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  • 201.
    Lopez Vega, Henry
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Open innovation in emerging markets: The connection of strategy and capabilities2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 202.
    Lundvik, Axel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktrealisering.
    Effektivisering av produktframtagningen för kundanpassade hydraulcylindrar genom användning av automationsramverk2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 28 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet som detaljeras i denna rapport är utfört på uppdrag av företaget Xperdi AB, designautomationsexperter vars önskemål med projektet var en demonstration av effekten avdesignautomation. Projektförslaget innefattar utveckling och användningen av ett automationsramverk för automatisk generering av unika hydraulcylindermodeller efter specifika designkrav. För att genomföra arbetet har olika verktyg och metoder kombinerats. Modellens delkomponenter konstruerades i CAD-programmet SolidWorks och kompletterades med nödvändiga data för att förbereda CAD-filerna för konfiguration. XCC (Xperdi CAD Configurator) är ett konfigurationsverktyg som hanterar datan från CAD och erbjuder extern styrning och konfiguration av CAD-modellen. För att automatisera konfigurationen som möjliggörs av XCC har ett gränssnitt för designval och olika verkställande operationer skapats i programmet Visual Studio, med tillhörande kod skriven i det objektorienterade språket Visual Basic. Koden i Visual Studio kommunicerar med XCC och innehåller konfigurativa instruktioner för modellen baserat på valda inputs, men även direkt med SolidWorks för verkställandet av specifika SolidWorks-funktioner. Projektet har resulterat i en anpassningsbar hydraulcylindermodell vars specifikationer styrs från gränssnittet, med funktionalitet för automatisk generering av hålbilder och ritningar för samtliga unika konfigurationer i designrymden. Även tidsvinsterna av designautomation har undersökts. Resultaten indikerar att arbetet med att upprätta ett automationsramverk har betydande fördelar, dels med avseende på hastigheten av designändringar som uppmätts, dels med avseende på mervärdet som tillkommer vid reduktion av repetitivt arbete. Dock tas i beaktning att fördelarna av designautomation bör vägas mot resursinvesteringarna som krävs.

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    fulltext
  • 203.
    Luu, ViChi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Methodology development for parametric CAD modeling in CATIA V5 to aid simulation driven design using turbine volute as a case study2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the documentation of a master’s thesis which was conducted at Scania CV AB in Södertälje. In this study, the benefits, challenges and conditions of using parametric CAD-models for aiding CFD-simulations and performance-optimization in the product development within internal combustion engines have been assessed. The goal of the thesis included developing and proposing a methodology for design engineers at Scania which will aid them in creating parametric CAD-models which are robust, flexible, comprehensible and intelligent. The study also included assessing the benefits and pre-requisites of such methodology with both practical and theoretical approaches. The ultimate goal of this entire study was to create value for the organization by reducing lead-time in the design process while promoting the production of high quality products.

    A case-based approach was applied in the study in which modeling strategies resulting from practical investigations and analyzing existing methodologies were implemented on a CAD-model representing the gas-volume of a turbine volute. The chosen strategies were evaluated and subsequently documented as a part of the methodology or discarded depending on its support for the parameterization. The final methodology itself was evaluated based on the quality of the parameterized CAD-model, the time required to create the model and its compatibility to the present design process at Scania CV AB. Finally the methodology was discussed with respect to the different evaluations, and the defined research questions were discussed and answered. The results of the thesis revealed that if parametric CAD-models are made in a structured, standardized and conscious manner, they are able to be highly robust and flexible which gives the models the ability to assume a big set of different forms. The methodology is recommended to be tested in a pilot project and be implemented through internal courses at the company.

    It was concluded that a methodology which aids the design engineers in creating parametric CAD-models will be the key towards implementing parametric CAD-models in the company and also enabling the many benefits of parameterization, which includes reduced lead-time, enhanced component performance, increased knowledge about the component, and promotion of collaboration among engineers. It was also concluded that parametric models are best suited when the existing design freedom is big and when the time permits performance analyses via optimizations, while challenges include ensuring that the model is parameterized correctly with respect to the CFD-engineers’ wishes while taking into account the requirements from other disciplines. Therefore it is very important to establish a communication between the different engineers. Ultimately, when parametric models are established in the organization, they are recommended to be implemented eventually in both short-term and long-term projects within Scania for its beneficial properties.

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    ViChiLuuThesis
  • 204.
    Maack, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Innovation in Logistics Companies: A Literature Review and Proposed Research Framework for Sustainable Business Models2009Ingår i: Proceedings from the 21st Annual NOFOMA Conference: 11-12 June 2009, Jönköping, Sweden, Jönköping: JIBS , 2009, s. 466-482Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper

    To gain competitiveness in the future, logistics companies will meet more severe demands on sustainability than today, which must be met in their business models. The purpose of the paper is to develop a framework for research into sustainable business models for logistics companies. In addition, a practice-oriented goal is to encourage logistics companies to grasp a more holistic view of their environmental aspects and opportunities.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper is based on a literature review in two steps. A structured search on key words relating to business model aspects and logistics was conducted. This search was complemented by a scan of academic journals focusing logistics research. The findings were discussed and analysed regarding their environmental content.

    Findings

    The literature on business model aspects as well as logistics issues in general only occasionally address sustainability issues. The most important result of this paper is a research framework for sustainable business models for logistics companies.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

    This paper deliberately takes a wide approach to the business model concept, and is a first step towards defining appropriate research tasks and to further develop a research design.

    What is original/value of paper

    Literature on logistics based business models exists, however it is not developed for logistics companies, which are in focus in this paper. Furthermore, environmental aspects are not addressed in that literature.

  • 205.
    Maack, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Logistics companies' potential in greening their offered services2010Ingår i: Managing Operations in Service Economies: Proceedings of the 17th International Annual EurOMA Conference / [ed] Rui Sousa, Porto: Catholic University of Portugal, Porto , 2010, s. SSC11-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 206.
    Maack, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greening logistics companies by utilizing employees' capabilities2010Ingår i: Towards the Sustainable Supply Chain: Balancing the Need of Business, Economy and the Environment: Proceedings and Abstracts from the LRN Conference 2010 / [ed] Anthony Whiteing, the CILT (UK) , 2010, s. 427-435Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 207.
    Maack, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Martinsen (Sallnäs), Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Den hållbara logistikkunskapen tar oss framåt2009Ingår i: PLANs forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2009: Effektiva och lönsamma försörjningskedjor, Stockholm: Logistikföreningen PLAN , 2009, s. 113-124Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Framtida miljö- och energiproblem kommer att beröra oss alla. En sektor som är särskilt berörd är logistik- och transportsektorn. För att på ett effektivt sätt ta sig an de utmaningar som bland annat klimatproblematiken medför, behövs initiativ från såväl myndigheter, politiska beslutsfattare, företagsvärlden som forskningen. Det finns idag kunskap inom vissa områden, men det saknas förmåga att implementera den. Inom andra områden är det bristen på kunskap som utgör problemet. Syftet med artikeln är att kartlägga kunskaps-, kompetens och forskningsbehovet inom miljölogistik ur olika perspektiv.

    Kunskaps, kompetens- och forskningsbehovet har kartlagts och analyserats utifrån såväl forskares som praktikers syn på framtida behov. Artikeln bygger på resultat från fokusgruppsseminarier och en enkätundersökning. I seminarierna deltog representanter från varuägande företag, logistikföretag och samhällsaktörer. Resultatet från kartläggningen visar på ett stort behov av ny kunskap, såsom mätning och fördelning av miljöeffekter miljömätning och kopplingen mellan logistiksystemets miljöeffekter och affärsnyttan för såväl varuägare som logistikföretag. Samhällsaktörerna är den grupp som av samtliga aktörsgrupper, inklusive sig själva, beskrivs som den aktören med störst behov av kunskap kring miljölogistik. Forskningen spelar en viktig roll både för framtagning av ny kunskap och för spridning av ny och befintlig kunskap mellan olika aktörer.

  • 208.
    Maack, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental work in a logistics company: A resource perspective2010Ingår i: Logistics and Supply Chain Management in a Globalised Economy / [ed] Jan Stentoft Arlbjørn, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2010, s. 1001-1016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 209.
    Madhusudanan, Jayasurya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system.
    Evaluation of a digitial displacement pump in a load haul dump application2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulics has always been the first choice of actuation in off-road, construction and mining vehicles due to its power density, low cost, built in cooling and lubrication. However, the current state of our environment along with stricter regulations has brought light to newer technologies within hydraulics to improve the existing system. This urge to enhance efficiency and reduce energy consumption has led to a point where new technologies must be evaluated.

    One such technology is the programmable hydraulic pump called the digital displacement pump (DDP). This new pump may have the potential to revolutionize mobile hydraulics as it can be used to improve part load efficiencies, response and make it easier to control from a system perspective.

    The DDP is a radial piston pump that has been fit with solenoid on/off valves at the inlet of each cylinder to control the flow of the working fluid. The displacement setting of the pump depends on the displacement of each cylinder controlled digitally by the 'active' inlet valve. The pump can act as a single unit to supply one circuit or it can dedicate pistons for supplying several circuits in parallel using different pump outlet configurations. They can be setup to run in pressure controlled or flow controlled systems to achieve the above mentioned flow sharing capability.

    An energy study based on two fixed drive cycles (short and intermediate) are conducted on the existing system of a loader used for mining called the ST14 Battery. A breakdown of the energy consumption in the machine is created to look at the impact of the three main actuators (boom, bucket and steering), pump losses and throttling losses have. The losses due to simultaneous load handling and the energy that can be saved by swapping the pumps with a digital displacement pump are also found out and analysed.

    A model of the existing hydraulic system is made using Simulink and Hopsan using the data and results from the energy study. It will be used to simulate and evaluate future system architectures. This model is then used to simulate a system architecture where the existing pumps are swapped with digital displacement pumps. This architecture is more energy efficient due to the higher energy efficiency of the pump. The findings from the energy study and simulations are compared and results are obtained regarding power losses, energy consumption and overall usability of the models.

    The addition of the two DDP’s instead of the existing inline pumps has resulted in energy savings resulting in 4% more running time in the intermediate cycle and 5.6% in the short cycle while keeping the functionality of the machine.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Evaluation_DDP_LHD
  • 210.
    Maria, Lillberg
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Elektroniska Kretsar och System.
    Amanda, Eriksson
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik.
    Konstruktion av testsystem för tröghetssensorer2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar ett projekt som genomförts i samarbete med företaget Intuitive Aerial AB med syfte att skapa en rörelsesimulator för att kalibrera tröghetssensorer. Med en studie av liknande produkter på marknaden samt krav från uppgiftsbeställaren skapades en kravspecifikation som blev grunden för den fortsatta utvecklingen av simulatorn. Kravet var att skapa en rörelsesimulator som ska kunna rotera i tre axlar samt vara orörlig i en given position.

    Olika typer av DC-motorer till rörelsesimulatorn analyserades och stegmotor med inbyggd enkoder valdes för att dess styrka var att de kan vara orörliga i en position utan reglering. Utvecklingen har gjorts i två parallella spår. Det ena spåret har varit att skapa en fysisk konstruktion och det andra spåret har inneburit programmering av motorer samt signalbehandling. Utvecklingen av rörelsesimulatorn innebar framtagning av en konstruktion med rotation i tre axlar, en plattform där det går snabbt att fästa och lossa tröghetssensorerna samt val av tillverkningsmaterial. Motorerna programmerades för att rotera i en konstant hastighet, stanna i en given position samt lokalisera ett givet nolläge.

    Resultatet av projektet blev en prototyp av en rörelsesimulator för kalibrering av tröghetsensorer. Simulatorn består av delar i plast och aluminium. Tröghetssensorerna fästs på en adapterplatta med distanshållare för kretskort.

    Slutsatserna är att rörelsesimulatorer kan skapas med en enkel konstruktion. Motorerna har inte kunnat testas i simulatorn efter montering, men tester innan montering visade att motorernas egenskaper gör att kravspecifikationen för rörelsesimulatorn är uppnådd. Det fortsatta arbetet består av att utföra tester på rörelsesimulatorn för att analysera dess noggrannhet. Därefter kan tröghetssensorerna kalibreras.

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    fulltext
  • 211.
    Martinsen (Sallnäs), Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Maack, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Today's Challenges in Fostering Greener Logistics Systems2009Ingår i: Proceedings from the 14th Annual Logistics Research Network Conference: Volatile and Fragile Supply Chains, 2009, s. 925-928Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 212.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Capturing and Enhancing Provider Benefits in Product-Service Systems – A Systematic, Design-Centered ApproachManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Offerings comprised of jointly designed and provided products and services (Product-Service Systems, PSS) are a cornerstone of a future circular economy. Implementing a design process aimed at facilitating the provision of PSS with a lifecycle focus is seen as an important step in implementing these new types of offerings. Challenges with this have been reported, and examples of companies offering PSS without adjustments to existing, product sales-centric design processes are found in literature. It is the assumption of the research presented, that one cause for this can be the lacking understanding for the full provider benefits obtainable through providing PSS, particularly increased material efficiency and thus, improved environmental performance. To combat this, this article reports a systematic approach to capturing information on the key indicators of benefits throughout the lifecycle as well as to enhancing future designs with a focus on these benefits. To this end, two methods are presented: Provider Value Analysis (PVA) supports the collection of important, provider-centered value dimensions in the use phase of the PSS lifecycle. Provider Value Evaluation (ProVa) guides the inclusion of the identified value dimensions as KPIs into the design phase and supports the enhancement of PPS design with a focus on the provider’s benefits throughout the lifecycle. In order to support the utility of these methods and to propose a first set of broadly applicable value dimensions, this article further reports a case study carried out with an industrial company and Original Equipment Manufacturer over the course of two years, applying the proposed systematic approach. As a result, by clarifying provider benefits throughout the entire lifecycle of a PSS offering, and by providing a systematic way towards capturing and enhancing these benefits, this article aims to clarify the incentives for adaptations to the existing design processes in industry and hopes to encourage companies to take advantage of the obtainable efficiency benefits of PSS, leading to improved overall environmental performance.

  • 213.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Designing and providing integrated product-service systems: challenges, opportunities and solutions resulting from prescriptive approaches in two industrial companies2018Ingår i: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 2150-2168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to customer pressure and growing competition, industrial companies are increasingly moving towards providing integrated offerings of products and services (PSS). Despite this trend, literature providing a deep understanding of the challenges associated with this transition is limited, while publications discussing approaches that focus on overcoming these challenges are particularly lacking. This article is based on a multi-case study of two Swedish industrial companies undergoing the transition to designing and providing PSS. It reports on the challenges identified at the case companies as well as opportunities arising from and solutions to these challenges. Subsequent to initial research on the challenges, prescriptive approaches such as a life cycle costing method and a PSS design method were applied in the case companies over an extended time frame. On the one hand, these prescriptive approaches provided both a deeper understanding of the challenges, which include a persistent product centred mindset, a lack of adjustment to changed incentive structures and the separation of product and service design. On the other hand, they also led to effective solutions such as focusing on customer value and introducing a PSS transition facilitator for the design team. These solutions were adapted to the situations in the respective companies and they partly went beyond the prescriptive measures first introduced. Therefore, the article shows the applicability of prescriptive approaches and methods to detect, understand and alleviate the challenges of PSS design and provision. Further, the article provides broadly applicable learning for industrial companies undergoing this process.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 214.
    Modrak, Vladimir
    et al.
    Kosice Faculty of Manufacturing Technologies, Slovakia.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bednar, Slavo
    Technical University of Kosice Faculty of Manufacturing Technologies,Slovakia.
    Approaches to Product Variety Management Assuming Configuration Conflict Problem2015Ingår i: FME Transactions, ISSN 1451-2092, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 271-277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity problems in mass customized manufacturing are frequently discussed and analysed in order to find suitable methods to optimize extent of product varietes. Moreover, product designers have to consider also constraint satisfaction problem, since some serious conflicts may occur when requirements of the customer are specified based on a wide portfolio of modules or components and given configurations cannot be found. The main scope of this paper is to explore the possibilities of using axiomatic design theory and entropy based measures for quantifying product variety induced complexity. For this purpose, two approaches will be applied on a real case. Then a comparison and analysis of obtained results are included. Computational experiments showed that proposed approaches offer comparable results and can be effectively used to quantify varietyinduced complexity in terms of mass-customized manufacturing.

  • 215.
    Mogos, Maria Flavia
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Norway.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alfnes, Erlend
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Norway.
    Strandhagen, Jan Ola
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Norway.
    Investigating relationships between production transfer management and transfer success2022Ingår i: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 1124-1149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper explores the operationalization of production network coordination - the production transfer (PT) - and the relationships between transfer risk sources, preventive actions, supply chain disruptions, corrective actions and losses to better understand how to mitigate the risk and achieve an effective transfer process. Design/methodology/approach A longitudinal field study of a PT process from Norway to Spain was studied in depth for 25 months. Findings The paper presents the implications of three areas of importance for PT success: (1) how the transfer influences the plant roles, (2) the cross-locational management of the transfer project at the sender and receiver and (3) whether adapting the transferred production to the receivers environment is an enabler or an inhibitor of transfer success. Practical implications The findings about how to mitigate the transfer risk and the frameworks of risk sources, supply chain disruptions, losses and preventive and corrective actions, along with the examples from the in-depth study, can aid the practitioners in managing PTs and achieving the relocation goals. Originality/value This is one of the first studies of PT, which is from the perspective of both transfer parties, and addresses both preventive and corrective actions and all the transfer phases. Moreover, this study addresses the operational aspects of production network coordination, which received limited attention in earlier research.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 216.
    Moreno, Laura
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Business strategy, marketing strategy and manufacturing strategy: an overall alignment2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s businesses face a competitive war; conceptually, similar to the ones in ancient times. The arena in which this war is battled is the market and it is characterized by being highly dynamic and uncertain. The enemies to be beaten are the competitors who use their core competences (weapons) to conquer the customers’ orders. But no battle is won by chance, neither in business. So, there is a need for a strategy that provides the chance to defeat the enemy by gaining a sustainable competitive advantage over him. The question is: how to do it?

    The functional investments, mainly in marketing and manufacturing, need to be aligned with the mainstream strategy (business strategy) so they pull all together in the same direction. The existing literature links these strategies in pairs but not at the same time.

    In this study, an analysis of such alignment approaches will be the base to create a model for the simultaneous fit of business strategy, marketing strategy and manufacturing strategy, and to provide some suggestions on how to achieve this match in practice.

    Product design strategy will play a key role in order to attain the overall alignment.

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  • 217.
    Mubder, Abdalla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The implementation of berth allocation policies that enable Just-in-Time arrival in port calls2024Ingår i: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeJust-in-Time (JIT) arrival in the context of port calls can be used to reduce fuel and emissions to achieve environmental targets. The purpose of this paper is to study the implementation process of the Pre-booking Berth Allocation Policy (PBP) and analyze the effectiveness of this policy for the implementation of JIT in port calls.Design/methodology/approachThe study deploys a single case study approach to empirically analyze port authority's transition from a first-come-first-served (FCFS) arrival policy to the PBP. Observations, interviews and documents were used to collect data during 2020-2022. The analysis deployed the capability, opportunity, motivation and behavior model.FindingsThe transition from FCFS to PBP requires an inter-organizational approach, engaging external actors to manage diverse needs and preferences. This fosters effective transition and addresses conflicting interests. The PBP enables JIT arrival, enhancing operational and environmental performance, but faces barriers such as resource dependency and lack of trust. Information sharing capability among the actors, supported by Port Community Systems and adjusted operating rules, is crucial. Moreover, the PBP facilitates integration between sea and hinterland transportation, improving planning and efficiency across maritime transportation chains.Research limitations/implicationsThe single case study limits the generalizability of the findings.Practical implicationsImplementing the PBP is complex and demands careful planning from managers. Involving port call actors in the transition is helpful for port managers because they provide valuable feedback and highlight overlooked issues.Originality/valueFive propositions are suggested to highlight the role of inter-organizational collaboration, information sharing and overcoming barriers such as resource dependency to successfully realize the benefits of JIT in maritime transportation chains.

  • 218.
    Nambiar, Sanjay
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktrealisering. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Albert, Albin Parappilly
    Linköpings universitet.
    Rimmalapudi, Veeravenkatamanikanta Virupaksh Raja Chowdary
    Linköpings universitet.
    Acharya, Vinayak
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tarkian, Mehdi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktrealisering. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Prodtex AB, Sweden.
    Autofix – Automated Design of Fixtures2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework to develop the automated design of fixtures using the combination ofdesign automation (DA), multidisciplinary optimization and robotic simulation. MDO necessitates the useof concurrent and parametric designs which are created by DA and knowledge-based engineering tools. Thisapproach is designed to decrease the time and cost of the fixture design process by increasing the degree ofautomation. AutoFix provides methods and tools for automatically optimizing resource-intensive fixturedesign utilizing digital tools from different disciplines.

  • 219.
    Neguembor, Joachim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktrealisering.
    Development of a Design Tool in CAD for Fused Deposition Modelled Coolant Nozzles in Grinding: Design automation of coolant nozzles2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers the process of automating the design of coolant nozzles used for cylindrical grinding. Coolant nozzles are used to supply coolant, an oil and water mixture used to cool the metal workpiece and lubricate the grinding wheel. In the automotive industry, grinding is used to reduce the surface roughness of the workpiece. However, a large amount of heat is generated, risking the heat treatment of the steel to be compromised, for this, coolant is supplied to minimize the heat caused by friction. A nozzle is used, aiming a jet to the zone that generates heat. Commonly used nozzles are adjustable, leading to variation in cooling performance if misaligned. The design of fixed nozzles is developed in this thesis to reduce variation and automatise the design for multiple applications. The automatically designed nozzles are fused deposition modeled and tested. The design automation tool is tested repeatedly and improved successively in the span of the thesis. This lead to a great extent of implementation of design automation. Which lead to a facilitation in reaching of the work zone and avoid obstacles. Also, the tool managed to create nozzle tubes for a multitude of machines. The tool is able to generate, aim, orient, and individually dimension multi-nozzle tubes. Design of Experiment methodology is implemented to find nozzle designs with improved velocity and flow rate and minimize the air mixture with the coolant. Several nozzle designs are tested and fitted into a surrogate model that is, in turn, optimized. The results of the tests led to a greater understanding of how the nozzle geometry restricts the flow rate when attempts of reaching higher velocities of the coolant jet are made. The surrogate models created, also made it possible to find the range of designs which best suits different applications, whereby a Pareto front was able to be populated with a range of different designs alternating in flow rate, velocity and coherency ratio.

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  • 220.
    Neves, Pedro
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Monte da Caparica, Portugal .
    Onori, Mauro
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barata, Jose
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Monte da Caparica, Portugal .
    Performance Assessment in Self-organising Mechatronic Systems: A First Step towards Understanding the Topology Influence in Complex Behaviours2014Ingår i: Technological Innovation for Collective Awareness Systems: 5th IFIP WG 5.5/SOCOLNET Doctoral Conference on Computing, Electrical and Industrial Systems, DoCEIS 2014, Costa de Caparica, Portugal, April 7-9, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, Nuno S. Barrento, Ricardo Mendonça, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, s. 75-84Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The research and development of self-organising mechatronic systems has been a hot topic in the past 10 years which conducted to very promising results in the close past. The proof of concept attained in IDEAS project that plug&produce can be achieved in these systems opens up new research horizons on the topics of system design, configuration and performance evaluation. These topics need to consider that the systems are no longer static prototypes but instead several distributed components that can be added and removed in runtime. The distribution of modules in the system and their inherent connections will then potentially affect the system’s global behaviour. Hence it is vital to understand the impact on performance as the system endures changes that affect its topology. This article presents an exploratory test case that shows that as a system evolves (and the nature of the network of its components changes) the performance of the system is necessarily affected in a specific direction. This performance landscape is necessarily complex and very likely nonlinear. Simulation plays therefore an important role in the study of these systems as a mean to generate data that can be later on used to generate macro level knowledge that may act as a guideline to improve both design and configuration.

  • 221.
    Nezhadali, Vaheed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A framework for modeling and optimal control of automatic transmission systems2015Ingår i: 4th IFAC Workshop on Engine and Powertrain Control, Simulation and Modeling (E-COSM 2015): Proceedings of a meeting held 23-26 August 2015, Columbus, Ohio, USA / [ed] Simona Onori, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 48 Issue 15, nr 15, s. 285-291Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Development of efficient control algorithms for the control of automatic transmission systems is crucial to maintain passenger comfort and operational life of the transmission components. An optimization framework is developed by state space modeling of a powertrain including a nine speed automatic transmission, diesel engine, torque converter and a model for longitudinal vehicle dynamics considering drive shaft as the only flexibility of the driveline. Emphasis is set on the kinematics of the automatic transmission with the aim of modeling for gearshift optimal control during the inertia phase. Considering the interacting forces between planetary gearsets, clutches and brakes in the transmission, kinematic equations of motion are derived for rotating transmission components enabling to calculate both transmission dynamics and internal forces. The model is then used in optimal control problem formulations for the analysis of optimal control transients in two up-shift cases.

  • 222.
    Nezhadali, Vaheed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimal control of a diesel-electric powertrain during an up-shift2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the optimal controls of a diesel-electric powertrain during a torque controlled gearshift, a powertrain model is developed. A validated diesel-electric model is used as the power source and the transmission dynamics are described by different sets of differential equations during torque phase, synchronization phase and inertia phase of the gearshift. Using the developed model, multi-phase optimal control problems are formulated and solved. The trade-off between gearshift duration and driveline oscillations are calculated and efficient gearshift transients for a diesel-electric and pure diesel powertrain are then compared and analyzed.

  • 223.
    Nezhadali, Vaheed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Optimal lifting and path profiles for a wheel loader considering engine and turbo limitations2014Ingår i: Optimization and optimal control in automotive systems / [ed] Harald Waschl, Ilya Kolmanovsky, Maarten Steinbuch and Luigi del Re, Cham: Springer, 2014, s. 301-324Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Time and fuel optimal control of an articulated wheel loader is studied during the lift and transport sections of the short loading cycle. A wheel loader model is developed including engine (with turbo dynamics), torque converter, transmission and vehicle kinematics, lifting hydraulics and articulated steering. The modeling is performed with the aim to use the models for formulating and solving optimal control problems. The considered problem is the lift and transport section of the wheel loader that operates in the short loading cycle, with several different load receiver positions, while the considered criteria are minimum time and minimum fuel. The problem is separated into four phases to avoid solving a mixed integer problem imposed by the gearshifting discontinuities. Furthermore, two different load lifting patterns are studied one with the lifting free and one with the lifting performed only in the last 30 % of the transport. The results show that the optimal paths to the load receiver are identical for both minimum time and minimum fuel cycles and do not change when the loading lifting pattern is altered. A power break-down during the wheel loader operation is presented for the selected cycles of normal and delayed lifting where it is shown that the cycle time remains almost unchanged when lifting is delayed while the fuel consumption slightly decreases in minimum time transients.

  • 224.
    Nezhadali, Vaheed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wheel loader optimal transients in the short loading cycle2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014 / [ed] Edward Boje and Xiaohua Xia, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 7917-7922Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract A nonlinear wheel loader model with nine states and four control inputs is utilized to study the fuel and time efficient optimal control of wheel loader operation in the short loading cycle. The wheel loader model consists of lifting, steering and powertrain subsystems where the nonlinearity originates from the torque converter in the drivetrain. The short loading cycle, from loading point to a load receiver and back to the loading point, for a fork lifting application is described in terms of boundary conditions of the optimization problem while the operation is divided into several phases with constant gearbox gear ratios in order to avoid discontinuities due to discrete gear ratios. The effect of load receiver standing orientation on the wheel loader trajectory, fuel consumption and cycle time is studied showing that a small deviation from the optimal orientation (≈ 20 [deg]) results in up to 18 % higher fuel consumption in the minimum time cycles. Also, an alternative lifting strategy where for operation safety load is lifted only when wheel loaders moves forward is studied showing that this increases the fuel consumption of a typical 25 [sec] cycle only less than 2 %. The wheel loader path between loading point and load receiver is also calculated by optimization and analyzed for different cases. It is shown that when the load receiver orientation is not optimized and is set manually, the time or fuel optimal paths will differ from the shortest distance path, however when the load receiver orientation is calculated by optimization the fuel, time and shortest distance paths become identical.

  • 225.
    Nezhadali, Vaheed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fröberg, Anders
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskiltuna, Sweden.
    Modeling and optimal control of a wheel loader in the lift-transport section of the short loading cycle2013Ingår i: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670, Vol. 46, nr 21, s. 195-200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Optimal control of a wheel loader operating in the short loading cycle is studied in order to investigate the potentials for fuel consumption reduction while maintaining acceptable production rates. The wheel loader is modeled as a system with five states and three control inputs including torque converter nonlinearities. The torque converter is modeled with no lockup enabling power transmission in both directions. The geometry of the wheel loader boom and the demanded force in the lift cylinders during lifting are used to ensure that the in-cylinder pressure remains below component’s limits. The lift-transport section of the short loading cycle is divided into four phases due to discontinuities in the gearbox ratios and fuel consumption is calculated in each phase. Time optimal and fuel optimal transients of the system and the power consumption in each and every component is presented showing the dominance of the torque converter losses compared to the other components especially in the time optimal solutions. It is shown that introducing path constraints on the maximum lifting speed of the bucket due to limitations in hydraulic pumping speed moves the diesel engine operation towards higher speeds in order to maintain the lifting speed. Trade-off between fuel optimal and time optimal transients is calculated which is found to be in agreement with the results of experimental studies.

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  • 226.
    Nezhadali, Vaheed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Khaleeq Kayani, Omer
    Razzaq, Hannan
    Tarkian, Mehdi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    EVALUATION OF AN AUTOMATED DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK FOR MODULAR ROBOTS USING A PHYSICAL PROTOTYPE2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED11), Vol. 4, 2011, s. 195-204Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an automated design and evaluation framework, by integrating design tools from various engineering domains for rapid evaluation of design alternatives. The presented framework enables engineers to perform simulation based optimizations. As a proof of concept a seven degree of freedom modular robot is designed and optimized using the automated framework. The designed robot is then manufactured to evaluate the framework using preliminary tests.

  • 227.
    Nie, Duxian
    et al.
    South China Agr Univ, Peoples R China; Univ Missouri St Louis, MO 63121 USA.
    Li, Haitao
    Univ Missouri St Louis, MO 63121 USA.
    Qu, Ting
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China; Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Li, Congdong
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Optimizing supply chain configuration with low carbon emission2020Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 271, artikel-id 122539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study a new supply chain configuration problem to optimize the amount of carbon emission in the context of a service guarantee modelling framework, called supply chain configuration problem with low carbon emission (SCCP-LCE). A novel feature of our addressed problem is the explicit consideration of carbon emission cap and trading price in the supply chain configuration setting with operating capacity. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model, and optimally solved by a custom designed dynamic programming algorithm. A case study and computational experiment are performed to examine the behaviour of optimal SCCP-LCE configurations, and the effects of key input parameters: carbon emission cap, trading price, and operating capacity. Our results suggest that government-imposed carbon emission policies, in terms of emission cap and trading price, have significant impacts and interactive effects on the optimal supply chain configuration and performance, including the safety stock cost and carbon emission cost. Our model and methodology offer a new analytical framework to prescribe data-driven decision support for both firms and governmental/environmental agencies to control carbon emission, while achieving optimal business and social benefits. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • 228.
    Nielsen, Kraen Vodder
    et al.
    MAN Diesel and Turbo, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Blanke, Mogens
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark; Norwegian Univ Sci and Technol, Norway.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten
    MAN Diesel and Turbo, Denmark.
    Marine diesel engine control to meet emission requirements and maintain maneuverability2018Ingår i: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 76, s. 12-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    International shipping has been reported to account for 13% of global NOx emissions and 2.1% of global green house gas emissions. Recent restrictions of NOx emissions from marine vessels have led to the development of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for large two-stroke diesel engines. Meanwhile, the same engines have been downsized and derated to optimize fuel efficiency. The smaller engines reduce the possible vessel acceleration, and to counteract this, the engine controller must be improved to fully utilize the physical potential of the engine. A fuel index limiter based on air/fuel ratio was recently developed (Turbo, 2016), but as it does not account for EGR, accelerations lead to excessive exhaust smoke formation which could damage the engine when recirculated. This paper presents two methods for extending a fuel index limiter function to EGR engines. The methods are validated through simulations with a mean-value engine model and on a vessel operating at sea. Validation tests compare combinations of the two index limiter methods, using either traditional PI control for the EGR loop or the recently developed fast adaptive feedforward EGR control (Nielsen et al., 2017a). The experiments show that the extended limiters reduce exhaust smoke formation during acceleration to a minimum, and that the suggested limiter, combined with adaptive feedforward EGR control, is able to maintain full engine acceleration capability. Sea tests with engine speed steps from 35 to 50 RPM, made peak exhaust opacity increase by only 5% points when using the proposed limiter, whereas it increased 70% points without the limiter.

  • 229. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Nilsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    How requirements development could support design of effective and resource-efficient offerings2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    What a company offers its customers has to fulfil several different needs, desires, constraints, which can originate from multiple different sources that affect the offering throughout its life cycle. All these criteria have to come together and be translated into statements that can support the designer’s understanding of the offering’s purpose. This translation is done through a requirements development process to provide a controlled process to define statements that describe what the offering is supposed to fulfil.

    This research provides insights on key challenges and success factors in requirements development to support the design of effective and resource-efficient offerings. Namely, it identifies crucial sources and aspects to be considered, and a requirements development process demonstrating how to overcome identified challenges. By getting the requirements right from the beginning, sub-optimisation and unnecessary time and risks can be avoided. The consideration of accurate sources and aspects is considered to be one of the most important factors for the successful design of offerings. It is also in the earliest phases of design, that is to say requirements development, where one has the greatest possibility to affect the environmental impact of the offering. What is missing, however, is sufficient and appropriate support in industry on how to do so.

    The gap between the three areas of effectiveness and resource efficiency, design of integrated offerings, and requirements development has been investigated. Results are based on findings in the literature and in industry, identified primarily by qualitative studies. In the research, 15 different companies have been included through a number of interviews and discussions.

    Key sources and aspects to consider in the requirements development process are identified along with challenges, and success factors that can be utilised to overcome the identified challenges. This research’s final results include an adapted requirements development process that considers the earlier-mentioned sources and aspect, challenges, and success factors. Such a requirements development process should support the design of effective and resource-efficient offerings.

    Delarbeten
    1. A Literature Review to Understand the Requirements Specification’s Role when Developing Integrated Product Service Offerings
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Literature Review to Understand the Requirements Specification’s Role when Developing Integrated Product Service Offerings
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Product-Service Systems across Life Cycle / [ed] Sergio Cavalieri, Elisabetta Ceretti, Tullio Tolio, Giuditta Pezzotta, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 47, s. 150-155Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper's objective is to analyze, based on a literature review, how existing IPSO design methods support and manage requirements when developing an IPSO. Issues analyzed are e.g. which types of aspects existing methods should consider, such as environmental issues and demands from stakeholders and customers. Another issue is what types of stakeholders are involved in the process. There is also an interest in finding out which of these methods are used in the industry. The goal is that the results will provide insight into how the requirements specification is used when developing an IPSO in theory, and in what way this insight will contribute to future studies on how companies currently derive and manage requirements when developing an IPSO.

    The literature review started out with the analysis of 201 papers, yielding 22 papers within the area of working with requirements for an IPSO. These papers were reviewed and summarized with the above issues and interests in mind. Findings are that when deriving requirements, existing IPSO design methods are lacking in regard to a holistic life cycle and system perspective of the offering. Few of the methods consider both requirements regarding the environmental impact of the offering and demands from all involved stakeholders, normally only the customer. Furthermore, few studies have ended with a clear work process regarding how to initially find the requirements to analyze them and later interpret them as actual metrics. There are also no signs that existing methodology is used in the industry's day-to-day work.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2016
    Serie
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 47
    Nyckelord
    Product Service System (PSS), Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Engineering design
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130972 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.03.225 (DOI)000387505100026 ()
    Konferens
    8th CIRP IPSS CONFERENCE, Product-Service Systems across Life Cycle, Bergamo, Italy, June 20-21, 2016
    Projekt
    Mistra REES
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Mistra - Stiftelsen för miljöstrategisk forskning
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-01 Skapad: 2016-09-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-15Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Integrating Requirements Engineering for Different Domains in System Development: Lessons Learnt from Industrial SME Cases
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Integrating Requirements Engineering for Different Domains in System Development: Lessons Learnt from Industrial SME Cases
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Procedia CIRP: 9th CIRP IPSS Conference: Circular Perspectives on PSS / [ed] Tim C. McAloone, Daniela C.A. Pigosso, Niels Henrik Mortensen and Yoshiki Shimomura, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, s. 351-356Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a trending transition for companies from offering products to solutions in order to fulfill better customer needs and to reduce environmental impact by e.g. dematerialization. This solution-based development has an associated integration of intelligent devices that contributes to increasing system complexity. The ability of systems engineering processes, methods and tools to cope with these developments is a critical factor for manufacturing companies today. Still, in many cases it is hard to find adequately trained people and sufficiently integrated development tools for complex solutions, especially in the case of small and medium sized enterprises. Often, the tangible (hardware) part of the solution is primarily developed and the intangible parts (software and services) are added on top. However, key for a successful development is to adapt and integrate all parts according to the requirements set for the solution. Thus, it is essential how requirements are worked with during systems engineering and how they influence the development of the tangible and intangible parts of the solution. The objective of this paper is to study the approach of different industrial use cases for requirements engineering in system development. The aim is to identify how practices from domains like mechanical engineering, software or service engineering can be adapted for an integrated requirements engineering for complex systems, like product-service systems.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2017
    Serie
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271
    Nyckelord
    Systems Engineering; Requirements Engineering; Product-Service Systems; Industrial Case Study
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138351 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2017.03.013 (DOI)000414528200060 ()
    Konferens
    9th CIRP IPSS Conference: Circular Perspectives on PSS, June 19-21, 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies:This work has been funded by the European Commission through the project PSYMBIOSYS: Product-Service sYMBIOtic SYStems (No. 636804) and by Mistra (The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research) through the Mistra REES (Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions) program. The authors wish to acknowledge the funding bodies and all the project partners for their contribution.

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-06-13 Skapad: 2017-06-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-20
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    How requirements development could support design of effective and resource-efficient offerings
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  • 230.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Buffoni, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tahir Sheikh, Bilal
    Empirical Study of Requirements Engineering in Cross Domain Development2018Ingår i: DS 92: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2018 15th International Design Conference / [ed] Dorian Marjanović, Mario Štorga, Stanko Škec, Nenad Bojčetić and Neven Pavković, Glasgow: The Design Society , 2018, Vol. 92, s. 857-868Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Shortened time-to-market cycles and increasingly complex systems are just some of the challenges faced by industry. The requirement engineering process needs to adapt to these challenges in order to guarantee that the end product fulfils the customer expectations as well as the necessary safety norms. The goal of this paper is to investigate the way engineers work in practice with the requirement engeneering processes at different stages of the development, with a particular focus on the use of requirements in cross domain development and to compare this to the existing theory in the domain.

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    Empirical Study of Requirements Engineering in Cross Domain Development
  • 231.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    11 Rules of Design for Manufacturing when Producing Pre-Impregnated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Components: an Application at SAAB Aerostructures2016Ingår i: SAE Technical Papers, Society of Automotive Engineers, 2016, s. 1-8, artikel-id 2016-01-2124Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon ber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the most commonly used materials in the aerospace industry today. CFRP in pre- impregnated form is an anisotropic material whose properties can be controlled to a high level by the designer. Sometimes, these properties make the material hard to predict with regards to how the geometry affects manufacturing aspects. This paper describes eleven design rules originating from different guidelines that describe geometrical design choices and deals with manufacturability problems that are connected to them, why they are connected and how they can be minimized or avoided. Examples of design choices dealt with in the rules include double curvature shapes, assembly of uncured CFRP components and access for non-destructive testing (NDT). To verify the technical content and ensure practicability, the rules were developed by, inter alia, studying literature and performing case studies at SAAB Aerostructures. The research was done through a collaboration between Linköping University and SAAB Aerostructures in a state-funded project. This ensured a balanced approach between academic advancement and usefulness in commercial projects. 

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  • 232.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Literature Review to Understand the Requirements Specification’s Role when Developing Integrated Product Service Offerings2016Ingår i: Product-Service Systems across Life Cycle / [ed] Sergio Cavalieri, Elisabetta Ceretti, Tullio Tolio, Giuditta Pezzotta, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 47, s. 150-155Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper's objective is to analyze, based on a literature review, how existing IPSO design methods support and manage requirements when developing an IPSO. Issues analyzed are e.g. which types of aspects existing methods should consider, such as environmental issues and demands from stakeholders and customers. Another issue is what types of stakeholders are involved in the process. There is also an interest in finding out which of these methods are used in the industry. The goal is that the results will provide insight into how the requirements specification is used when developing an IPSO in theory, and in what way this insight will contribute to future studies on how companies currently derive and manage requirements when developing an IPSO.

    The literature review started out with the analysis of 201 papers, yielding 22 papers within the area of working with requirements for an IPSO. These papers were reviewed and summarized with the above issues and interests in mind. Findings are that when deriving requirements, existing IPSO design methods are lacking in regard to a holistic life cycle and system perspective of the offering. Few of the methods consider both requirements regarding the environmental impact of the offering and demands from all involved stakeholders, normally only the customer. Furthermore, few studies have ended with a clear work process regarding how to initially find the requirements to analyze them and later interpret them as actual metrics. There are also no signs that existing methodology is used in the industry's day-to-day work.

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  • 233.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Integrated product service offerings: Challenges in setting requirements2018Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 201, s. 879-887Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to explore what challenges exist when setting requirements for an Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO). An IPSO, sometimes called Product Service System, is a concept with increased interest from manufacturing companies. It consists of a combination of products and services that, based on a life cycle perspective, have been integrated to fit targeted customer needs. In order to achieve a successful IPSO, it is important to collect aspects from many actors, something which sometimes is challenging for companies moving towards providing IPSOs.

    The four challenges found when setting requirements in IPSO development are; identification and inclusion of relevant aspects from relevant actors throughout the IPSO’s life cycle, understanding of the underlying aspects for all requirements for all elements of the offering, prioritization of requirements, and the difficulty to track how requirements affect each other between different elements in the IPSO.

    The methodology used to find these challenges was a combination of a structured literature review and an interview study at three manufacturing companies moving towards providing IPSOs.

  • 234.
    Nord, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Widmark, Nina
    VINNOVA.
    Trämanufaktur i ett uthålligt samhällsbyggande: Åtgärder för ett samverkande innovationssystem2010Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Nationell och internationell konkurrenskraft i en hållbar samhällsutveckling”.

    Så lyder visionen år 2020 för innovationssystemet Trämanufaktur, med delsektorerna industriellt träbyggande, ROT-sektorn samt interiöra lösningar. Visionen understryker den roll som innovationssystemet kring trä och träprodukter har i en framtida hållbar samhällsutveckling, i första hand i Sverige, men även på en internationell arena.

    Hållbarhetsperspektivet innehåller tre delar: ekonomisk, ekologisk och social hållbarhet. Alla behöver samverka för att nyttja naturresurserna på bästa sätt idag och imorgon. Träets roll i ett hållbarhetsperspektiv ses ofta enbart ur en ekologisk synvinkel, men det ekonomiska perspektivet lyfts alltmer fram. Det gäller särskilt tankar kring industriella processer med målet optimal resursanvändning. Träets egenskaper som ett starkt men lätt material innebär goda transportmöjligheter. Det har också god buffringsförmåga och estetiska förtecken som attraherar människor. Social hållbarhet innebär bland annat människors lika rätt, i vilken bostadsmiljön är en viktig faktor. Träprodukter, både synliga och strukturella, ger möjlighet till effektiva produktionslösningar och hållbar design i det befintliga och framtida bostadsbeståndet, vilket kan minska på utanförskap och ge hållbara bostadsmiljöer. Träprodukter kan därmed kopplas till hållbarhetsbegreppets tre delar: ekonomisk, ekologisk och social hållbarhet.

    Visionen och målbilden som är resultaten av framsynen utmålar en industri med förutsättning att öka sin omsättning från cirka 75 Mdr SEK idag, till omkring 90 Mdr SEK år 2020. Industriellt träbyggande bedöms etablera sig på bostadsmarknadens samtliga segment tack vare åtgärder som skapar kostnads- och produktionseffektivitet. Hus med trästommar ökar från knappa 50 % (varav 90 % utgörs av småhus och 10 % av flerbostadshus) till knappa 60 % (90 % småhus, 40 % flerbostadshus). Med ett årligt bostadsbehov om knappa 40 000 lägenheter ökar träbyggnadsindustrins leveranser till cirka 23 000 lägenheter per år och omsättning omkring 35 Mdr SEK.

    Debatten kring energihushållning och klimatfrågan leder till utveckling av nya affärsmodeller inom ROT-sektorn. Kompetensnätverk utvecklas kring träbyggsystem, både för mindre renoveringsarbeten och för större påbyggnadsprojekt. Trämanufakturindustrin tar ledning i denna utveckling. En marknadspotential på minst 5 Mdr SEK har skapats inom ROT-arbeten vid periodens utgång, samt ytterligare 5 Mdr inom underhåll. Tack vare ROT-avdraget i början av perioden fortsätter GDS-marknaden att utvecklas positivt även för träprodukter. Den bedöms uppgå till 15 Mdr SEK år 2020.

    Interiöra lösningar med bas i träprodukter kopplas samman med både nybyggande och renovering och utvecklar nya spännande systemlösningar utifrån funktionella behov. Inom den interiöra industrin skapar den inhemska möbelindustrin konkurrensfördelar via effektiva produktionsprocesser och produkter baserade på hållbarhetssynsätt. Möbelindustrins omsättning ökar till dryga 30 Mdr SEK.

    För att nå de uppställda målen och den ekonomiska potentialen i visionen krävs åtgärder av samtliga aktörer i innovationssystemet. En utveckling från samsyn, via samverkan, till samhandling kommer att krävas inom flertalet föreslagna åtgärder för att nå uppställda mål på kort och lång sikt. Alla aktör har möjlighet att bidra. Vinsten av att vara aktiv är stor och påtaglig.

    Åtgärdsförslagen är uppdelade i tre strategiområden: ”Affärsutveckling”, ”Industriella processer” och ”Hållbarhet”. Nedan presenteras målbild, målbeskrivning, konkreta åtgärdsförslag och ett förslag på potentiella aktörer som genomförare för respektive strategiområde och för varje delindustri (industriellt träbyggande, ROT och interiöra lösningar). Det är viktigt att inledningsvis skapa en grupp, bestående av företrädare för de olika delområdena, som tar ansvar för samordning av åtgärderna. Representanter från TMF, Skogsindustrierna och forskningsutförare bör ingå.

    Åtgärdsförslagen är framtagna för att nå visionen och anpassade efter potentiella framtidsbilder. Dessa framtidsbilder arbetades fram under projektets gång och bygger på en bred omvärldsbeskrivning och efterföljande scenarioarbete. Omvärldsbeskrivning gav ett antal drivkrafter som vägdes samman till två påverkansfaktorer – ”Totala byggnadsinvesteringar” och ”Träets konkurrenskraft” – vilka gav fyra scenarier:

    • Sky is the limit
    • Trägen vinner
    • Historien igen
    • Allt är svart

    Respektive scenario innehåller en framtidsbild för år 2020 samt en presentation om vägen från nuläge till framtidsläge.

    Sky is the limit: Högkonjunkturscenario där byggandet tar fart och träbyggande ökar sina marknadsandelar. Anledningen är aktivitet i industriella processer, fokus på energioch hållbarhetsfrågor, standardiseringsarbete internationellt m.m. Resultatet blir en 40 %-ig andel trä i flerbostadsbyggandet och en fortsatt dominans för trä på småhusmarknaden.

    Sky is the limit: Högkonjunkturscenario där byggandet tar fart och träbyggande ökar sina marknadsandelar. Anledningen är aktivitet i industriella processer, fokus på energioch hållbarhetsfrågor, standardiseringsarbete internationellt m.m. Resultatet blir en 40 %-ig andel trä i flerbostadsbyggandet och en fortsatt dominans för trä på småhusmarknaden.

    Historien igen: Låg konkurrenskraft för trä, under det att en högkonjunktur råder. Byggandet kommer igång, men eftersom det inte finns utvecklade träbyggalternativ dominerar traditionella material. Däremot används trä mycket inom interiöra lösningar och svenska företag konkurrerar framgångsrikt med internationella producenter på den marknaden.

    Allt är svart: Ett riktigt mörkt scenario med en fortsatt lågkonjunktur och minskad konkurrenskraft för trä. Trångboddhet, lägre levnadsstandard, statliga bygg- och forskningssatsningar på alternativa material till trä och ingen systemsyn som passar trämanufakturindustrin, är resultatet av denna utveckling.

    I scenarierna framträder tydligt vikten av en aktiv industri och viljan till samhandling och förändring. Genom att samarbeta och samhandla skapar industrin möjligheter även i sämre ekonomiska tider. Aktivitet är i detta fall viktigare än ekonomiskt goda förutsättningar. Genom en större samverkan och samhandling inom innovationssystemet kommer innovationskraften att öka hos företag och organisationer. Förutsättningar finns därmed för att förändra befintligt beteenden inom exempelvis byggindustrin, och att utifrån nya förutsättningar ta en ledande position i framväxten av nya affärs- och produktkoncept.

    Projektarbetet med att få fram en vision och en väl förankrad åtgärdskarta har bedrivits med hjälp av framsynsmetodik. Fyra workshops med tillfrågade representanter från industri, akademi och samhälle har genomförts i syfte att skapa en karta av alternativa åtgärder, beroende på olika framtida utfall. Varje workshop har innehållit diskussioner om drivkrafter på området Trämanufaktur, skapandet av alternativa scenarier, framtagande av en bred åtgärdskarta samt avslutningsvis en fördjupning inom vissa åtgärdsgrupper med mål att identifiera aktörer. Totalt har cirka 100 personer deltagit, representerande ett stort antal företag och organisationer med koppling till IS Trämanufaktur. Resultatet av arbetet är väl förankrat hos ledande organisationer inom Trämanufaktur, vilket borgar för ett snabbt genomförande av åtgärdsförslagen. Slutsatsen av projektarbetet är att metoden lämpar sig väl för att ta fram och förankra en vision, samt för att skapa åtgärdsförslag både på industri- och företagsnivå.

    Avslutningsvis kan konstateras att:

    • det fortfarande finns en stor potential för det industriella träbyggandet, samt att produktutbudet bör breddas,
    • ett nytt koncept, ”Green, Lean and Made in Sweden”, kan lyfta möbelindustrin ytterligare, och
    • industriell ROT är ett nytt område med stor potential för Trämanufakturindustrin, som sammankopplar funktionella produkt- och organisationslösningar med trä som gemensam nämnare.
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  • 235. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Outsourcing in the Wood Product Manufacturing Sector A Combined Customer and Supplier Perspective2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing can be defined as transferring an activity from internal to external control. This thesis studies outsourcing in the wood product manufacturing (WPM) sector from both a customer and supplier perspective. The research design is a multiple case study approach, and it is based on six Scandinavian companies in the door, floor and window industries and one larger supplier of raw material. This study provides an understanding of driving forces for outsourcing in a different context than previously studied and has identified cost reduction in combination with reallocating resources from non-core activities as main driving forces. Compared to several other industrial sectors, outsourcing strategies for the WPM firms have little to do with accessing external sources’ capabilities.

    In the literature, there is often a main focus on the strategic level of outsourcing, however, such heavy resource-based focus in terms of a core competence approach in the formulation of outsourcing strategies at the customer side risks forgetting that components can still be vulnerable to supplier failure. Here, more focus needs to be put on the operational level when considering outsourcing. This thesis illustrates customers considering outsourcing where there are not any given outsourcing supplier partners developed. At the same time, for the supplier side, forward integration and specialising by taking over outsourcing is complicated by an initial divergent production flow of sawn timber. When not all contexts have developed supplier markets for directly managing outsourcing, it should not be assumed that general outsourcing models are directly applicable. In general, the question of whether or not to outsource seems too complex to simply be considered as either “in or out”. A company needs safeguards when conducting outsourcing and in a situation where there is a non-developed supplier market, parallel in-house production becomes an alternative.

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  • 236.
    Nordkvist, Anton
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Lundqvist, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Prototypframtagning av kabelsopmaskin2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Cable excavation is a work that becomes expensive as it is time consuming and the risk of cable breaks is imminent. It often happens when the excavator is used in direct contact with the cable strap. The purpose of the work is that Holms is in a product expansion phase, which in turn means that they want to manufacture more tools for excavators. The aim is to produce a CAD model and manufacturing base for a first prototype of a so-called cable brush machine. The work is being carried out at Holms Industri located in Motala, which today designs and manufactures road maintenance tools for mainly tractors and wheel loaders.

    The method is based on Ullman's product development process, which was modified to suit this work. The concept development was divided into two phases where the first phase became rough sketches of how the cable machine could look. The result from the first phase was taken to the second phase, focusing on making the concepts more detailed in order to progress.

    The detailed design of the prototype began with the definitive concept as a base. To minimize the requirement for welding fixtures, reducing production time and achieving consistent results the focus was on making the details easy to produce and assemble. Manufacturing bases were then created from the CAD models.

    The result of the work became a prototype of the cable brush machine, made with 3D models and manufacturing bases to build and test it.

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  • 237.
    Nordkvist, Anton
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Lundqvist, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Hana, Dane
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Ireståhl, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Lundmark, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Utveckling av kabelkanalsopmaskin: Projektarbete vid Holms Industri i Motala2018Studentarbete övrigt, 12 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents two concepts for a product that is used for cable excavation. The first concept consists of a brush that is integrated with a collection container and the second concept consists of a brush that is integrated with a digging bucket. A test plan was also created to determine which dimension and material would yield the best results during excavation.

    The main purpose of this project was to increase the product range of Holm's industry in Motala by developing a concept that would minimize the risk of damaging cables during excavation. The product would also fit into the existing product range at Holms. The goal was to present two concepts for a brush that can directly be designed in a CAD program.

    To understand how the brush will operate, a study on existing products on the market was conducted. Then a study on the excavator attachments was made which resulted in OilQuick being a good solution because of its fast-hydraulic attachment. Customer needs were identified through interviews, which gave the impression that a brush that simultaneously collects soil would be a good solution.

    The result of the study was used to write the product specification. The product's many functions were divided into several parts to determine different solutions for each function. Thirteen concepts were prepared and a decision matrix was used as a tool to eliminate the concepts that would not be used. Several iterations of the concept development process were conducted where the results for each iteration were discussed to preserve the purpose of the project.

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  • 238.
    Nordström, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Enochsson, Evelina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    The Possibility of Energy Recovery from Waste Material in Arges County, Romania2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Waste disposal is a global problem contributing to the ongoing climate change by large emissions of greenhouse gases. By using waste material as a resource instead of landfilling, the greenhouse gas emissions from landfills are reduced. Waste material can be used for waste incineration with energy recovery, thus decreasing the greenhouse gas emission from energy utilization by changing from fossil fuels to a partly renewable fuel.

    Arges County in Romania has severe problems with its waste material, mainly sewage sludge and waste from households and industries. As a consequence of the Romanian EU accession in 2007, Arges County is obliged to close its landfills for waste in a near future. A reconstruction of the wastewater treatment plant and an improved management of the sewage sludge residue are necessary in order to comply with EU standards. The requirements from the EU regarding waste disposal together with the existence of a district heating network in the residence city Pitesti, makes it interesting to investigate energy recovery from waste material in Arges County.

    Therefore, the goal of the study is to evaluate the possibility to extract energy from co-incineration of the waste material, sewage sludge and waste generated in Arges County. In order to reach this goal, the composition and quantities of the waste material is investigated. A suitable technology for the waste-to-energy (WTE) plant is proposed, based on the data of the waste material as well as on   established WTE technologies and their costs. It is assumed that the WTE plant will be implemented in 2020 and that all the generated waste will be incinerated. Furthermore, an environmental analysis is carried out, which presents the reductions of greenhouse gas emissions with the proposed WTE plant in comparison with the present system; including the management of waste and sludge and the district heating production, which is based on fossil fuels.

    The result shows that the waste material in Arges County has a calorific value of 7.5 MJ per kg, which is suitable for co-incineration of waste and sludge. The suggested WTE plant has the total power of 130 MW, annually recovering 620 and 330 GWh of heat and electric power respectively. The investment cost of the WTE plant is estimated to 226 million euro with a payback time of 8 years. The environmental analysis shows that the proposed system in comparison with the present system will decrease greenhouse gas emissions by 88 percent.

    A WTE plant appears to be a sound investment in Arges County and would sharply reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases in the county. However, some obstacles exist. Waste management is a new field in Romania and currently there are no WTE plants. Furthermore, the data used in this study concerning the quantity and composition of the waste, is uncertain and further studies are necessary before a WTE plant can be established.

     

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  • 239. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Noroozi, Sayeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sales and operations planning based on a modularized view of supply chains: Supporting process industries and discrete manufacturing industries2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this dissertation is to propose a framework for sales and operations planning (S&OP), which is based on a modularized view of supply chains. The framework should support both process industries and discrete manufacturing industries in their quest for performance. S&OP has been highlighted in this framework due to its essential role in integrating different functions within a company and integrating a company with its supply chain partners (referred to as horizontal integration), and linking different planning levels in a company (referred to as vertical integration). As an integrator, S&ÖP influences companies’ performance.

    Originally, S&OP was developed as a generic process but still in line with the requirements of discrete manufacturing industries. The specific requirements of process industries have not been emphasized in this process to the same extent. In order to suggest a modularized S&OP framework for both process industries and  discrete manufacturing  industries, a systematic literature review is performed to understand the specific characteristics of S&OP in process industries. As a result, the importance of continuity/discontinuity of materials and its influence on the required production processes are highlighted. This indicates that the production process in process industries is actually a hybrid of continuous production and discrete production, whereas the discrete manufacturing industries often only deploy discrete production. Continuous production has specific characteristics that would be beneficial to include in the S&OP process; nonetheless, this is in contrast to the view in the literature that considers S&OP a generic process. Generic here means that S&OP is independent of the context in terms of, for example, the industry in which it is implemented. This issue is investigated in this dissertation by identifying the requirements, which can be considered in the S&OP of process industries as add-ons to the generic S&OP. In addition to this, two other concepts addressing the properties of the production process are identified as important in planning and control, including S&OP. One addresses the level of repetitivity of the production process in response to the market demand, and the other concerns the trigger of the production flow. The three concepts are related to three different types of decoupling points and are the basis for a typology developed herein that provides a modularized view of supply chains. The application of the typology to S&OP leads to a modularized S&OP framework applicable to both process industries and discrete manufacturing industries. The modularized view of supply chains has been long emphasized as an effective and efficient way to support companies’ performance and their competitive position. The typology and the S&OP framework are developed through conceptual research methods.

    To study how the modularized S&ÖP framework is related to companies’ performance measures, different performance measures (including sustainable performance measures) at the S&OP level are extracted from the literature. The performance measures are then classified according to the typology, and linked to strategic performance attributes. Aligning performance measures at S&OP levels and strategic performance attributes would help in enhancing companies’ performance. Sustainable performance measures are included in this classification to provide additional support for companies’ performance. Finally, this approach in classification of  performance measures is studied in four case companies, and the empirical performance measures are linked to the companies’ strategic performance attributes and competitive strategies. The results of this empirical study have, to some extent, verified the results from the classification of performance measures based on the literature.

    This dissertation contributes to the development of knowledge in S&OP. First, it identifies three key concepts in planning and control of manufacturing companies. Second, it investigates how S&OP should be tailored to the specific characteristics of companies and their supply chains. The modularized S&OP framework developed in this dissertation is based on the three identified concepts. This framework provides a foundation for fulfilling the supply chains needs by suggesting decision-making processes, planning techniques, and performance measures for different modules. More specifically, this work investigates how S&OP should be designed and implemented in process industries, which has not been extensively studied before. Third, this dissertation shows how S&OP level performance measures can be selected in line with the specific characteristics of supply chains. Finally, by integrating the sustainable performance measures in the S&OP process, this dissertation expands the scope of S&OP and its potential in supporting companies’ performance.

    Delarbeten
    1. Sales and operations planning in the process industry: A literature review
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sales and operations planning in the process industry: A literature review
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 188, s. 139-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a systematic literature review of Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) in process industries. The aim is to investigate the present state of S&OP in process industries in comparison to discrete manufacturing industries and to identify the desired future state of the S&OP process based on the specific characteristics of process industries. The findings of this paper show that this issue has not received much attention in the academic world. Hence there is a need for conceptual models with focus on process industries’ specific characteristics. Process industries are actually hybrids of continuous production and discrete production (respectively, upstream and downstream of the discretization point) and the specific characteristics of process industries are related to the continuous production part. Thus, in this paper, the characteristics upstream of the discretization point are investigated and the integration of them in the S&OP process of the process industries is stressed.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Sales and operations planning, Process industry, Discretization point
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106705 (URN)10.1016/j.ijpe.2017.03.006 (DOI)000401381300013 ()
    Anmärkning

    The original title in manuskript fiorm of this article was Sales and operations planning in the process industry.

    Funding agencies: Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF)

    Tillgänglig från: 2014-05-19 Skapad: 2014-05-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-10-09Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. A modularised typology for flow design based on decoupling points - a holistic view on process industries and discrete manufacturing industries
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A modularised typology for flow design based on decoupling points - a holistic view on process industries and discrete manufacturing industries
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 27, nr 16, s. 1344-1355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Management of production activities covers a wide range of decisions. In this paper, a modularised approach is suggested that, through configuration, generates a case-specific flow design. The approach is based on identification of decision categories that are generic and fundamental in the flow design, covering both discrete manufacturing industries and process industries. Each decision category identifies a unique property of the flow which changes at a particular point: this is termed a decoupling point. A three-dimensional modularised typology is developed by combining three different decision categories. Cases from the steel industry and the tooling industry are used to illustrate how the typology can be applied. The modularised approach provides a typology for the application of both qualitative and quantitative methods for flow management, including planning, control and performance management.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016
    Nyckelord
    Typology; decoupling point; planning and control; process industry; modularisation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132245 (URN)10.1080/09537287.2016.1220649 (DOI)000384468200004 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research [PIC-LI]; Process Industrial IT and Automation (PiiA) - VINNOVA; Swedish Energy Agency, Formas; Swedish industry [2014-05110]

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-10-24 Skapad: 2016-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-29
    3. A modularized framework for sales and operations planning with focus on process industries
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A modularized framework for sales and operations planning with focus on process industries
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 65-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a modularized sales and operations planning (S&OP) framework, consisting of content and process. The framework’s content is based on a typology of decoupling points in which the effect of decoupling points on the decision variables in S&OP is studied. The framework’s process takes a step back and addresses the need for a more elaborate design to precede the operational use of S&OP content for different production contexts. The framework supports both process industries (PIs) and discrete manufacturing industries (DIs), and recognizes their specific requirements and reflects them in their S&OP. The differentiating characteristics of PIs and DIs are emphasized through three different decoupling points, namely: discretization decoupling point, control mode decoupling point, and customer order decoupling point. The suggested framework aims to fill the gap in the literature regarding the lack of aggregate planning processes that match the PIs’ specific requirements by reflecting the differentiating characteristics of PIs in S&OP.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Taylor & Francis, 2016
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Ekonomi och näringsliv Annan maskinteknik Programvaruteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133240 (URN)10.1080/21693277.2016.1200502 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-15 Skapad: 2016-12-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. S&OP related key performance measures with integration of sustainability: a decoupling point based and modularized view on supply chains
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>S&OP related key performance measures with integration of sustainability: a decoupling point based and modularized view on supply chains
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: International manufacturing strategy in a time of great flux / [ed] Louis Brennan, Alessandra Vecchi, Cham: Springer, 2017, s. 197-233Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Key performance measures (KPMs) play an important role in the management of supply chains. An important integrator of the supply chain management is Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) that connects the strategic and operational plans. S&OP usually impacts supply chain performance through the management of resources and customer satisfaction. This paper suggests a new classification for S&OP-related KPMs. The classification follows a typology of decision categories which are based on decoupling points. The typology supports a modularized approach to supply chain design and provides the possibility to select the KPMs according to the decision criteria of each module. The KPMs are further linked to the SCOR performance attributes to provide the link to the companies’ strategic directives and the strategic conflicts which appear in the modules of the typology are discussed. The sustainable KPMs have also been included in order to provide opportunities for improved sustainable performance. The integration of sustainable KPMs helps in creating competitive advantages for companies through development of capabilities which are beneficial but hard to replicate by competitors. The paper ends with an example that illustrates how the classification can be applied to a case company.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Cham: Springer, 2017
    Serie
    Measuring Operations Performance, ISSN 2363-9970
    Nyckelord
    Key performance measures, Sales and operations planning, Sustainability, SCOR model, Decoupling points
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Företagsekonomi Annan maskinteknik Miljöledning Transportteknik och logistik Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133242 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-25351-0_10 (DOI)9783319253503 (ISBN)9783319253510 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-15 Skapad: 2016-12-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
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    Sales and operations planning based on a modularized view of supply chains: Supporting process industries and discrete manufacturing industries
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  • 240.
    Noroozi, Sayeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A modularized framework for sales and operations planning with focus on process industries2016Ingår i: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 65-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a modularized sales and operations planning (S&OP) framework, consisting of content and process. The framework’s content is based on a typology of decoupling points in which the effect of decoupling points on the decision variables in S&OP is studied. The framework’s process takes a step back and addresses the need for a more elaborate design to precede the operational use of S&OP content for different production contexts. The framework supports both process industries (PIs) and discrete manufacturing industries (DIs), and recognizes their specific requirements and reflects them in their S&OP. The differentiating characteristics of PIs and DIs are emphasized through three different decoupling points, namely: discretization decoupling point, control mode decoupling point, and customer order decoupling point. The suggested framework aims to fill the gap in the literature regarding the lack of aggregate planning processes that match the PIs’ specific requirements by reflecting the differentiating characteristics of PIs in S&OP.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 241.
    Noroozi, Sayeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    S&OP related key performance measures with integration of sustainability: a decoupling point based and modularized view on supply chains2017Ingår i: International manufacturing strategy in a time of great flux / [ed] Louis Brennan, Alessandra Vecchi, Cham: Springer, 2017, s. 197-233Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Key performance measures (KPMs) play an important role in the management of supply chains. An important integrator of the supply chain management is Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) that connects the strategic and operational plans. S&OP usually impacts supply chain performance through the management of resources and customer satisfaction. This paper suggests a new classification for S&OP-related KPMs. The classification follows a typology of decision categories which are based on decoupling points. The typology supports a modularized approach to supply chain design and provides the possibility to select the KPMs according to the decision criteria of each module. The KPMs are further linked to the SCOR performance attributes to provide the link to the companies’ strategic directives and the strategic conflicts which appear in the modules of the typology are discussed. The sustainable KPMs have also been included in order to provide opportunities for improved sustainable performance. The integration of sustainable KPMs helps in creating competitive advantages for companies through development of capabilities which are beneficial but hard to replicate by competitors. The paper ends with an example that illustrates how the classification can be applied to a case company.

  • 242.
    Nyberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system.
    Lundell, Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system.
    Fault Isolation and Identification in Autonomous Hauler Steering System2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past years an increased focus on the development of autonomous solutions has resulted in driverless vehicles being used in numerous industries. Volvo Construction Equipment is currently developing the TA15, an autonomous hauler part of a larger transport solution. The transition to autonomous haulers have further increased the need for improved system condition monitoring in the strive for increased operational time. A method aiming to identify and isolate faults in the hydraulic steering system on the TA15 was therefore investigated in this thesis.

    Using fault tree analysis, five faults considered to be of importance regarding steering performance were selected. Two different methods for detecting the faults were compared to each other, data-driven and model based. Out of the two, data-driven was selected as the method of choice due to high modularity and relative simplicity regarding implementation. The data-driven approach consisted of Feed-Forward and Long Short Term Memory networks where the suitable inputs were decided to be a combination of pressure and position signals. Utilizing a simulation model of the steering system validated against the TA15, the selected faults were induced in the simulated system with various severity. Training the networks to classify and estimate fault severity in the simulated model resulted in satisfactory results using both networks. It was however concluded that in contrary to the Feed-Forward network, the LSTM network could achieve good performance using less amount of sensors. Although the diagnostic method showed promising result on a simulation model, test on the real TA15 needs to be performed in order to properly evaluate the method.

    The advantage of using a data-driven approach was specially noticeable when comparisons were made to the model based approach. The data-driven approach relies on labeling data rather than complete system knowledge. Meaning that the method developed therefore could be applied on practically any hydraulic system in construction equipment by changing the training data.

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    fulltext
  • 243.
    Nygårds, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Oliw, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Utformning och installation av internetuppkopplad datalogger för kontinuerlig sintringsugn: Utveckling och implementation av Raspberry Pi baserad internetupkopplad datalogger, samt framtagning av lösningsförslag för viktmätning2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Höganäs AB has a customer center where they perform their cutomers production processes usingtheir own metal powder, thereby gaining knowledge of how the powder behaves and how it can be improved. The powder is usually pressed, and then sintered in a sintering furnace where temperature and atmosphere composition gives the component its desired characteristics. Höganäs AB didn’t save the parameters from these process’s in a easily accessible way, some values were not saved at all. To increase understanding of these parameters impact on the produced detail they wanted these parameters collected and stored in the cloud. They also wanted solution ideas and concepts for implementation of weight measuring on both the in- and output side of the furnace.

    This project used Ulrich & Eppinger’s product development method, modified by performing continous testing parallell to the design process. The project was also separated into three parts worked on simultaneously. Computer architecture, physical casing and weight measuring.

    To compile and upload to the cloud a Raspberry Pi 3 B+, a micro processor, was used. It connected via WiFi to upload files to OneDrive. The measured values from the furnace were gathered from the furnace’s PLC via OPCUA and a gas measuring unit via serial communication.

    Because of the use of metal powder there was conductive dust in the air which could lead to leakage currents and short circuiting if it were to gather on the processor unit. Hence the dust had to be keptaway. The casing was therefore designed to be relatively airtight. The casing was made with 3D-printed PETG. The seal utilized PETG’s elasticity to elastically deform an elevated seal, and thereby sealing the casing, without having to produce more components than a bottom and a lid. The cable feedthrough used the cables elastic deformation to seal. A screen was implemented to start and stop logging processes, which was also sealed using an overlapping lip around it’s rim.

    The logging of the furnace parameters was split in two logs, a day-log and a job-log. The daylog took measurements continously over a day in long intervals, 30 minutes. At the end of the day a log was uploaded for that day, hence the name. The job-log had to be started manually via the screen and was used to take measurements with higher frequency during a production series. Log files of both types were uploaded to a OneDrive folder.

    The product was tested with a number of final tests, both for the casing and the software. The casing was tested primarily for the numerical requirements set in the requirements specification. While the software was tested over a longer period of time to ensure functionality.The final product was a sealed, robust, easily disassembled and cable strain relieved 3D-printed box with a 3.5 inch touchscreen and a connected keyboard. It collected the desired data and compiled it to log files readable by programs such as Microsoft Excel.

    The weight measuring concept produced was a self-made solution with load cells under the loading ramp. The weight is then measured automatically during the regular loading process without disrupting it. Two backup solutions were also put forward.

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    fulltext
  • 244.
    Nyirabikali, Gaudence
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Promoting Socio-Economic Development through Regional Integration - The Politics of Regional Economic Communities in Africa2005Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Regional integration has gained momentum since the 1980s and throughout the world. The new regionalism process prevailing since differs from the old one by its multidimensionality covering economic, political, social, and cultural issues within a regional setting. While the old regionalism focused on market protection using a range of tariff and non tariff barriers, the New Regionalism is reinforced by the globalisation effects and strives for efficiency in production, and market access. Using the New Regionalisms Approach, the aim of this thesis is to appreciate the actual levels of regional integration in Africa and explore plausible ways of deepening the integration process with the view that regional integration can promote socio-economic development, provided a pro-development approach is privileged in the conception and implementation of the regional integration process. Focusing on SADC as a representative regional economic community, a qualitative content analysis is used for data collection while policy analysis is carried out using the Institutional Analysis and Development framework. The results of this study reveal discrepancies between policy formulation and policy implementation when it comes to enhancing the pro-developmental aspects in the unfolding regional integration process. In spite that shortcomings in past experiences triggered dramatic structural reforms ranging from the reorganisation of the Organisation of African Unity into the African Union, the creation of NEPAD, to structural reforms within regional economic communities with the example of the 2001 restructuring of SADC, empirical evidence shows that little change has occurred at the operational level. Moreover, even policy formulation at the collective-action level still lacks concrete strategies and plans for harmonisation and implementation of regional initiatives. Some of the strategies for deepening the regional integration process would include prioritising regional commitments to external ones and improving policy formulation as well as establishing linkages between different regional policies and strategies.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 245.
    Ohlson, Matilda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    How to Introduce and Manage Organizational Changes2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    When performing an organizational change, it is important to be aware of the culture within the company. The organization at Saab Aerosystems has a huge technical focus, which can of course be beneficial when awakening interest for a change. Another characteristic of Saab Aerosystems is that its employees are interested in being involved in change processes and have the ability to influence such changes. It is therefore important that the leader of a proposed change has a good relationship with the employees and excellent communication skills in order to both inform and listen to them. It is also important to create a commitment to change if a change project is to be successful. Within Saab Aerosystems this commitment can be created by engaging informal leaders within the project team. These employees often have a big influence on the organization as well as good knowledge of the technology and their departments’ operations. It is also important to give the organization’s members time to think through and accept a change. Without this time, resistance towards a change project can otherwise be created due to lack of understanding for the change. To create commitment to a change, the employees must also feel that they can manage the change and the situation that comes after the change. It is therefore important that the organization’s employees receive the necessary tools and education in order to give them confidence and motivation to carry out, and be a part of, the change project.

    A difficult aspect during a change project can be to anchor the change within the organization. At Saab Aerosystems, changes can be anchored by involving representatives from upper management in change projects. These persons must in their turn request work that has been achieved according to the results of the change and even more importantly ensure that the change is used even upon completion of the change project. Making these demands can motivate the line managers and other employees to work according to the change and prevent reverting to old work methods and models. Finally, it is important to measure the change project progress. Examples of measure variables that can be used are business cases, questionnaires and lessons learned. These general variables ought to be complemented by specific variables for the actual change.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 246.
    Olander, Måns
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Lüning, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Design automation in industrial order-to-delivery processes: Enabling mass customization of made-to-order products2021Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's manufacturing industry is heading more and more towards a mass customization approach. This enables customers to individually specify product characteristics and unique design features to fulfill their exact needs. A common way to accomplish this is by means of design automation often used together with knowledge-based engineering.

    In this thesis, the order-to-delivery process for customized floor gratings at Weland AB is used as a case. This process is currently manual and dependent on several different departments. It results in a time consuming process which is prone to human errors.

    The purpose is to investigate how design automation can be used and implemented to automate and improve sections of the order-to-delivery process for customized products at an industrial manufacturing company. The objective is to develop a product configurator to automatically generate 3D models and documentation for production and sales support.

    The configurator succeeded in demonstrating the possible advantages of using design automation. It showed the possibility to reduce the construction department's workload and achieve faster time-to-offer for the sales department. Additionally it is concluded that using a product configurator reduces the risk of human errors and opens up possibilities for other improvements, such as reducing material waste in the production.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Design automation in industrial order-to-delivery processes
  • 247. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Olausson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Project Closure is not the End: A Study of Interaction between Design and Manufacturing in Product Development2006Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har påvisat att ett företags produktionsförmåga påverkar förmågan att utveckla nya produkter. Faktum är att de företag som är duktiga på att producera ofta även är duktiga på att utveckla nya produkter, då flertalet produktionsaktiviteter såsom prototypframställan är viktiga i utvecklingsprocessen. Detta, i kombination med att mer än 70 % av en produkts kostnad bestäms under utvecklingsfasen, innebär att det är av yttersta vikt att samspelet mellan utveckling och produktion hanteras effektivt.

    En begräsning med tidigare forskning är antingen att den tenderar att endast titta på interaktion under utvecklingsfasen eller på hur företag kan förbättra produktionsförmågan. Därför är avhandlingens syfte att vidga analysen av interaktion mellan utveckling och produktion genom att studera interaktion under såväl utvecklings- som produktionsfasen. Detta görs genom att studera hur interaktionen påverkas av viktiga kontextuella faktorer såsom organisatoriskt och geografiskt avstånd samt uppgiftens karakteristika. För att uppnå syftet studerades flertalet företag genom intervjuer, vilket utmynnade i fyra papper samt en kappa som sammanfattar och drar slutsatser utifrån dessa papper. De två första papperen fokuserar på interaktion under produktionsfasen, medan de två sista papperen behandlar interaktion under produktutvecklingsfasen.

    Syftet med Papper 1 är att klargöra möjligheter och begränsningar med olika ansatser för produktionsförbättringar. Totalt studerades sju företag: två som saknade ett systematiskt förbättringsarbete och fem som jobbade systematiskt. Resultaten visar på tydliga skillnader mellan olika ansatser. De företag som lyckats bäst är de som har ett systematiskt arbetssätt, men även bland dessa företag finns det vissa skillnader. Företag där framförallt produktionstekniker är ansvariga för förbättringsarbetet har förvisso lyckats att implementera förändringar, men avsaknaden av förankring hos operatörerna har inneburit visst motstånd. Framförallt kan detta vara en nackdel i föränderliga miljöer där operatörerna kan ge stora bidrag med sin spetskompetens. Generellt sett tycktes det vara svårt att involvera operatörerna. Bredare ansatser där såväl produktionstekniker som operatörer bedrev förändringsarbetet var således svårare att införa men de som hade lyckats fick god utväxling. En faktor som tycks vara viktig för att införa en sådan bred ansats var att ledningen stödjer arbetet.

    Papper 2 fokuserar på tre av de sju fallföretagen från Papper 1 för att se hur produktionsförbättringarna kan användas för att förändra och förbättra produkten. Mer specifikt syftar detta papper till att undersöka hur interaktion under produktionsfasen påverkas av samverkan mellan förbättringsansats och geografiskt avstånd mellan utveckling och produktion. Resultaten visar att systematiska förbättringsansatser ger fler möjligheter till produktförbättringar än vad osystematiska ansatser gör. Tillvaratagandet av dessa möjligheter påverkas negativt av ett längre geografiskt avstånd mellan avdelningarna, då det ofta är nödvändigt för konstruktörer och produktionspersonal att diskutera ansikte mot ansikte för att utröna vilka möjligheter som finns och hur de kan förverkligas. Det kan således konstateras att kombinationen systematisk ansats och närhet skapar de mest gynnsamma förutsättningarna för att produktionsförbättringar skall leda till produktförbättringar.

    Istället för att studera interaktion under produktionsfasen vänder Papper 3 på myntet och studerar interaktion under utvecklingsfasen. Syftet med papperet är att undersöka hur interaktion under utvecklingsfasen påverkas av det geografiska och organisatoriska avståndet mellan utveckling och produktion. Totalt studerades två företag, ett företag utan egen produktion och ett med. Resultaten visar på att utvecklingsavdelningen behöver besitta relativt avancerad produktionskompetens för att kunna utveckla nya produkter effektivt. Utvecklarna behöver med andra ord jobba målmedvetet för att bibehålla och utveckla denna kompetens, vilket underlättas om de två avdelningarna är placerade i närheten av varandra. En nackdel med närhet tycks dock vara att interaktion domineras av informationsutbyte ansikte-mot-ansikte trots att mer kostnadseffektiva media såsom e-post ibland kan nyttjas.

    Syftet med Papper 4 är att bredda den föregående studien genom att studera en större mångfald av företag och produktutveckling (dvs. produktutveckling baserat på föränderlig såväl som mer mogen teknologi). Mer specifikt är syftet att se hur interaktion mellan utveckling och produktion påverkas av samverkan mellan geografiskt/organisatoriskt avstånd och uppgiftens karakteristika. Totalt studerades sju företag där fyra av dem baserar sina produkter på mogen teknologi (tre med egen produktion och två utan) och två företag utvecklar högteknologiska produkter (ett med egen produktion och ett utan). Resultaten visar att olika kombinationer av avstånd och uppgift skapar olika utmaningar som måste hanteras med hjälp av olika interaktionslösningar:

    (1) i en turbulent miljö utan egen produktion är utmaningen att säkerställa att utvecklarna har tillgång till relevant produktionskompetens.

    (2) i en stabil(are) miljö utan egen produktion kan utvecklarna enklare förstå produktionsprocessen. Utmaningen ligger snarare i att få feedback från leverantörerna så att produkten kan tillverkas till lägre kostnad.

    (3) i en turbulent miljö med egen produktion har utvecklarna hög kompetens. Utmaningen är att utnyttja spetskompetensen inom produktionsenheten.

    (4) i en stabil(are) miljö med egen produktion är utmaningen att formalisera interaktionen till en högre grad. Det tycktes som att dessa företag nyttjar ansikte-mot-ansikte interaktion fastän billigare media såsom e-post kunde nyttjats.

    De fyra papperen studerar således såväl utvecklings- som produktionsfasen. Genom att vidga analysen av interaktion och studera båda faserna visas på vikten av att styra och hantera interaktion under båda faserna. Det konstateras att effektiv styrning av interaktion under utvecklingsfasen leder till effektivare produktion medan den under produktionsfasen ger möjligheter till produktförbättringar. Således bör vi inte se projektavslut som slutet för interaktion mellan utveckling och produktion. Det är troligtvis inte ens början på slutet utan möjligen slutet på början.

    Delarbeten
    1. Continuous learning in production processes: a comparative case study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Continuous learning in production processes: a comparative case study
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 8th International QMOD conference 2005, 2005, s. 305-316Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven companies were studied with the purpose to discuss learning in production with regard to actual potential and course of action to realize the potential. The study shows that companies that focus on learning in production can reach significant improvements despite low input of resources with a payback time of often less than a year.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Ekonomi och näringsliv
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14225 (URN)
    Konferens
    The 8th International QMOD Conference 29, June-01, July, Palermo, Italy
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-02-26 Skapad: 2007-02-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2013-12-04
    2. The Impact of Continuous Improvement Approach and Geographical Distance on Interaction During the Manufacturing Phase
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Impact of Continuous Improvement Approach and Geographical Distance on Interaction During the Manufacturing Phase
    Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14226 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-02-26 Skapad: 2007-02-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-01-13
    3. Bridging R&D and Manufacturing in High Tech Product Development: Comparing the Effects of Different Sourcing Strategies
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Bridging R&D and Manufacturing in High Tech Product Development: Comparing the Effects of Different Sourcing Strategies
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: the RD Management Conference in Windermere, England, July 5-7: The challenges and opportunities of RD management : new directions for research, 2006Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Regardless of whether manufacturing is conducted in-house or by external suppliers, it is necessary for the R&D department to have a basic understanding of manufacturing when developing high-tech products. This paper suggests that manufacturing is an important contributor in the development of absorptive capacity at the R&D department. Starting from a distinction between integrated and separated sourcing strategies, the paper shows how the selected sourcing strategy influences the possibilities for R&D-manufacturing interaction. The case study findings illustrate that a company that outsource manufacturing to external suppliers (separated sourcing strategy) primarily has to rely on formalized means for interaction, whereas there is a greater variety in the interaction process at a company that conducts manufacturing in-house (integrated sourcing strategy). The paper concludes by discussing how absorptive capacity is dependent on the geographical distance and organizational bonds between R&D and manufacturing, and on the management of interaction on an operational level.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14227 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-02-26 Skapad: 2007-02-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-10-08
    4. The Impact of Sourcing Strategy and Task Characteristics on Design-Manufacturing Interaction
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Impact of Sourcing Strategy and Task Characteristics on Design-Manufacturing Interaction
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: 13th International Product Development Management Conference in Milan, Italy, June 12-13, 2006, s. 1025-1038Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14228 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-02-26 Skapad: 2007-02-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-05-28
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
    Ladda ner (pdf)
    COVER01
  • 248.
    Olausson, Inger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för studier av samhällsutveckling och kultur, Tema Kultur och samhälle – Tema Q. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Competition on a local market: a historical study of market gardens in Stockholm2016Ingår i: XVIII INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON HORTICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT / [ed] L. Ekelund Axelson, F. Fernqvist, 2016, Vol. 1, s. 135-140Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the period 1880-1930, the interest in gardening products rose substantially on the Swedish market. Import of horticultural produce as well as domestic production increased 20 times. The competition on the horticultural market significantly increased from the 1930s. The costs of fuel and labor rose, and imports took a larger share of the Swedish market as the century progressed, except during the wars. Competition was stiff from countries with lower production costs. After World War II, a series of measures were introduced to stabilize the world economy and kick-start trade. These included the first General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), intended to boost international trade by reducing customs duties and trade quotas. At the negotiating table Sweden was particularly anxious about the export opportunities for major industries. This meant easing imports for some products for the sake of the balance of trade, and one category sacrificed was horticultural products. This became a backlash for the market gardens, and the number of companies decreased or the production rationalized and specialized. But there are examples of small-scale family businesses that survived competition from largescale, modern companies in southern Sweden, and increasing imports and rising costs of fuel and labor. These businesses adapted their production to the demands on local markets. Two of these have provided case studies: Nilsson's market garden on Runmarö in the Stockholm archipelago, founded in 1929, and Nora market garden in Danderyd, founded in 1938 and run by the Welander family. Nilsson had a focused strategy, providing a custom range of products to wealthy summer visitors in the Stockholm archipelago. Welander had a differentiated approach, selling products of superior quality, with customers including a delicatessen in Stockholm.

  • 249.
    Olausson, Inger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för studier av samhällsutveckling och kultur, Tema Kultur och samhälle – Tema Q. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Market gardens in Sweden 1900-1950 with four case studies from Stockholm County2015Ingår i: ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1108XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): V International Conference on Landscape and Urban Horticulture and International Symposium on Sustainable Management in the Urban Forest / [ed] G. Groening, G.M. Moore, J.P. Rayner, E.E.F. Moore, International Society for Horticultural Science , 2015, Vol. 1, s. 123-129Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The links between market gardens and cities were symbiotic until the mid-1900s. In my thesis about market gardens in Sweden 1900-1950, four market gardens in Stockholm County are investigated, trying to find out how different resources and strategies contributed to the businesses competitiveness. Two of the market gardens belonged to mansions with all the staff employed. The other two were established as family businesses by entrepreneurs without employees. Garden products are sensitive to bumps, heat, low temperatures, etc. Due to this, the access to a nearby market was necessary at that time. The development of the trade with garden products was linked to a fast-growing population in the cities, the growing demand for garden products, and the development of the transport sector. From the growing city, gardeners bought horse manure, garbage, or anything that produced heat to the hotbeds when it decomposed. Most of the market gardens were small family businesses situated on small plots. In the 1930s and 1940s in 75% of the businesses a maximum of three people were engaged. The production was both resource-demanding and labour-intensive. The use of hotbeds and greenhouses extended the growing season and made it possible to grow all year around. The gardenerRSQUOs dependence on merchandises increased like an avalanche to beat the growing competition on the market. The import, often of high quality products, was growing very fast and affected the interest for garden products. It forced the domestic horticulture industry to increase the quality and effectiveness of the production.

  • 250.
    Ollila, Susanne
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Yström, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Understanding ‘in-between spaces’ for collaborative innovation: Elucidating the plurality of relationships in three interrelated spaces.2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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