification objective is augmented with a type of adversarial training where an auxiliary network, so called lens, fools the classifier by exploiting the shortcut in reconstructing images. Empirical comparisons in self-supervised and transfer learning problems with three shortcut-biased datasets suggest the advantages of our method in terms of downstream performance and/or training time.

  • 131.
    Ahmadian, Amirhossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindsten, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Likelihood-free Out-of-Distribution Detection with Invertible Generative Models2021In: Proceedings of the Thirtieth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 2021), 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Likelihood of generative models has been used traditionally as a score to detect atypical (Out-of-Distribution, OOD) inputs. However, several recent studies have found this approach to be highly unreliable, even with invertible generative models, where computing the likelihood is feasible. In this paper, we present a different framework for generative model--based OOD detection that employs the model in constructing a new representation space, instead of using it directly in computing typicality scores, where it is emphasized that the score function should be interpretable as the similarity between the input and training data in the new space. In practice, with a focus on invertible models, we propose to extract low-dimensional features (statistics) based on the model encoder and complexity of input images, and then use a One-Class SVM to score the data. Contrary to recently proposed OOD detection methods for generative models, our method does not require computing likelihood values. Consequently, it is much faster when using invertible models with iteratively approximated likelihood (e.g. iResNet), while it still has a performance competitive with other related methods

  • 132.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Systematic Literature Review of "Usability Inspection Methods"2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Usability inspection methods are a class of usability evaluation methods, applied by usability evaluators to assess usability related aspects of different user interfaces. Different usability inspection methods are proposed so far to evaluate user interfaces in a better way. This systematic literature review summarized different usability evaluation methods, with more focus on two widely used inspection methods. The review also summarized the problems with these two methods and probable proposed solution to cope with these problems.

    Method: A systematic review method as described by Kitchenham [3] was followed to carry out this review. The identified problems in the review were structured in a form of questions. The search to find the relevant data that address the identified questions were conducted on the basis of planned search strategies. Papers were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria in accordance with the quality checklist; followed by data extraction and synthesis strictly characterized by quality checklist, inclusion and exclusion criteria to attain better results.

    Results and discussion: Despite of its advantages there still exists many weaknesses in Heuristic evaluation (HE) and Cognitive walk-through (CW) methods. Different studies have highlighted different factors that may influence the results. Those factors include number of evaluators, evaluator’s perception and experience, time, environment, cost, indigenous design, the way method applied and acquired software.

    Conclusion: To get better evaluation results, it is best to use different techniques for usability evaluation of single software or optimize existing techniques.

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    aliah706_Master_thesis
  • 133.
    Ahmed, Ijaz
    et al.
    Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Shahabuddin, Shahriar
    Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland; Nokia, Oulu, Finland.
    Tanesh, Kumar
    Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Okwuibe, Jude
    Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Gurtov, Andrei
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ylianttila, Mika
    Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Security for 5G and Beyond2019In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 3682-3722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the Fifth Generation (5G) wireless networks is gaining momentum to connect almost all aspects of life through the network with much higher speed, very low latency and ubiquitous connectivity. Due to its crucial role in our lives, the network must secure its users, components, and services. The security threat landscape of 5G has grown enormously due to the unprecedented increase in types of services and in the number of devices. Therefore, security solutions if not developed yet must be envisioned already to cope with diverse threats on various services, novel technologies, and increased user information accessible by the network. This article outlines the 5G network threat landscape, the security vulnerabilities in the new technological concepts that will be adopted by 5G, and provides either solutions to those threats or future directions to cope with those security challenges. We also provide a brief outline of the post-5G cellular technologies and their security vulnerabilities which is referred to as Future Generations (XG) in this paper. In brief, this article highlights the present and future security challenges in wireless networks, mainly in 5G, and future directions to secure wireless networks beyond 5G.

  • 134.
    Ahmetspahic, Emir
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Distributed Computing in Peer-to-peer Networks2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concepts like peer-to-peer networks and distributed computing are not new. They have been available in different forms for a long time. This thesis examines the possibility of merging these concepts. The assumption is that non-centralized peer-to-peer networks can be used for effective sharing of computing resources. While most peer-to-peer systems today concentrate on sharing of data in various forms, this thesis concentrates on sharing of clock cycles instead of files.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 135.
    Aho Mathiesen, Hella
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Requirements on HRA?: A review of requirements on HRA from international standards, swedish NPP's and interviews with performers in the field.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) is a part of PSA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) to evaluate if and which human actions that could contribute to a core damage in a NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). This thesis investigates requirements that are put on HRA in connection to requirements that are put on the PSA, both from the view of international standard but also through HRA method descriptions and performed analyses from Swedish NPPs as well as through interviews with performers in the field.

    The results shows that the requirements that are put on the HRA from the international standards are generic (few specific requirements are to be found) and can be said to be reflected in the performed analysis on Swedish NPPs. Another result shows that there isn't much difference between different NPP units on how the HRA is performed; the general requirements from the international standards are most often followed in some sense. There is more a questions of level of detail and/or traceability described in the analysis that can be said to be of difference. The results also shows on the fact that it is very hard to transform the more qualitative results from the HRA into a quantitative value that can work as an input to the PSA. Some of the interviewees expressed a sort of resignation that it felt as if the qualitative parts of the HRA weren't seen in the same light as the quantitative parts, and that there is no consensus on how for example factors that influence the work of the operators (such as stress, the quality of instructions, complexity of the task or available time) in a reliable way can be evaluated quantitatively. This is something that further research could be focused on.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 136.
    Ahokas, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Persson, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Formal security verification of the Drone Remote Identification Protocol using Tamarin2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current standard for remote identification of unmanned aircraft does not contain anyform of security considerations, opening up possibilities for impersonation attacks. Thenewly proposed Drone Remote Identification Protocol aims to change this. To fully ensurethat the protocol is secure before real world implementation, we conduct a formal verification using the Tamarin Prover tool, with the goal of detecting possible vulnerabilities. Theunderlying technologies of the protocol are studied and important aspects are identified.The main contribution of this thesis is the formal verification of session key secrecy andmessage authenticity within the proposed protocol. Certain aspects of protocol securityare still missing from the scripts, but the protocol is deemed secure to the extent of themodel. Many features of both the protocol and Tamarin Prover are presented in detail,serving as a potential base for the continued work toward a complete formal verificationof the protocol in the future.

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  • 137.
    Ahremark, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Bazso, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Benchmarking a machine learning model in the transformation from PyTorch to CoreML2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to rapid development in the field of machine learning and large increases in the capabilitiesof mobile devices, utilizing machine learning on these is becoming increasingly popular. Onemethod of deployment is to develop a machine learning model in well-established deep learningframeworks like PyTorch. However, to be able to run these models on mobile devices, specificframeworks are usually needed. In this thesis, we investigate the performance of a popular objectdetection model, YOLOv5, while being converted from PyTorch to CoreML. This includesmeasuring the performance of the model while running on different hardware. To accomplishthis, we put forward several common benchmarking metrics and compare the different stages.Our results show that CoreML greatly reduces the latency of a machine learning model and hascomparable detection accuracy of within a few percent in the metrics chosen. For iOS deviceswith the ANE-chipset, we also found that ANE (Apple Neural Engine) has significantly fasterlatency compared to running the model on GPU and CPU, while detection accuracy ismaintained. We discuss what could be the root cause for the small loss of accuracy in the modeland a foundation is laid for future work.

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  • 138.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Simple Hybrid Aligner for Generating Lexical Correspondences in Parallel Texts.1998In: Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING-ACL'98) / [ed] Pierre Isabelle, Stroudsburg, PA, USA: The Association for Computational Linguistics , 1998, p. 29-35Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alignment2014In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology / [ed] Chan Sin-wai, London and New York: Routledge, 2014, p. 395-408Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alignment-based profiling of Europarl data in an English-Swedish parallel corpus2010In: Proceedings of the Seventh conference on International Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10) / [ed] Nicoletta Calzolari (Conference Chair) and Khalid Choukri and Bente Maegaard and Joseph Mariani and Jan Odijk and Stelios Piperidis and Mike Rosner and Daniel Tapias, Paris, France: European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2010, p. 3398-3404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper profiles the Europarl part of an English-Swedish parallel corpus and compares it with three other subcorpora of the sameparallel corpus. We first describe our method for comparison which is based on alignments, both at the token level and the structurallevel. Although two of the other subcorpora contains fiction, it is found that the Europarl part is the one having the highest proportion ofmany types of restructurings, including additions, deletions and long distance reorderings. We explain this by the fact that the majorityof Europarl segments are parallel translations.

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  • 141.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Att vara Lars: Några tankar om språkteknologi och socioonomastik2022In: Live and learn: Festschrift in honor of Lars Borin / [ed] Volodina, Elena Dannélls, Dana Berdicevskis, Aleksandrs Forsberg, Markus Virk, Shafqat, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2022, p. 1-4Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the SweClarin project began in 2015 its resources in terms of data and tools have been used in many different projects including linguistics. A research area where they have been less employed is the study of names. In this paper I suggest that language technology and general corpora can be used to contribute to the sociological study of personal names and offer a few examples. As is fit for the occasioin I take Lars as the point of departure. 

  • 142.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automatisk textanalys i språkprofessionerna1999In: Samtal och språkanvändning i professionerna: Rapport från ASLA:s höstsymposium, Linköping, 6-7 november 1997 / [ed] Per Linell, Lars Ahrenberg, Linda Jönsson, Uppsala: ASLA , 1999, p. 19-32Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chunk Accuracy: A Simple, Flexible Metric for Translation Quality2014In: LREC 2014 - NINTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LANGUAGE RESOURCES AND EVALUATION, European Language Resources Association, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 144.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Codified Close Translation as a Standard for MT2005In: Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation,2005, Budapest: EAMT , 2005, p. 13-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Comparing machine translation and human translation: A case study2017In: RANLP 2017 The First Workshop on Human-Informed Translation and Interpreting Technology (HiT-IT) Proceedings of the Workshop, September 7th, 2017 / [ed] Irina Temnikova, Constantin Orasan, Gloria Corpas and Stephan Vogel, Shoumen, Bulgaria: Association for Computational Linguistics , 2017, p. 21-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As machine translation technology improves comparisons to human performance are often made in quite general and exaggerated terms. Thus, it is important to be able to account for differences accurately. This paper reports a simple, descriptive scheme for comparing translations and applies it to two translations of a British opinion article published in March, 2017. One is a human translation (HT) into Swedish, and the other a machine translation (MT). While the comparison is limited to one text, the results are indicative of current limitations in MT.

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    Comparing machine translation and human translation: A case study
  • 146.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Converting an English-Swedish Parallel Treebank to Universal Dependencies2015In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Dependency Linguistics (DepLing 2015), Association for Computational Linguistics, 2015, p. 10-19, article id W15-2103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports experiences of automatically converting the dependency analysis of the LinES English-Swedish parallel treebank to universal dependencies (UD). The most tangible result is a version of the treebank that actually employs the relations and parts-of-speech categories required by UD, and no other. It is also more complete in that punctuation marks have received dependencies, which is not the case in the original version. We discuss our method in the light of problems that arise from the desire to keep the syntactic analyses of a parallel treebank internally consistent, while available monolingual UD treebanks for English and Swedish diverge somewhat in their use of UD annotations. Finally, we compare the output from the conversion program with the existing UD treebanks.

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  • 147.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Fitting Fixed Expressions into the UD Mould: Swedish as a Use Case2024In: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Multiword Expressions and Universal Dependencies (MWE-UD) @ LREC-COLING 2024 / [ed] Archna Bhatia, Gosse Bouma, A. Seza Doğruöz, Kilian Evang, Marcos Garcia, Voula Giouli, Lifeng Han, Joakim Nivre, Alexandre Rademaker, 2024, p. 33-42-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixed multiword expressions are common in many, if not all, natural languages. In the Universal Dependenciesframework, UD, a subset of these expressions are modelled with the dependency relation fixed, targeting themost grammaticalized cases of functional multiword items. In this paper we perform a detailed analysis of 439expressions modelled with fixed in two Swedish UD treebanks in order to reduce their numbers and fit thedefinition of fixed better. We identify a large number of dimensions of variation for fixed multiword expressionsthat can be used for the purpose. We also point out several problematic aspects of the current UD approachto multiword expressions and discuss different alternative solutions for modelling fixed expresions. We suggestthat insights from Constructional Grammar (CxG) can help with a more systematic treatment of fixed expressions in UD.

  • 148.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    LinES: An English-Swedish Parallel Treebank2007In: Proceedings of 16th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics Nodalida,2007 / [ed] Joakim Nivre, Heiki-Jaan Kaalep, Kadri Muischnek, Mare Koit, Tartu, Estonia: University of Tartu , 2007, p. 270-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an English-Swedish Parallel Treebank, LinES, that is currently under development. LinES is intended as a resource for the study of variation in translation of common syntactic constructions from English to Swedish. For this reason, annotation in LinES is syntactically oriented, multi-level, complete and manually reviewed according to guidelines. Another aim of LinES is to support queries made in terms of types of translation shifts.

  • 149.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Positions vs. precedences as primitives of constituent order1999In: Saetningsskemaet i Generativ Grammatik / [ed] Per Anker Jensen og Peter Skadhauge, Kolding: Institut for Erhvervssproglig Informatik og Kommunikation, Syddansk Universitet , 1999, p. 1-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 150.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Precedenser eller positioner för beskrivningen av svenskans ledföljd.1999In: Svenskans beskrivning 23: Förhandlingar vid Tjugotredje sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Andersson, Aina Lundqvist, Kerstin Norén, Lena Rogström, Lund: Lund University Press , 1999, p. 19-27Conference paper (Other academic)
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