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  • 251.
    Karlstedt, Pierre
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Kullberg, André
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Automatisk omställning av en flexibel fixtur: med hjälp av en industrirobot2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har utförts vid Linköpings universitet och behandlar automatiserad omställning av flexibel fixtur med hjälp av en industrirobot. Arbetet har gjorts inom projektet Koofix (Koordinatstyrd fixering) samordnat av Vinnova och flera ledande svenska industriföretag.

    Inom examensarbetet har ett tekniskt lösningsförslag på en utrustning för automatiserad omställning av flexibel fixtur med hjälp av en industrirobot arbetats fram. Lösnings förslaget har till viss del också realiserats och testats i labbmiljö.

    Målet med arbetet var att ta fram en fullt fungerande utrustning och metod för automatiserad omställning av flexibel fixtur med hjälp av en industrirobot. Målet har inte nåtts helt, men lösningen har blivit väl tekniskt dokumenterad och kritiska moment har testats.

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  • 252.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jonköping University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    HTO - A complementary ergonomics approach2017Ingår i: APPLIED ERGONOMICS, ISSN 0003-6870, Vol. 59, s. 182-190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of human factors and ergonomics constitutes a strong potential in systems analysis, design and improvement. However, it is difficult to communicate its potential value. This paper addresses how the human-technology-organization (HTO) concept can be defined and supports the understanding, communication and development of the systems character and potential of human factors and ergonomics. Empirical examples from the authors experiences of working with the HTO concept in Ramp;D and teaching are illustrated, including its usefulness as: 1) a conceptual model; 2) an analysis framework; 3) a meta methodology; 4) a pedagogical tool; and 5) a design tool. The use of HTO provides guidance on how the system can be designed to better support health, individual and systems performance. It is further suggested that there is a strong potential for developing the theory, applications and methodological aspects of HTO. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 253.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Top-Down Rationalisation in Mail Delivery – Short-term Outcomes2002Ingår i: Organization, Intensity of Work, Quality of Work, Paris, France 21-22 November 2002, s. 8-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Post Office is undergoing large-scale restructuring, including outsourcing of the mail service division to an independent market driven organisation. As a consequence of exposure to competition, the local delivery offices were rationalised by introducing a new working concept called “Best Method”. It was a top-down change process that included downsizing the personnel, more standardisation of working and formalisation of delivery time. The changes have influenced the postmen’s working conditions in several ways and they perceive a greater workload. This paper aims to identify the factors that contribute to the increased workload and work intensification due to the rationalisation inherent in the new working concept. The findings emerge from an evaluative investigation conducted during autumn 2001 at fifteen local delivery offices in different parts of Sweden. It was carried out by an independent research team in industrial ergonomics through participant observation, 60 in-depth interviews and a questionnaire answered by 524 postal personnel, mainly postmen. Several factors contributing to the increased workload and work intensification have been identified, such as a faster work pace and greater physical workload, less flexibility for the individual, insufficient participation, shortcomings and contradictions in the new working concept, deficient strategic planning and systems thinking, and a somewhat indistinct organisational philosophy. Further research activities are now taking place and an intervention study is in the planning stage.

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  • 254.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    En utredning om brevbärarpersonalens arbetsförhållanden och införandet av Bästa Metod2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utredningen har utförts på uppdrag av Servicenätet Posten vid Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap, inom forskningsområdet Kvalitet, Människa, Teknik vid Linköpings universitet. Syftet har varit:

    - dels att utvärdera den totala arbetssituationen för brevbärare med i huvudsak utdelning i flerfamiljshus,

    - dels att utvärdera hur införandet av den så kallade ”Bästa Metod” har fungerat, främst vad gäller införandeprocess, acceptans, delaktighet och manual.

    Utredningsarbetet har utförts under hösten 2001. Efter deltagande observation av brevbärare i flerfamiljshus under arbete, gjordes 60 djupintervjuer med såväl brevbärare, SEKO-ombud som postcenterchefer på femton av Posten utvalda utdelningskontor spridda över hela Sverige. Intervjumaterialet låg till grund för en enkät som distribuerades till samtlig personal på de femton utdelningskontoren. 525 enkäter har besvarats (en svarsfrekvens på 90 procent). Ergonomiska studier och fysiska mätningar har utförts på brevbärare under arbete för att identifiera belastningsergonomiska risker och prioritera mellan olika förbättringsförslag.

    Resultaten visar att brevbärarnas arbetsförhållanden i dag är krävande, framförallt i fysiskt avseende, något som understryks av en mycket hög besvärsfrekvens från rörelseorganen. Bästa Metod framstår som en principiellt bra arbetsmetod med stor utvecklingspotential. De flesta brevbärare bedömer metoden som arbetsbesparande och produktivitetsförbättrande men uttrycker farhågor för den fysiska arbetsbelastningen och framtida besvärsrisker samt kvalitetsbrister. Om utvecklingspotentialen skall kunna tas till vara för både verksamhetens och brevbärarnas bästa, erfordras en optimering av arbetssättet.

    Resultaten visar också att det finns stora skillnader i hur väl Bästa Metod fungerar vid de femton utdelningskontor som ingått i studien. Ett antal faktorer som försvårat införandet och tillämpningen av Bästa Metod har identifierats. Brist på delaktighet och lokal anpassning framträder särskilt. Arbetsledningens agerande på såväl lokal som central nivå har visat sig vara en kritisk faktor för hur väl arbetet med Bästa Metod har förlöpt.

    Vi bedömer att åtgärder som fokuserar på att öka brevbärarnas delaktighet och lokalt anpassa Bästa Metod, skulle resultera i bättre arbetsförhållanden för brevbärarna, en ökad effektivitet, bättre produktivitet och kvalitetsvinster. En infrastruktur som befrämjar god informationsspridning och kommunikation både horisontellt och vertikalt i organisationen är då avgörande.

    Med ett åtgärdsprogram och en plan för ständigt förbättringsarbete, skulle verksamheten med Bästa Metod och brevbärarnas arbetssituation på sikt kunna förbättras med åtgärder på såväl lokal som central nivå i organisationen. Utredningen har visat på ett antal önskvärda åtgärder och flera av dessa kan genomföras av Posten själva. De åtgärder som föreslås nedan genomförs av Posten i samarbete med Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap och de kan delas upp i två huvudkategorier:

    I. I rapporten preciserade förbättringsförslag som kan genomföras relativt omgående av Posten med stöd från Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap:

    KAMFACKEN

    • Förbättrad märkning av kamfacken och införande av kompletterande karta (prototyp finns redan klar), för att underlätta kamning på ny slinga samt förbättrad belysning vid kamfacken.

    • Justeringar och optimeringar av kamfacken där så är möjligt.

    • Förbättring av avlastningsytor vid kamfacken.

    SKOR

    • Införskaffande av lämpliga individuellt anpassade skor för både inomhus- och utomhusarbete.

    UTBILDNING

    • Utbildning i arbetsteknik av utvalda representanter från respektive utdelningskontor.

    ARBETSRUTINER

    • Fördelning av arbetsmoment, utveckling av arbetsrutiner som exempelvis slingors sammansättning och anpassad användning av cyklar och motordrivna fordon.

    UTRUSTNING

    • Utveckling av hjälpmedel och utrustning, som exempelvis centralpostfack.

    De ovanstående förändringarna testas på pilotkontor före breddinförande.

    II. Åtgärder som kräver ytterligare planering och utvärdering för att kunna genomföras och som innebär medverkan av Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap

    Lokala åtgärder genom utveckling av den lokala arbetsorganisationen mot välfungerande teambildningar på utdelningskontoren.

    Under sommaren 2001 började man på utdelningskontoren införandet av en teambaserad arbetsorganisation genom att tillsätta teamledare som ansvarar för den löpande verksamheten. En ytterligare utveckling av denna organisations-form föreslås. Man skulle därmed öka delaktigheten bland personalen, vilket på sikt skulle leda till bättre och effektivare arbetsformer med större påverkansmöjligheter över det dagliga arbetet, större ansvarskänsla, större arbetstillfredsställelse och högre yrkesstolthet. Denna arbetsform skulle kunna vidga synen på vad som är ”det egna distriktet” och skulle vidare minska känsligheten för störningar. I samband med detta skulle en plan för ”Ständiga Förbättringar” introduceras, för att bygga in ett kontinuerligt kvalitetstänkande och ökad delaktighet i det dagliga arbetet. Sammantaget skulle man kunna uppnå bättre lokal anpassning, högre produktivitet och bättre kvalitet.

    CENTRALA ÅTGÄRDER

    Utredningen har visat att det funnits kommunikationsglapp mellan de olika nivåerna i organisationen och att brevbärarpersonalen upplever bristande delaktighet, toppstyrning och otillräcklig flexibilitet i fråga om lokala anpassningar. Detta synes ha påverkat arbetet med Bästa Metod negativt.

    En analys behöver göras över hur kommunikationsglapp och delaktighets-brister uppstår, med syfte att utveckla åtgärdsförslag för att förbättra infrastrukturen och kommunikationen mellan de olika organisationsnivåerna. Därigenom skapas förutsättningar att från centralt håll öka delaktigheten och på så sätt skapa en bättre verksamhet. Resultaten matchas sedan mot erfaren-heterna på lokal nivå för vidare åtgärder.

    Framgången med Bästa Metod varierar på de femton utdelningskontor som ingått i studien. Rapporten visar att olika lokala förhållanden och förut-sättningar påverkat utfallet med Bästa Metod. Detta är något som kan utredas närmare.

    Behovet av lokala anpassningar måste vägas mot behovet av en standardisering av arbetet enligt Bästa Metod. Hur denna avvägning kan göras är förknippad med användningen av manualen för Bästa Metod och dess fortsatta nytta. Vi menar att en manual bör tydliggöra vad som är kärnan i det nya systemet och därmed ska gälla överallt, men manualen bör också tydliggöra vad som kan anpassas lokalt, och ge ett stöd för hur detta kan ske. Manualen behöver vidareutvecklas och omarbetas för detta syfte.

    Utredningen visar att det i vissa avseenden finns en bristande överens-stämmelse mellan den bärande tanken bakom Bästa Metod och den ökade flexibilitet som krävs av brevbärarna i praktiken. Det gäller bland annat hur snabbt nyanställda eller ovana brevbärare kommer upp i arbetstakt när man kammar upp post på en ny slinga, hur introduktion av nyanställda sker, vilka kvalifikationer brevbärare bör ha och vilka effekter detta har på yrkes-stoltheten. Den höga medelåldern på brevbärarna i dag kommer att medföra många nyanställningar inom en 10-15-årsperiod. Dessa frågor är då viktiga att utreda inte minst ur produktivitets- och kvalitetshänseende.

    Mot bakgrund av ovanstående föreslås följande åtgärder som hänför sig till punkt II ovan:

    • Att identifiera kommunikationsglapp och delaktighetsbrister för att skapa förbättringsförslag och ledningsstrategier i syfte att förbättra verksamheten.

    • Utbildning i Människa-Teknik-Organisation (MTO) och Life Cycle Cost analyser (LCC), för ökad systemsyn och möjligheter att analysera och utvärdera teknikval och alternativa åtgärder, utifrån konsekvenser för systemprestanda, ekonomi och människorna i systemet. Det finns ett flertal möjliga åtgärder som kan få positiv effekt på inte bara belastnings-situationen för brevbärarna utan också på produktivitet och kvalitet.

    • Att starta en tidsbegränsad kampanj som bygger på delaktighet genom brevbärarnas förslag till och utveckling av hjälpmedel och produkter med syfte att underlätta arbetet.

    • Utveckling av arbetsorganisationen med inriktning mot flexibla team med ansvar för sitt specifika område med syfte att:

    • öka delaktigheten hos personalen,

    • förbättra informationsspridning och kommunikation,

    • skapa utrymme för lokala anpassningar,

    • öka arbetstillfredsställelsen,

    • skapa förutsättningar för ökad yrkesstolthet,

    • minska den fysiska belastningsproblematiken samt stressrelaterade faktorer,

    • förbättra den arbetsrelaterade hälsan,

    • förbättra kompetensen genom att utveckla en kompetensutvecklingstrappa,

    • optimera förutsättningarna för nyanställda, vikarier och brevbärare som arbetar på nya slingor,

    • utbilda instruktörer i varje team både ergonomiskt och för handledning av nybörjare,

    • minska känslighet för störningar i systemet,

    • öka produktiviteten och kvaliteten i verksamheten.

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  • 255.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evaluation of intervention measures: a methodological approach2006Ingår i: 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, Maastricht, the Netherlands 10-14 July, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling , 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common for researchers to evaluate interventions by having the participants answer standardized questions before and after, and measuring the effect of the intervention as a statistical difference between the two. There is a risk that the results of such a calculation will be misleading due to the subject interpreting the response scales differently on each occasion. This risk has previously been observed by Golembiewski et al, who indicated that we are dealing with a psychometric problem set that is especially evident in interventions. The question is whether the individual’s own yardstick for assessing or valuing a certain circumstance/area is the same before and after the intervention, or whether the yardstick has changed due to the subject gaining new experience within the conceptual framework. Golembiewski calls this phenomenon beta change. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate empirically the occurrence of beta change and its possible consequences for the interpretation of the results, with the aid of a model devised by Terborg et al. The material is taken from a health-promoting intervention project in the mail distribution division of the Swedish Post Office.

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  • 256. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forskarstött förändringsarbete i själva verket: Att förbättra arbetssituationen för 15 000 brevbärare2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling belyser forskarstött förändringsarbete, inom ”Servicenätet Posten”, den division inom Posten Sverige AB som ansvarar för postdistribution till kunderna. Förändringsarbetet har handlat om att förbättra arbetssituationen för 15 000 brevbärare.

    Den teoretiska grunden utgörs av ett systemtänkande där konceptet ”Människa-Teknik-Organisation” (MTO), används för att granska interventionsprocessen.

    Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling är att bidra till kunskapsutveckling-en om forskarstött förändringsarbete utifrån följande delsyften: 1) att illustrera hur ett systemtänkande i förändringsarbete påverkar förståelsen för hur systemkomponenterna Människa, Teknik och Organisation (MTO) interagerar i praktiken, 2) att exemplifiera hur den kunskapen kan omsättas i praktiken genom utveckling och implementering av MTO-anpassade lösningar i samverkan mellan forskare och praktiker, 3) att empiriskt exemplifiera hur former för participation kan bidra till framgångsrikt förändringsarbete genom analys och syntes av process och resultat.

    Forskningsprojektet har bedrivits med en interaktiv ansats. Den interaktiva ansatsen har gjort det möjligt att belysa samverkan mellan forskare och praktiker på ett verklig-hetsnära och realistiskt sätt under fyra projektfaser fördelade över en femårsperiod.

    Den inledande projektfasen innebar en diagnostisering av problematiken. Ett antal åtgärdsförslag presenterades av forskargruppen och ledde vidare till ett forskarstött ut-vecklingsarbete under en andra projektfas då ett underlag till olika förbättringsåtgärder arbetades fram. Detta inbegrep utveckling av såväl teknisk som arbetsorganisatorisk ka-raktär för att åstadkomma effektiva och hälsosamma arbetsprocesser för brevbärare inom postutdelningsverksamheten. I en tredje projektfas testades och utvärderades hela åtgärdspaketet genom implementering på ett pilotkontor. I en fjärde och sista projektfas implementerades förbättringsåtgärderna på samtliga 602 postutdelningskontor i landet och forskarna gjorde en utvärdering.

    Resultaten visar hur man genom att anlägga ett MTO-perspektiv i förändringsarbete ökar möjligheterna att få klarhet i vilka faktorer som påverkar effektiviteten i ett pro-duktionssystem i sin helhet. Den tvärvetenskapliga forskningssatsningen i kombination med samverkan forskare/praktiker visade sig vara en förutsättning för att skapa förståel-se för interaktionen mellan M-T-O-komponenterna. Avhandlingen visar vidare hur olika former för participation i praktiken kan bidra till framgångsrikt förändringsarbete både vad gäller process och resultat. Den utförliga redogörelsen för interventionsprocessen, forskarrollens skiftande karaktär samt hindrande och främjande faktorer för forskarstött förändringsarbete, utgör andra viktiga kunskapsbidrag.

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  • 257.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lidingörapporten I: en utvärdering i närtid av brevbärarnas arbetssituation2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna utvärdering har utförts av en forskargrupp vid Avdelningen för Industriell arbetsvetenskap vid Linköpings universitet. Det övergripande syftet var att medverka till att förbättra brevbärarnas arbetssituation (BAS). Utvärderingen genomfördes på uppdrag av Servicenätet Leverans, Posten Sverige AB.

    Syftet var närmare bestämt att ge en samlad bild av de olika BAS-åtgärderna i tre avseenden, nämligen

    1) att utvärdera effekten av förbättringsåtgärder för främjande av brevbärarnas arbetssituation,

    2) att utvärdera hur själva införandeprocessen fungerat samt

    3) att dra lärdomar inför implementering av förbättringsåtgärderna vid övriga postutdelningskontor i landet.

    Arbetet med att ta fram konkreta lösningar påbörjades i fyra delprojekt inom BAS II våren 2003 och avrapporterades under tidig höst 2003. Samtidigt startade förberedelser för att utvärdera helhetseffekten från samtliga åtgärdsförslag enligt BAS II på ett ”pilotkontor”, där valet föll på ett utdelningskontor på Lidingö.

    En projektgrupp med representanter för personalen på pilotkontoret, medlemmar från BAS-projekten samt forskargruppen planerade tillsammans hur de olika förbättringsåtgärderna skulle införas och utvärderas.

    De övergripande förbättringsåtgärderna gällde huvudsakligen

    - införande av manual för organisering av inomhusarbetet,

    - införande av ny märkning av kamfacken,

    - införande av ny arbetsbelysning vid kamfacken samt

    - utbildning i arbetsteknik.

    Dessutom testades och utvärderades en motordriven konstruktion för höj- och sänkbarhet av kamfacken.

    Implementeringen och datainsamlingen genomfördes på Lidingökontoret under perioden oktober 2003 till och med maj 2004. Inledningsvis genomförde forskargruppen deltagande observation av arbetssättet på utdelningskontoret. Därefter deltog 35 brevbärare genom att dels besvara fem delenkäter och dels medverka i fyra gruppintervjuer. Intervjuer genomfördes även med de två teamledarna, dirigenten samt postcenterchefen. Utvärderingen av förändringsarbetet handlar om hur resultaten upplevts, hur själva förändringsarbetet eller införandeprocessen fungerat och vilka lärdomar som kan dras av detta.

    Resultaten visar att förbättringsåtgärderna i sin helhet upplevdes mycket positivt av såväl brevbärare som kontorsledningen. Förbättringen av belysning och märkning var de åtgärder som lättast lät sig utvärderas på kort sikt eftersom de upplevdes ge en omedelbar och påtaglig förbättring. Arbetet med Manualen fordrade däremot organisatoriska förändringar av arbetsprocesserna på utdelningskontoret. Denna typ av förändringar kräver mer tid för att nå rättvisande resultat än vad projektplanen medgav. Detsamma gäller utbildningen i arbetsteknik som kräver en förändring i arbetssätt, vilket tar längre tid att lära sig.

    Brevbärarnas åsikter varierade beträffande själva införandeprocessen men generellt upplevdes vissa brister. Dessa minskade deras positiva upplevelser av förbättrings-åtgärderna.

    I ett pilotprojekts natur ligger att man vill dra lärdomar inför framtiden, i det här fallet lärdomar som andra postutdelningskontor kan dra nytta av vid införandet av BAS-åtgärderna men också lärdomar för personer som har ledningsansvar i projekt- och förändringsarbete. Som grund för de råd som ges i det avslutande avsnittet ligger de erfarenheter som medarbetarna på Lidingökontoret har delat med sig av.

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  • 258.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Perceived Participation: a Key Factor for Successful Implementation of a New Working Concept2002Ingår i: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Congress of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 1-3 of October 2002, Norrköping, Sweden, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling , 2002, s. 229-234Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Post Office is undergoing large-scale restructuring including outsourcing of the mail service division to an independent market driven organisation. As a consequence of exposure to competition, the local delivery offices were rationalised by introducing a new working concept called “Best Method”. The implementation process varied substantially in terms of success at the local delivery offices. The aim of this paper is to identify factors crucial to the success of the process. The findings emerge from a study performed during autumn 2001 at fifteen local delivery offices in different parts of Sweden. It was carried out by participant observation, 60 in-depth interviews and a questionnaire answered by 524 postal personnel. A number of factors related to a successful implementation process have been identified as vital, such as participation, local and central managerial support and local adaptation of a managerial tool. In order to arrive at a more participative approach, an infrastructure is suggested that will improve information flow and communication both horizontally and vertically in the organisation. This calls for further research activities, which are planned in a second phase.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 259.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Utvärdering av interventionsarbete med hälsofrämjande åtgärder: en metodologisk ansats2007Ingår i: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 83, nr 2, s. 130-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författaren arbetar som doktorand med en avhandling om förändringsarbete inom postutdelningsverksamheten, Servicenätet Leverans, Posten Sverige AB. Verksamheten har sedan mitten av 1990-talet har varit föremål för genomgripande omstrukturering och effektivisering för att möta kraven på konkurrens från andra aktörer på marknaden. För brevbärarpersonalen har detta medfört introduktion av ett nytt arbetskoncept, vilket har påkallat insatser för att främja brevbärarpersonalens hälsa och välbefinnande under arbetsutförandet.

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  • 260. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Karltun, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On Stage: Acting for development of businesses and ergonomics in woodworking SMEs2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reports findings and results from studies of development work and change processes in the secondary woodworking industry. The purpose with the research is to increase the knowledge on how companies can initiate change and to increase their ability to change. The dual aim of improving both business and working conditions served as a guiding condition for the research. Case studies and action research were performed in small companies, mainly with less than 100 employees and in some cases less than 20 employees.

    The thesis encompasses six papers addressing different topics within the framework of development work and change processes. Topics elaborated are how performance concerning the ergonomic situation in a company can be measured and how the content and process of ISO 9000 implementation as well as standardisation influence system performance and working conditions. Furthermore, a framework for how change is enacted in SMEs and its effects on ergonomic considerations is suggested. A methodology for initiating change efforts in complex and ambiguous problem situations is presented. Finally the different expert and participant roles in an organisational change effort are elaborated and analysed with reference to experiences from previous case studies and theory.

    Together, the papers and the thesis emphasize the importance of action and work activities as a base for change. It is in the conflicting work activities or work conduct of differing perspectives where many of the drivers of change can be found. I also argue that this is a main reason to give good working conditions utmost importance for organisation performance. Further, I conclude that the six papers together contribute to a theoretical basis for developing small firms and attractive workplaces. It is indicated that the results are relevant to small manufacturing firms, while neither organisational structure nor resources available are the same as in larger companies. Moreover, the organisational size has a number of implications on aspects like visibility, available theoretical knowledge, vulnerability, formalisation, institutionalised organisational inertia etc. that will alter the demands on the change process. Many of the results are not limited to woodworking industry; the technical content of the ergonomics problems will however be different in other firms.

    Delarbeten
    1. Use of Key Variables for Improving the Ergonomic Situation in a Company
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Use of Key Variables for Improving the Ergonomic Situation in a Company
    1994 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, 1994, s. 235-240Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14670 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-10-01 Skapad: 2007-10-01
    2. Working Conditions and Effects of ISO 9000 in Six Furniture-Making Companies - Implementation and Processes
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Working Conditions and Effects of ISO 9000 in Six Furniture-Making Companies - Implementation and Processes
    1998 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 225-232Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    What effects will the implementation of the quality standard ISO 9000 have regarding working conditions and competitive advantages? Which are the most important change process characteristics for assuring improved working conditions and other desired effects? These are the main questions behind this study of six furniture-making companies which implemented ISO 9000 during the period 1991-1994. The results show that customer requirement was the dominant goal to implement ISO 9000. Five of the six companies succeeded in gaining certification. The influence on working conditions was limited, but included better order and housekeeping, more positive attitudes towards discussing quality shortcomings, a few workplace improvements, work enrichment caused by additional tasks within the quality system and a better understanding of external customer demands. Among the negative effects were new, apparently meaningless, tasks for individual workers as well as more stress and more physically strenuous work. The effects on the companies included a decrease in external quality-related costs and improved delivery precision. The study confirms the importance for efficient change of the design of the change process, and identifies ‘improvement methodology’ as the most important process characteristic. Improved working conditions are enhanced by added relevant strategic goals and by a participative implementation process.

    Nyckelord
    quality standard, change process, ergonomics, ISO 9000, furniture industry
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14671 (URN)10.1016/S0003-6870(97)00061-6 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-10-01 Skapad: 2007-10-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-04-13
    3. Standardisation - A Means for Creating Developing Work?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Standardisation - A Means for Creating Developing Work?
    1998 (Engelska)Ingår i: Ergonomics for Global Quality and Productivity: Proceedings, 1998Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14672 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-10-01 Skapad: 2007-10-01
    4. Change processes and ergonomics improvements in SMEs
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Change processes and ergonomics improvements in SMEs
    2004 (Engelska)Ingår i: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 135-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the question of how change processes can create ergonomic improvements in small- and medium-sized industrial enterprises. Drawing on experiences from two described and analyzed case studies in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and from ISO 9000 implementation processes previously studied, a hypothetical change framework is suggested through a theory generating approach. It separates change into action-driven change, which is an active experiential improvement process, and into vision-driven change, which is of a visionary design character. The ability to bring about problem solving into action was important for the success of the change processes. Furthermore, the nature of different hampering mechanisms concerning ergonomic improvements is discussed.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14673 (URN)10.1002/hfm.10055 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-10-01 Skapad: 2007-10-01
    5. SMECA - A methodology for organisational change in SMEs
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>SMECA - A methodology for organisational change in SMEs
    2007 (Engelska)Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14674 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-10-01 Skapad: 2007-10-01
    6. Deltagare, experter och förändringsagenter i hälsofrämjande utvecklingsarbete [Ergonomists, experts and participats in change: how do they relate?]
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Deltagare, experter och förändringsagenter i hälsofrämjande utvecklingsarbete [Ergonomists, experts and participats in change: how do they relate?]
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, nr 2, s. 156-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nyckelord
    Health Promotion, Human Engineering, Extraction and Processing Industry, Humans, Intervention Studies, Theoretical Models, Occupational Health, Organizational Innovation, Professional Competence, Research Personnel
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14675 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-10-01 Skapad: 2007-10-01
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    FULLTEXT01
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    COVER01
  • 261.
    Kawczynski, Lukasz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för produktionsekonomi.
    The Design of a Packing Line in a Manufacturing Company2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s competitive global economy, the focus is on faster delivery of orders at lower total costs. In this paper we are interested in several aspects of order picking systems. We examine the influence of station layout, storage policy, picking policy and sorting solution on order picking system performance. On each of the analysis we consider a few solutions. We determine influence of different number of station in raw on picking system performance. We design the replenishment system supported by kanban philosophy with implemented economical order quantity (EOQ) and reorder point (ROP). The picking system is designed for assumed product’s demand values. The assessment of each of the solution is done through Arena simulation model. The results show that properly designed station with reasonable storage policy and implemented batching policy brings significant raise in order picking system productivity. In addition, we found that proper sortation system logic allows for more equal workload and reduction of maximum queue lengths. The results offer solutions to managers looking to implement improvements in order picking systems.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 262.
    Keller, Kristian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Lundberg, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Framtagning och miljömärkning av kvicksilverfri xenonstrålkastare2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet som rapporten hanterar har ägt rum på NBB, Nordisk Bilbelysning AB i Linköping. Företaget tillverkar och utvecklar belysning och strålkastare till alla typer av fordon. På senare tid har NBBs leverantör av elektronik, OSRAM utvecklat en kvicksilverfri xenonljuskälla. Kvicksilver är ett av de farligaste miljögifterna och att få bort kvicksilvret helt ur ljuskällan är ett stort steg som betyder mycket för miljön.

    Denna ljuskälla ska NBB placera i en arbetsstrålkastare vid namn My och sälja som ett alternativ till kvicksilverinnehållade strålkastare. Denna produkt vill NBB miljömärka och ha fram väsentlig information om för att kunna påbörja tillverkningen. Detta är vad projektet har hanterat.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att hjälpa och stödja NBB i miljömärkning och framtagning av en My strålkastare med kvicksilverfri xenonljuskälla.

    En miljömärkt strålkastare skulle kunna innebära en större plats på marknaden och därmed minskad miljöpåverkan.

    En studie av miljömärkningstyper har gjorts vilket har lett till att miljövarudeklaration typ II är den typ av miljömärkning och marknadsföring av miljöegenskaper som använts.

    Livscykelanalyser med programmet ECO-it visar att en kvicksilverfri ljuskälla i strålkastaren i detta fall inte skulle innebära någon miljövinst jämfört med kvicksilverinnehållande ljuskälla. Det beror på att livslängden för en kvicksilverfri ljuskälla är 500 timmar kortare. Detta innebär i sin tur att ljuskällan måste bytas mer frekvent om man väljer det kvicksilverfria alternativet vilket i sin tur belastar miljön. Det har även visat sig att transporter av ingående detaljer ger en liten miljöpåverkan i jämförelse till produktionen av produkten. Detta skulle innebära att byta leveratörer till svenska leverantörer inte skulle innebära någon större miljövinst.

    Temperatur- och ljusmätningar har genomförts och jämförts mellan strålkastare med kvicksilverinnehållade ljuskälla och strålkastare med kvicksilverfri ljuskälla. Resultaten av provningarna visade att ljusflödet för en kvicksilverfri strålkastare var ungefär 15% lägre och temperaturen inne i strålkastaren ca 5°C högre. Detta innebär att konstruktionen inte måste ändras då temperaturen är på en godkänd nivå.

    Användandet av kvicksilver i ljuskällor kommer troligtvis inte ske för alltid då nya lagkrav hela tiden blir strängare och strängare. Den miljövarudeklaration som gjordes innehåller bland annat materiallista på produkten och information om produktens livscykel. Även en logotype har lagts fram som förslag på eget miljömärke till företaget. Miljövarudeklarationen kommer användas som marknadsföring av produkten bland annat på företagets hemsida.

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  • 263. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Micro-foundations of value-based pricing and selling2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att möjliggöra värdeskapande för kunder är centralt för marknadsföringsteori och -praktik. Detta är dock ingen garanti för att leverantörsföretaget kommer att kunna få del av värdet. Värdebaserad prissättning och försäljning ses i detta sammanhang som sätt på vilka leverantörer kan ta del av kundens ökade värdeskapande. Trots ett ökat intresse för koncepten i näringslivet är antalet företag som systematiskt arbetar med värdebaserad prissättning och försäljning begränsat. Anledningen till detta tillskrivs ofta de organisatoriska utmaningar som företagen ställs inför. Fokus på de organisatoriska utmaningarna skymmer dessvärre individens roll inom organisationen (dvs. dess mikrofundament), såsom att chefer och säljare bestämer och realiserar priser. Syftet med denna avhandling är således att beskriva och analysera mikrofundamenten av värdebaserad prissättning och försäljning på företagsmarknader.

    Avhandlingens konceptuella ramverk introducerar begränsad rationalitet och heterogenitet—två förbisedda faktorer—för att undersöka affektiva, kognitiva och motiverande mikrofundament av värdebaserad prissättning och försäljning. Avhandlingens empiriska grund består av fem papper som undersöker mikrofundamenten som föreslås av ramverket.

    Resultaten tyder på att fortsatt forskning skulle gynnas av en bredare mängd olika forskningsmetoder. För närvarande saknas insikter om mikrofundament delvis på grund av fokus på metoder och teorier som huvudsakligen undersöker organisationsnivån. Genom mer forskning som bygger på teorier hämtade från psykologi samt experimentella metoder skulle forskningsfältet kunna utvecklas. Dessutom spelar individuell rationalitet och individuella skillnader en roll. I detta avseende påverkar beslutsfattares kognitiva biaser i vilken utsträckning företaget fokuserar på värdebaserad prissättning. Vidare påverkar prispresentation beslutsfattares värdeuppfattning och köpintention. Resultaten visar även att chefers personlighet och säljares erfarenhet och inlärningsorientering är viktiga individuella skillnader som påverkar företagets fokus på värdebaserad prissättning och försäljning. Affektiva, kognitiva och motiverande mikrofundament som har sin grund i begränsad rationalitet och heterogenitet kan därmed förklara några av de utmaningar som är förknippade med värdebaserad prissättning och försäljning.

    Avhandlingen bidrar med insikter kring flera av de mikrofundament som påverkar värdebaserad prissättning och försäljning. Den sällar sig således till den växande forskningsström som skiftar fokus från organisationsprocesser till individnivå för att bättre förstå värdebaserad prissättning och försäljning. Avhandlingen ger även ett praktiskt bidrag genom förslag på hur beslutsfattare kan använda mikrofundament till fördel för sina företag.  

    Delarbeten
    1. Pricing strategy: A review of 22 years of marketing research
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Pricing strategy: A review of 22 years of marketing research
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 78, s. 101-110Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the development and current state of pricing strategy research by undertaking a content analysis of 515 articles published in leading academic journals between 1995 and 2016. The results suggest several developments in research focus and methodology; recent research has focused more strongly on services and applies more rigorous research designs. The results also indicate a persistent focus on consumer markets and economic theories, as well as an increasing consideration of demand-side respondents, at the expense of supply-side respondents. An important feature of this review is a set of actionable takeaways, with both theoretical and methodological implications for pricing strategy research.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Pricing strategy; Literature review; Content analysis; Marketing; Takeaways
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Företagsekonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137345 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.05.005 (DOI)000405053800010 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: Torsten Soderbergs Stiftelse, Sweden [E24/14]

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-13 Skapad: 2017-05-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Does managerial personality influence pricing practices under uncertainty?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Does managerial personality influence pricing practices under uncertainty?
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 26, nr 7, s. 771-784Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - While marketing and management research suggests that managers individual characteristics influence pricing decisions, the influence of personality traits in this context remains unclear. This study aims to explore the relationship between the five basic personality traits of the five-factor model (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness and neuroticism) and three basic pricing practices (value-, competition- and cost-informed).

    Design/methodology/approach - On the basis of a non-experimental decision-making scenario, the analysis examines the pricing decisions of 57 managers in relation to a new business service.

    Findings - The results suggest that managers conscientiousness and openness to experience are positively related to preference for value- informed pricing. Similarly, managers agreeableness is positively related to preference for competition- informed pricing and managers openness to experience and agreeableness are positively related to preference for cost-informed pricing.

    Research limitations/implications - The cross-sectional study design does not support causal inference, and the modest sample size may limit the external validity of the findings.

    Practical implications - By increasing awareness of the influence of personality on pricing preferences, the findings are of relevance to managers who are directly involved in pricing decisions. Additionally, the findings are informative for managers who must assign responsibility for pricing authority within firms.

    Originality/value - This empirical exploration of the relationship between certain personality traits and specific pricing practices contributes to the literature on psychological aspects of pricing theory by showing how managerial personality influences pricing preferences under uncertainty.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Personality; Pricing; PLS modelling; Judgement and decision making
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Företagsekonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143961 (URN)10.1108/JPBM-11-2016-1352 (DOI)000417505100009 ()2-s2.0-85038432657 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-29 Skapad: 2017-12-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-31
    3. Value-based pricing and cognitive biases: An overview for business markets
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Value-based pricing and cognitive biases: An overview for business markets
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 68, s. 86-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate how cognitive biases inhibit value-based pricing practices among managers in business markets, this article considers five different cognitive biases—perceived lack of control, herding, fixed-pie bias, ambiguity aversion, and egocentric fairness bias—and their effects on value-based pricing. Despite recent calls for more research on the psychological aspects of pricing, few studies have focused on business markets. Drawing on research in psychology and marketing for its theoretical foundation, this overview extends the limited body of existing research. The article's key contribution is to explain how psychological challenges affect value-based pricing practices, with implications and suggestions for further research.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Value-based pricing; Cognitive bias; Debiasing; Business market; Managerial decision-making
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Företagsekonomi Tillämpad psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141951 (URN)10.1016/j.indmarman.2017.09.028 (DOI)000424310200008 ()2-s2.0-85031322039 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-14 Skapad: 2017-10-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-21Bibliografiskt granskad
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    Micro-foundations of value-based pricing and selling
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  • 264.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pricing value and selling value: A view on individuals within organizations2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grunden för långsiktig framgång ligger i företagens förmåga att förse kunderna med produkter och tjänster som möjliggör skapandet av kundvärde och företagens förmåga att fånga värde i form av vinster. För detta ändamål har managers och säljare en inverkan på ett företags värdeskapande och värdefångande förmåga genom sin prissättning och försäljningsbeteende samt beslut. Värdebaserad prissättning och värdebaserad försäljning är två tillvägagångssätt som gör det möjligt för företag att skapa kundvärde och fånga värde för företaget som har bevittnat en ny våg av intresse. Trots detta växande intresse fokuserar många undersökningar på företagsnivå, och därmed förbises faktorer som påverkar enskilda managers och säljare i användningen av de båda tillvägagångssätten. Syftet med denna studien är att undersöka faktorer som påverkar dessa individers tillvägagångssätt av prissättning och försäljning av värdet.

    Forskningen bygger på tre artiklar som undersöker prissättning och försäljning av värdet från olika utgångspunkter. Artiklarna består av en litteraturgenomgång som visar utvecklingen och det aktuella läget för prisstrategiforskning, en studie som undersöker effekterna av managers personlighet på användningen av värdebaserad prissättning för en ny industriell tjänst, och en undersökning som utforskar säljarens användning av värdebaserad försäljning inom stålindustrin.

    Studien konstaterar att prisstrategiforskning tar alltmer hänsyn till kundvärde genom att undersöka strategier förankrade i värdebaserad prissättning och ett ökat fokus på kundnytta genom mer forskning om tjänster. Vidare visar studien att omfattningen av interna och externa faktorer påverkar managers och säljares användning av värdebaserad prissättning och försäljning. Slutligen beskriver forskningen ansatser för managers, med ansvar för prissättning och försäljning, för att ta itu med effekterna av de identifierade faktorerna på värdebaserad prissättning och försäljning.

    Forskningen bidrar med en utforskning och utvärdering av faktorer som påverkar managers och säljare i att använda värdebaserad prissättning och försäljning och diskuterar hur företag kan hantera dessa faktorer. På så sätt bidrar forskningen till prissättning och försäljningslitteraturen samt den framväxande fokusen på individuella aspekter i prissättning och försäljning av värde.

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  • 265.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Affordable reconfigurable assembly tooling: an aircraft development and manufacturing perspective2002Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry has changed in recent years. Increased globalization has led to a situation where few manufacturers build their own complete products "in-house". This situation is no different in the aerospace industry. In fact, aircraft manufacturers who build their complete aircraft in­ house are uncommon today. Aircraft manufacturers have, more and more, become specialists in limited areas of development and manufacturing. As specialists, aircraft manufacturers have focused on a narrow field of product categories. It would be a great advantage if these manufacturers had an assembly system that could produce several kinds of product categories using the same production equipment, instead of having one dedicated piece of equipment for each assembly.

    Today, the most common solution for aircraft assembly is Conventional Tooling (CT). CT is based on the same principles used during the early days of aircraft assembly tooling. The main principle of CT is that the fixture/tool is fabricated according to the shape of the workpiece, and that every assembly to be built requires its own unique tool. The problem with this type of tooling, however, is that developing one tool for each assembly is expensive and takes up a lot of storage space.

    The next generation of aircraft will be more advanced than their predecessors as world-class aircraft manufacturer employ the newest technologies in every new aircraft they manufacture. Building an advanced product like an aircraft involves continuous changes, both in the development of new aircraft and in the development of manufacturing technologies for the serial manufacture of aircraft. One of the main challenges for tomorrow' s aircraft industry will be to develop assembly systems that can manage changes within one product. Aircraft manufacturers would also benefit from using the same flexible assembly equipment for many product types, since product volumes in the aircraft industry are much smaller than in other industries.

    This thesis presents the theory of Conventional Tooling and its advantages and limitations, as well as new solutions. Given the advantages from both Conventional Tooling and the new tooling methods, together with general aircraft assembly requirements, a synthesizes has been made which has resulted in a new concept called Affordable Reconfigurable (Assembly) Tooling (ART). ART is based on using a robot to reconfigure the moveable fixturing units, called Dynamic Modules. The Dynamic Modules can also be detached from the Static Framework and attached again in a new configuration. Reconfiguration enables the ART concept to make changeovers between product types within a product family, and modularity enables the tool to be rebuilt between product families. The conclusion of this thesis is that if the enabling technologies work, i.e. if the technical solutions for ART are feasible, then the ART concept could represent a promising solution for manufacturers striving to meet future requirements for aircraft manufacturing in a turbulent globalized marketplace.

  • 266.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reconfigurable tooling for airframe assembly: a state-of-the-art review of the related literature and a short presentation of a new tooling concept2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    From the early days of aircraft manufacturing Dedicated Tooling has been used in the assembly process to ensure the attainment of assembly tolerances and product quality. Dedicated Tooling clamps the aircraft parts to be assembled into the jig to enable assembly by riveting. However, increased competition in the aircraft industry has driven the need to improve quality while reducing cost and in turn the need for innovative solutions to accomplish this.

    In this review paper the possibility of using metrology to increase the position accuracy in robotics will be examined. This is necessary to be able to use robotics in assembly of aircraft parts with the appropriate accuracy. Also, because of the small product volumes in the aircraft industry, the jigs must be flexible in order to assemble more than one structure in each jig. Solving these two problems could be the break through for starting to use robotics in aircraft assembly at a higher rate, and doing so in a cost-effective way.

    By then reviewing literature of today's flexible tooling technology in the aircraft industry, the conclusion indicates that there is a gap to fill in aircraft assembly tooling. Modular Tools is one solution where standard aluminium profiles are used to manufacture jigs with some degree of flexibility. Another way is pogo fixturing, which uses sticks to hold airframe parts together in the assembly process. The sticks can only be reconfigured in a limited range, and are not cost-effective. By using Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling, the jigs will not only have greater ability to be reconfigured, but by using robotics for the reconfiguration task as well as for drilling, riveting and other material handling tasks, the system will also be cost effective.

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    2001-05-21 Reconfigurable-Tooling-for-Airframe-Assembly
  • 267.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Ingvar
    Novator AB.
    Ennis, Mark
    Novator AB.
    Robotic orbital drilling of structures for aerospace applications2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing research into orbital drilling using standard industrial robots. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project - ADFAST*. Generally it is difficult to use standard industrial robots to automate drilling in the aerospace industry. The stiffness of the standard robotic device is not sufficient to resist the deflections caused by the cutting forces from the drilling process, therefore it is difficult to achieve the tight hole tolerance requirements. Orbital drilling creates lower axial cutting forces compared to conventional drilling and therefore allows the use of low-cost standard industrial robots for drilling holes within the required hole tolerances. This paper presents results from a study where forces, moments and dislocations produced during orbital- and conventional drilling have been measured.

  • 268.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Loser, Raimund
    Leica Geosystems AG.
    6DOF metrology-integrated robot control2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing research into Metrology-integrated robot control. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project – ADFAST*. The ADFAST project tries to implement the use of industrial robots in low-volume production, high-demand-on-accuracy operations and for dynamic force compensation. To detect and compensate deflection in industrial robots during a process, the robot uses a metrology system. The metrology system supervises the tool center point of the robot as it executes its processes. Leica has recently released a new metrology system; the LTD800, which measures distances with laser interferometry and can simultaneously measure orientation of targets, through photogrammetry, using an additional camera on top of the measuring unit. This paper will describe theory and results from tests performed on integrating the LTD800 with the robot.

  • 269.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Loser, Raimund
    Leica Geosystems AG, Metrology Division, Switzerland.
    Cooke, Andrew
    BAE Systems, Advanced Technology Centre, United Kingdom.
    Sunnanbo, Albin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Von Arb, Konrad
    Leica Geosystems AG, Metrology Division, Switzerland.
    Metrology-integrated industrial robots: calibration, implementation and testing2004Ingår i: Proceedings of the 35th ISR (International Symposium on Robotics), 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents integration of a metrology system and an industrial robot. The metrology system consists of a laser tracker that measures the distance to a prism with high accuracy and a camera that through photogrammetry measures the orientation of a reflector. Both laser prism and camera reflector is integrated to a 6D-Reflector that is attached close to the TCP of an industrial robot. Tracker and robot is connected to a PC on a TCP/IP network. The PC takes measurements with the tracker, and thereby compensates the robot to reach high absolute accuracy in the robot positioning (+/-50 μm). The 6D-Reflector has multi-functionality and simplifies calibration procedures. This paper explains the architecture of the system and the methods for calibration.

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    fulltext
  • 270.
    Kilbo, Per
    et al.
    Swerea IVF.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ström, Mikael
    Swerea IVF.
    OEM advantages to prosper on the remanufacturingand service market2011Ingår i: Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Remanufacturing: July 26-29, Glasgow, UK, 2011, s. 330-336Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 271.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    How World Leading Manufacturers Can Achieve Differentiation Through E-Business: New Services, Enhanced Relationships, and Reduced Costs2007Ingår i: 18th Information Resources Management Association International Conference, Vancouver, Canada: Managing Worldwide Operations and Communications with Information Technology, Hershey, New York: IGI Global , 2007, s. 502-506Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    E-business development is today driven by mature and established companies and is becoming an important tool to increase competitive advantage and to sustain profitability. This paper investigates how world-leading manufacturers can achieve differentiation through their use of e-business. Many companies use e-business as vehicles to launch new information-based service, as an important enabler to enhance and deepen customer relationships, and to reduce costs associated with customer management. Using e-business in this way will increase the opportunities for differentiation and create sustainable competitive advantage. Successful employment of e-business creates services that retain current customers and attract new ones as well as justifies premium prices and keeps low-cost competitors in check.

  • 272.
    Kjellgren, Carina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Larsson, Adéle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Ledarskap och delaktighet: en fallstudie om ledarskapets betydelse för medarbetarnas delaktighet2004Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens övergripande syfte är att studera fenomenen ledarskap och delaktighet i en kommunal verksamhet, mer specifik avses att undersöka ledarskapets betydelse för medarbetarnas delaktighet. Avsikten med föreliggande studie är således att studera vad i ledarskapet som ledarna och medarbetarna uppfattar påverkar delaktigheten, och hur dessa faktorer påverkar delaktigheten, stödjande eller hindrande. Den teoretiska referensramen presenterar en forskningsöversikt över ledarskapsforskning, delaktighetsbegreppets komplexitet samt faktorer i ledarskapet som påverkar medarbetarnas delaktighet.

    Empirin har inhämtats genom tio kvalitativa intervjuer på två enheter inom en kommun belägen i Östergötland. Resultaten visar fler olika faktorer i ledarskapet som påverkar medarbetarnas delaktighet. Faktorerna som framkommit i studien som verkar stödjande är; visa intresse, förtroende, tillgänglighet, tillåtande, belöning och engagemang. De faktorer som påverkar både stödjande och hindrande är; relation och kommunikation. Även hur de intervjuade definierar begreppet delaktighet påverkar delaktigheten. Vi kan härleda alla faktorer förutom tillgänglighet till befintlig forskning. Undersökningen visar således att fler faktorer i ledarskapet har betydelse för medarbetarnas delaktighet.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 273.
    Kjellsdotter Ivert, Linea
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dreyer, Heidi
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Kaipia, Riikka
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Contingency between S & OP design and planning environment2015Ingår i: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 747-773Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand how companies design sales and operations planning (S&OP) contingent on the planning environment (PE).

    Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of the literature, the paper creates an analytical framework identifying the main constructs related to the PE and S&OP design, which is the basis for gathering and analysing qualitative data from eight cases in the food industry. The findings highlight the relations between S&OP and the PE, and are used for generating three propositions.

    Findings – Responding to the complex and uncertain PE, the companies set up S&OP on a stockkeeping unit (SKU) level, with the possibility of re-planning and a flexible planning horizon, thus differing

    from what has generally been suggested in the literature. In addition, the companies are aligning the inputs, activities, and outcomes of the S&OP process to the PE. Particularly important environmental contingencies are uncertainty connected to demand and supply, frequent product launches, and production network complexity. Product-related variables have a lower impact on the S&OP design.

    Research limitations/implications – The present study is limited to one industry only and a  comparison between industries with larger data sets would be valuable in future studies. The study selected cases based on their S&OP maturity; further studies need to explore the effect of the alignment of S&OP and the PE on the planning performance.

    Originality/value – In the literature, S&OP is presented as a generic process with a strict formal design that is equal for all companies. The study provides insights into how companies adjust S&OP according to the PE.

  • 274.
    Koji, Kimita
    et al.
    Department of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Method for Remanufacturing Process Planning and Control Using Loosely Coupled Systems2021Ingår i: Journal of manufacturing science and engineering, ISSN 1087-1357, E-ISSN 1528-8935, Vol. 143, nr 10, s. 1-17, artikel-id 101001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a crucial component for our societies to move toward a circular economy. Compared with new manufacturing, the distinctive nature of remanufacturing is found to have high variability, high uncertainty and, thereby, complexity. Therefore, remanufacturers need to be able to adapt to the complexity and to flexibly adjust their processes. Especially, the ability to remanufacturing process planning and control is important. However, few practical methods supporting that are available so far. Therefore, this paper aims to propose a method for designing teams and processes in remanufacturing based on the concept of loosely coupled systems. In the proposed method, design structure matrix (DSM) is applied to identify loosely coupled sub-systems that enable to localize impacts of changes within themselves. These sub-systems are also regarded as cross-functional teams that reduce coordination efforts among line departments and, therefore, increase the adaptability against uncertainties. As a preliminary validation, the proposed method was applied to a real case of remanufacturing, and then found to be effective for creating teams and processes for remanufacturing process planning and control depending on given uncertainties.

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    fulltext
  • 275.
    Kollberg, Beata
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Balanced Scorecard and Learning in Organisations2002Ingår i: Arbete, Människa, Miljö och Nordisk Ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, nr 1, s. 13-24Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 276.
    Kollberg, Beata
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Balanced Scorecard and Learning in Organisations2002Ingår i: Conference Proceedings: Nordic Ergonomic Society (NES), 2002Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 277.
    Kollberg, Beata
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kammerlind, Peter
    Qulturum, Landstinget i Jönköping.
    Henriks, Göran
    Qulturum, Landstinget i Jönköping.
    Development of macro level performance measurementsystems in health care services2010Ingår i: 17th International Annual EurOMA Conference Managing Operations in Service Economies: Proceedings papers, Porto: Catholic University of Portugal , 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increased interest for performance measurement in health care, few authorshave studied how top managers on a macro level develop performance measurement (PM)systems. The purpose is to identify factors that enable the development of macro level PMsystems in health care. Based on a case study in nine top management teams in Swedishhealth care, four enabling factors are identified: building an infrastructure, using tools forvisualizing measures, selecting useful macro level measures, and expressing the purpose asa means to improve clinical practice rather than the PM system per se.Despite the increased interest for performance measurement in health care, few authorshave studied how top managers on a macro level develop performance measurement (PM)systems. The purpose is to identify factors that enable the development of macro level PMsystems in health care. Based on a case study in nine top management teams in Swedishhealth care, four enabling factors are identified: building an infrastructure, using tools forvisualizing measures, selecting useful macro level measures, and expressing the purpose asa means to improve clinical practice rather than the PM system per se.

  • 278.
    Kongiranda Ganapathi, Changappa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköping university.
    Balapanda Erappa, Vivek Mandanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköping university.
    Design Automation For CNC Machining: A case study for generating CNC codes from geometric CAD models2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The intent of the thesis is to automate the generation of computer numerical control (CNC) codes from geometrical computer-aided design (CAD) models. The work is carried out using two machines, the MDX 40A milling machine, and the HAAS VM3 machine. The case study is to determine the potential in automating the code generation process. The empirical findings from the research studies reveal that the manual process for programming the codes for the models pose a challenge of consuming more time using the procedures in computer-aided manufacturing and manual operations performed by a programmer. One crucial factor to meet these requirements is the productivity of the machining process. Design automation for machining is the potent tool to increase productivity in this process.

    The main methods used in the study to fulfill the main objective of the thesis are addressed. The programming of the code is automated for these two machines and the outcome is compared with the manual approach. The need of automating the codes is to provide better accuracy and efficiency. Further, automation is beneficial as it increases the capability to accommodate the new changes in the design of the model. The conclusion drawn from the results of the study is that the automation for code programming results in increasing the speed of the machining process by reducing time consumption. Though the approach of automating codes is carried out for two machines, the potential of this approach is that the code generation process is not dependant on the post-processor of any specific machine

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    fulltext
  • 279.
    Kourie, Gabriel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Enhancing Mission Success: Perspectives on Adaptive Human-Machine Interfaces2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of a project within Saab Aeronautics, a Swedish Fighter Aircraft industry, this study was conducted. The fighter pilot is under immense pressure as he/she ventures into the complex environment that is airspace and air combat in a hostile area. The HMI (Human Machine Interface) is the pilot and aircrafts common denominator that leads to mission success but has its limitations. An Adaptive Human-Machine Interface (AHMI) is an HMI that is modified to help the pilot despite the situation he/she finds themselves in. The AHMI has many tasks but what gives it its edge is the adaptivity to different situations and to assist the pilot’s well-being. This can be done via proper visualization of information but also automation of lesser tasks. Mission success depends on physiological parameters such as mental workload and situational awareness to attain optimized operative performance. In this thesis we delve into the depths of what is important in AHMI and the requirements that are needed to produce and demonstrate the AHMI. The mapping of requirements onto simulators is an important aspect to move forward with the development of AHMI. Literature reviews and interviews were conducted in order to learn more about the domain and answer the research questions. The interviewees concur that the proper way of mapping requirements is dependent on what is supposed to be investigated. Is it a graphical component, principle, function or scenario? Through the comparison between the literature and thematic analysis through the interviews it was found that the mapping of requirements is dependent on what is to be investigated. Further, AHMI is deemed an effective support system for the pilot and that autonomy is effective to a certain extent. But when autonomy takes too much control the pilot loses situational awareness and therefore performs worse. Within the project, there is a common consensus between the interviewed subjects that AHMI is the way to move forward with fighter aircraft cockpit development. 

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    Kandidatuppsats - Enhancing Mission Success
  • 280.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Service productivity gains through information and communication technology applications: A service marketing approach2008Ingår i: International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, ISSN 1743-8268, E-ISSN 1743-8276, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 96-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on examples from Information and Communication Technology- (ICT-) based improvements in service productivity in the service organisations of three manufacturing firms, this paper argues for a service-centred approach towards productivity. When improving the productivity of industrial services, one of the three profitability-generating strategies, cost-efficiency, revenue effectiveness and capacity utilisation – or a combination – can be used. Increased standardisation and automation is a consequence of technological development, making capacity less a constraint in services and even if ICT applications often primarily improve cost efficiency, the elements improved vary depending on the solution implemented. Thus, ICT can enhance existing service processes and enable new service offerings to increase overall profitability. A productivity model for ICT-based services is presented and it is suggested that central coordination is often required in order to develop ICT-based services.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 281.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Design Space Configuration for Minimizing Design Information Entropy2015Ingår i: ICoRD’15 - Research into Design Across Boundaries Volume 1: Theory, Research Methodology, Aesthetics, Human Factors and Education / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, New Delhi, India: Springer India , 2015, s. 51-60Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper concepts for quantitative theory of design are developed. The design process is viewed as a process of increasing the information of the product/system using concept from information theory. The creation and evolution of design space and information entropy are central concepts that are studied in this paper. Furthermore, axiomatic design is discussed in relation to this, and it is shown that the two fundamental axioms are likely to be dependent.

    The design information entropy is used as a state that reflects both complexity and refinement, and it is argued that it can be useful as some measure of design effort and design quality. It provides a tool to describe the relation between a design, and the design space from which it is derived as well as for quantitative description for various aspects of design, both structural information regarding architecture and connectivity, as well as for parameter values, both discrete and continuous. In this paper it is also shown to be useful as a measure of quality when configuring design spaces, such as in  product platforms, and when setting up parameterization for design.

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    fulltext
  • 282.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Hallin, Malin
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Soderlund, Carina
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Florin, Ulrika
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Landstrom, Anna
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Designing visual management in manufacturing from a user perspective2019Ingår i: 29TH CIRP DESIGN CONFERENCE 2019, ELSEVIER , 2019, Vol. 84, s. 886-891Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organisations use daily meetings, whiteboards and an information system for employee intra-communication. While Operation Management research is often management centred, Human Centred Design, instead, takes a users perspective. This research aims to reflect upon and describe a method, applied in practice in a double case study within manufacturing, on how to (re-)design meetings and visual management boards, and what type of information and key performance indicators are most relevant for the personnel. The paper proposes a lean Kata-improvement inspired design method, which takes the personnels perspective on design of daily visual management. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 283.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Denzler, Patrick
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Mats
    Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Production system and material efficiency challenges for large scale introduction of complex materials2017Ingår i: Advanced Materials Proceedings, ISSN 2002-4428, Vol. 2, nr 8, s. 492-499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper links production system research to advanced material research for the vehicle industry. Facilitated by need for reduction of fuel use, the automotive industry is pushing a radical change from using steel structures to new mixed materials structures. In production systems optimised for steel, the changes will affect productivity and material efficiency. Four industrial case studies focusing on production economy and productivity give implications of production technology demands on the material selection regarding new joining techniques and additive or forming methods which has to be investigated when considering new materials. Material efficiency analysis shows that minimising spill in production operations and regulatory demand of recycling need to be considered in material development, which implies both design for disassembly, advanced separation processes and use of recycled raw materials. To be successful in new material introduction, new information flows and knowledge sharing moving from operations and manufacturing development to materials development and design are needed. The material developers could use axiomatic design strategies to structure the production system demands on the materials. State of the art lightweight producers in vehicle and automotive industry are likely early adopters to advanced lightweight structures with need of information flows between material development and operations.

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    Production system and material efficiency challenges for large scale introduction of complex materials
  • 284.
    Kurilova, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements2018Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, s. 3225-3236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a viable way to prolong the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts. Despite its economic, environmental, and social benefits, remanufacturing is associated with many challenges related to core (used product or its part) availability, timing and quality. The aim of this paper is to study how lean production could be used to tackle remanufacturing process challenges and contribute to shorter lead times. To meet this aim, we conducted a literature review and case studies of four remanufacturing companies. The case companies remanufacturing challenges were: (1) a lack of material requirements planning system, (2) poor core information, (3) a lack of core material, (4) poor spare parts information, (5) a lack of spare parts material, (6) insufficient quality management practices, (7) large inventories, (8) stochastic remanufacturing processes, (9) a lack of supply-demand balance, and (10) insufficient automation. These challenges contribute to long and variable remanufacturing process lead times. To tackle remanufacturing challenges, seven lean-based improvements with a major effect on improvements in lead time were suggested: standard operations, continuous flow, Kanban, teamwork, employee cross-training, layout for continuous flow, and supplier partnership. Providing that the suggested improvements are implemented, a possible lead time reduction of 83-99 per cent was projected. 

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    fulltext
  • 285.
    Kurilova, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Orienting around circular strategies (Rs): How to reach the longest and highest ride on the Retained Value Hill?2023Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 424, artikel-id 138724Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To comply with a circular economy (CE) and gain significant financial, environmental, and societal benefits, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) tend to adopt circular strategies, also known as "Rs". With a growing tendency to develop new Rs in CE frameworks, OEMs can become disoriented. While remanufacturing is often ranked low compared to other Rs, remanufacturing can still retain the highest product value (pull the used product value up to the top of the Retained Value Hill (see graphical abstract)).The aim of this paper is to align remanufacturing in comparison to other value-retaining processes (VRPs) in terms of the retained product value. To fulfill this aim, data was collected through a literature study and interviews with remanufacturers. The results show that although remanufacturing tends to demand more resources to retain a high product value, it outperforms other VRPs and delivers better output quality, assured with a longer warranty, neutral product identity, and extended (doubled or tripled) product use time. This paper enriches the research on remanufacturing, VRPs, and CE frameworks by showing that OEMs can ride the Retained Value Hill highest and longest only with remanufacturing.

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    fulltext
  • 286.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lean Remanufacturing: addressing system challenges2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Environmental Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing (Eco-Design -15), 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with remanufacturing is emphasized through delivering same or better than original product quality and prolonging physical product performance. However, remanufacturing faces challenges related to complex material and information flows. Therefore in order to sustain competitive some remanufacturers investigate opportunity to improve through lean production.

    The aim with this paper is to define remanufacturing challenges from a system perspective and investigate how these challenges can be addressed by lean production principles. Data is collected via focus group interviews at three remanufacturing companies. In addition, a literature study on lean principles and practices to deal with the identified challenges was conducted.

    The lean principles in remanufacturing: value, value stream, flow, pull and perfection are described and five remanufacturing system challenges: uncertainty, complexity, variability, inflexibility, lean waste were defined. As a result, a generic lean approach to deal with remanufacturing system challenges is developed with a focus on pull-based remanufacturing.

  • 287. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lean Remanufacturing: Reducing Process Lead Time2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a product recovery option in which used products are brought back into useful life. While the remanufacturing industry stretches from heavy machinery to automotive parts, furniture, and IT sectors, it faces challenges. A majority of these challenges originate from the remanufacturing characteristics of having little control over the core (the used product or its part), high product variation, low product volumes, and a high proportion of manual work, when compared to manufacturing. Some remanufacturing challenges appear to be process challenges that prolong process lead time, making remanufacturing process inefficient.

    Lean is an improvement strategy with roots in the manufacturing industry. Lean helps to increase customer satisfaction, reduce costs, and improve company’s performance in delivery, quality, inventory, morale, safety, and other areas. Lean encompasses principles, tools and practices to deal with e.g. inefficient processes and long process lead times. Therefore, in this thesis lean has been selected as an improvement strategy to deal with long remanufacturing process lead times.

    The objective of this thesis is to expand knowledge on how lean can reduce remanufacturing process lead time. This objective is approached through literature studies and a case study conducted at four remanufacturing companies. There are five challenges that contribute to long process lead time: unpredictable core quality, quantity, and timing; weak collaboration, information exchange, and miscommunication; high inventory levels; unknown number of required operations in process and process sequence; and insufficient employee skills for process and product upgrade. When analysing the case companies’ process lead times it was found that there is a need to reduce waiting times, which account for 95 to 99 per cent of process lead times at three of the four companies.

    To improve remanufacturing process efficiency and reduce remanufacturing process lead time six lean practices are suggested: product families; kanban; layout for continuous flow; cross functional teams; standard operating procedures; and supplier partnerships. The suggested lean practices have a key focus on reducing waiting time since it prolongs the process lead time. This thesis contributes to lean remanufacturing research with the case study findings on lean practices to reduce remanufacturing process lead time and increase process efficiency.

    Delarbeten
    1. Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 644-652Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lean philosophy, which promotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from the Japanese car manufacturer, Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean has not been fully explored is remanufacturing, a process that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to the uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity. This study explored remanufacturing by identifying its challenges and opportunities in becoming lean. The challenges of a lean remanufacturing system do not exceed its advantages. Although some researchers state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean principles to remanufacturing, this research utilizes lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that focuses on improving the remanufactured products’ quality, process lead times, and inventory levels. 

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Fuji Technology Press, 2014
    Nyckelord
    lean, remanufacturing, product life cycle, continuous improvement
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan samhällsbyggnadsteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120764 (URN)
    Projekt
    ÅterProdukt, KEAP
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-08-24 Skapad: 2015-08-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-17Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

    Nyckelord
    Remanufacturing, Lean, Material and Information Flows, Data collection workshop, Process map
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118270 (URN)
    Konferens
    Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), September 16-18, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-05-25 Skapad: 2015-05-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-17Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: 12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing – Emerging Potentials, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 26, s. 270-275Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2015
    Serie
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271
    Nyckelord
    Remanufacturing, Product life-cycle, Lean, Pull, Kanban
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118272 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.187 (DOI)000360931800048 ()
    Konferens
    12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing - Emerging Potentials, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 22–24 September 2014
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-05-25 Skapad: 2015-05-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-09-29Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference onRemanufacturing (ICOR17), 2017, s. 47-56Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual accumulation of electronic equipment waste, including IT, in the European Union reached at least nine million tons in 2015. These products usually have a limited lifespan, and many consumers tend to buy new devices before their old ones stop working.

    Remanufacturing is one of the effective ways to contribute to IT waste reduction. Product life extension through remanufacturing gives the product one or several more users throughout its life cycle. When remanufacturing is applied to laptops, the extraction of virgin materials, the energy consumption for manufacturing and the amount of waste are all reduced. However, today many remanufacturers of IT face challenges associated with inefficient and complex processes due to uncertainties in core timing, volume and quality. Lean remanufacturing is typically treated as an operations improvement strategy that deals with the process challenges. Just-in-time is one of the lean strategies to address inefficient, long and stochastic operations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time can help to reduce remanufacturing process lead time, and consequently increase process efficiency.

    The data was collected through a focus group interview and a simplified Value Stream Mapping lean method at an IT remanufacturing company. The company’s remanufacturing process is assessed regarding process lead time and efficiency. Based on the case company's process challenges, the following possible just-in-time solutions were developed for remanufacturers: cellular layout, distinct product family flows and Kanban reordering system.

    Nyckelord
    Recovering, Laptops, Lean, Just-in-time solutions, Process efficiency
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142345 (URN)
    Konferens
    3rd International Conference on Remanufacturing ICOR-17, Linköping, Sweden, October 24-26, 2017
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-27 Skapad: 2017-10-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-02Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: QMOD proceedings, 2017Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - One efficient way to prolong the functional life of used products is remanufacturing. Compared to manufacturing, remanufacturing is a complex industrial process due to among other things high product variability, low production volumes and uncertain quality of returned used products. Remanufacturers are dependent on product information from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), but that information is often not shared. Remanufacturers struggle to access or develop lacking product information and need a strategy to address information flow challenges. Lean could be a suitable strategy to improve the information flow. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to identify and suggest Lean improvements to address remanufacturer’s information flow challenges.

    Methodology/Approach - Based on a case study of a filling machine remanufacturer, this paper discusses the information flow challenges and Lean-based solutions. The data was collected through a three-hour focus group interview combined with a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) method with the participation of seven company employees representing sales, logistics, quality, maintenance and production departments.

    Findings - Two key information flow challenges were identified at the company: a lack of available product data and miscommunication with the OEM, and poor internal information sharing. The analysis of the identified challenges and improvement ideas created a platform for developing Lean-based solutions:1) developing standard operations through instruction checklists and kitting areas;2) boosting supplier and customer relations through six best partnering practices; and3) developing people and teams through teamwork and training.

    Originality/Value of paper – All industries have their own specific challenges and development needs. This paper focuses on information flow challenges in remanufacturing. Original product information is often not shared, even when the remanufacturer has a contract with the OEM. Only few remanufacturers work with Lean today, but Lean could be a strategy to address the information flow challenges. This paper contributes to the knowledge on how Lean could be applied in the remanufacturing context.

    Nyckelord
    Lean remanufacturing, Information flow, Challenges, Improvements
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142344 (URN)
    Konferens
    20th QMOD conference, Copenhagen/Elsinore, Denmark and Helsingborg, Sweden, 5-7 August, 2017
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-27 Skapad: 2017-10-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-17Bibliografiskt granskad
    6. Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 29, s. 780-785Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a sustainable development, circular economy approaches and circular material flows are explored in industry. However, circular information flows remain essentially unestablished. The aim of this paper is to: 1) explore categories and types of product life-cycle information available for remanufacturing; 2) identify constraints for efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing; and 3) propose initiatives to facilitate product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing.

    Data was collected through workshops and interviews at five remanufacturing companies. An accumulated Sankey diagram illustrates product life-cycle information flow, losses and bottleneck. Based on the analysis, possible initiatives to facilitate efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing are presented.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2015
    Nyckelord
    Remanufacturing; Product life-cycle stackeholder; Feedback; Feed forward; Sankey diagram
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan samhällsbyggnadsteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120761 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.162 (DOI)000356146100132 ()
    Konferens
    22nd CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering (LCE), Univ New S Wales, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, April 7-9, 2015
    Projekt
    Återprodukt, KEAP2
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-08-24 Skapad: 2015-08-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-05Bibliografiskt granskad
    7. Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, s. 3225-3236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a viable way to prolong the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts. Despite its economic, environmental, and social benefits, remanufacturing is associated with many challenges related to core (used product or its part) availability, timing and quality. The aim of this paper is to study how lean production could be used to tackle remanufacturing process challenges and contribute to shorter lead times. To meet this aim, we conducted a literature review and case studies of four remanufacturing companies. The case companies remanufacturing challenges were: (1) a lack of material requirements planning system, (2) poor core information, (3) a lack of core material, (4) poor spare parts information, (5) a lack of spare parts material, (6) insufficient quality management practices, (7) large inventories, (8) stochastic remanufacturing processes, (9) a lack of supply-demand balance, and (10) insufficient automation. These challenges contribute to long and variable remanufacturing process lead times. To tackle remanufacturing challenges, seven lean-based improvements with a major effect on improvements in lead time were suggested: standard operations, continuous flow, Kanban, teamwork, employee cross-training, layout for continuous flow, and supplier partnership. Providing that the suggested improvements are implemented, a possible lead time reduction of 83-99 per cent was projected. 

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Remanufacturing; Circular economy; Lean production; Lead time
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144880 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.11.023 (DOI)000423002500020 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems [2013-03333]

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-02-09 Skapad: 2018-02-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-17
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    Lean Remanufacturing: Reducing Process Lead Time
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    presentationsbild
  • 288.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    On Remanufacturing readiness level: An introduction to RemometerTM2021Ingår i: The 28th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, March 10 – 12, 2021, Jaipur, India / [ed] Kuldip Singh Sangwan, Christoph Herrmann, Elsevier, 2021, Vol. 98, s. 6s. 91-96Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Linear material flows dominate in the Swedish manufacturing industry, and knowledge on remanufacturing as a value-retention process remains limited. Today, only a limited amount of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for consumer goods (that are acquired for personal use), such as laptops and mobile phones, are remanufactured in Sweden.

    More support is needed to enhance the remanufacturization (a shift towards remanufacturing) of manufacturing industries by targeting manufacturers that have prerequisites and/or show interest in implementing remanufacturing on their products (later called developing remanufacturing industries). One way to support the developing remanufacturing industries could be by providing a tool to assesses manufacturers’ potential with remanufacturing. The aim of this paper is to introduce such a tool, called the RemometerTM, and to present this approach to measure a company’s remanufacturing readiness level (RRL). The data was collected through a literature study and semi-structured interviews to fulfill the aim of this paper. The authors’ research on lean remanufacturing, in collaboration with EEE, automotive, heavy equipment and machinery manufacturers, service/maintenance providers and retailers, laid the basis for developing the RemometerTM tool.  

    By assessing 15 subjects shared between four critical to remanufacturing areas, namely, business model, production system, product and customer, manufacturers can measure their remanufacturing readiness level and a gap towards a world-class remanufacturer. However, neither RRL nor a gap is a purpose of the RemometerTM tool, but a useful measure to communicate to top managers on a manufacturer’s potential to become more circular through remanufacturing. RemometerTM is developed to support the remanufacturization of a Swedish EEE manufacturer of consumer goods and can be applied at other developing remanufacturing industries.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 289.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Aligning remanufacturing in comparison to recirculation processes2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a value retention process (VRP), along with direct reuse, repair, and comprehensive refurbishment, which prepares the used product for new uses by controlling and recapturing its value through several industrial operations. Remanufacturing possesses significant financial, environmental, and societal opportunities, and some manufacturers tend to challenge their business models, production systems, products, logistics, and customer management to comply with a circular economy (CE). 

    However, remanufacturing is sometimes undervalued and is ranked low, compared to other VRPs, among the recirculation processes (after-use-phase processes that bring and keep used products, their parts or material in a closed material loop through reuse, recycling, downcycling, and upcycling). The main reason for this is the greater number of resources required and fewer benefits provided compared to direct product reuse and repair. This paper studies a remanufacturer using different VRPs to satisfy customer needs and to better balance an incoming core (used product and its part) quality and the demanded product quality. 

    The aim of this paper is to define remanufacturing value and better align remanufacturing in comparison to other recirculation processes. The data was collected through a literature study and interviews with an EEE remanufacturer to fulfill the aim of this paper. The literature study covered the previous knowledge on remanufacturing, VRPs and recirculation processes. The interviews with an EEE remanufacturer provided valuable input to the scope of the VRPs performed by a single remanufacturer.

    Lean approaches the remanufacturing value from a customer perspective shifting the paradigm of VRP, where remanufacturing is ranked low. Remanufacturing tends to demand greater resources to save the product value and implies greater product intervention. However, the output quality assured with a longer warranty, new product identity and prolonged (doubled or tripled) product use phase overcomes the benefits associated with the other VRPs, when customer value is in focus. The analysis of the remanufacturing value in comparison to other recirculation processes elevates remanufacturing in a recirculation taxonomy for technical products. The assessment of social, environmental, and economic benefits with remanufacturing compliments the findings. The result of the study lays the foundation for the development of the “9R taxonomy” – a framework on recirculation processes for technical products, where six VRPs can be handled by a remanufacturer.

  • 290.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer2014Ingår i: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

  • 291.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Remanufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities to be Lean2013Ingår i: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2013 International Symposium, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The lean philosophy, which denotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from Japanese car manufacturer Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean is not fully explored is remanufacturing, a business that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity.This paper has explored remanufacturing by revealing its challenges and opportunities to be lean. The identified challenges to work with lean do not overcome the advantages of a lean remanufacturing system. Even though some researches state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean to remanufacturing, this research recovers lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that not only works for manufacturing but also for remanufacturing.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Remanufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities to be Lean
  • 292.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops2017Ingår i: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference onRemanufacturing (ICOR17), 2017, s. 47-56Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual accumulation of electronic equipment waste, including IT, in the European Union reached at least nine million tons in 2015. These products usually have a limited lifespan, and many consumers tend to buy new devices before their old ones stop working.

    Remanufacturing is one of the effective ways to contribute to IT waste reduction. Product life extension through remanufacturing gives the product one or several more users throughout its life cycle. When remanufacturing is applied to laptops, the extraction of virgin materials, the energy consumption for manufacturing and the amount of waste are all reduced. However, today many remanufacturers of IT face challenges associated with inefficient and complex processes due to uncertainties in core timing, volume and quality. Lean remanufacturing is typically treated as an operations improvement strategy that deals with the process challenges. Just-in-time is one of the lean strategies to address inefficient, long and stochastic operations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time can help to reduce remanufacturing process lead time, and consequently increase process efficiency.

    The data was collected through a focus group interview and a simplified Value Stream Mapping lean method at an IT remanufacturing company. The company’s remanufacturing process is assessed regarding process lead time and efficiency. Based on the case company's process challenges, the following possible just-in-time solutions were developed for remanufacturers: cellular layout, distinct product family flows and Kanban reordering system.

  • 293.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer2015Ingår i: 12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing – Emerging Potentials, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 26, s. 270-275Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 294.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Poksińska, Bonnie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges2017Ingår i: QMOD proceedings, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - One efficient way to prolong the functional life of used products is remanufacturing. Compared to manufacturing, remanufacturing is a complex industrial process due to among other things high product variability, low production volumes and uncertain quality of returned used products. Remanufacturers are dependent on product information from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), but that information is often not shared. Remanufacturers struggle to access or develop lacking product information and need a strategy to address information flow challenges. Lean could be a suitable strategy to improve the information flow. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to identify and suggest Lean improvements to address remanufacturer’s information flow challenges.

    Methodology/Approach - Based on a case study of a filling machine remanufacturer, this paper discusses the information flow challenges and Lean-based solutions. The data was collected through a three-hour focus group interview combined with a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) method with the participation of seven company employees representing sales, logistics, quality, maintenance and production departments.

    Findings - Two key information flow challenges were identified at the company: a lack of available product data and miscommunication with the OEM, and poor internal information sharing. The analysis of the identified challenges and improvement ideas created a platform for developing Lean-based solutions:1) developing standard operations through instruction checklists and kitting areas;2) boosting supplier and customer relations through six best partnering practices; and3) developing people and teams through teamwork and training.

    Originality/Value of paper – All industries have their own specific challenges and development needs. This paper focuses on information flow challenges in remanufacturing. Original product information is often not shared, even when the remanufacturer has a contract with the OEM. Only few remanufacturers work with Lean today, but Lean could be a strategy to address the information flow challenges. This paper contributes to the knowledge on how Lean could be applied in the remanufacturing context.

  • 295.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vogt Duberg, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    How an OEM can become circular with remanufacturing: the case of robotic lawn mowers2020Ingår i: SPS2020 / [ed] Safsten K., Elgh F., IOS Press, 2020, Vol. 13, s. 12s. 261-272Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of resources is at an alarmingly high level, and there is a high need for resource-efficient alternatives to manufacturing. Remanufacturing is one way to reduce the use of both materials and energy, while still providing products with a like-new condition. This paper aims to define critical areas to assess when applying remanufacturing to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The research was conducted by interweaving remanufacturing’s role in a circular economy (CE) with a single case study at a robotic lawn mower OEM. The case study was split into three parts that separately investigated customer demand, product design and economic sustainability, respectively, all in the area of remanufacturing. This paper addressed the research gap in OEM strategy towards a CE with remanufacturing, defining five critical areas to assess when applying remanufacturing to OEMs: customer, product, sustainability (economic, environmental and social), business model, and production system. The findings of the paper could be useful for many OEMs willing to shift to a CE with remanufacturing.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 296. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Kurilova-Pališaitienė, Jelena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Toward Lean Remanufacturing: Challenges and Improvements in Material and Information Flows2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is an environmentally sound material recovery option which is essential to compete for sustainable manufacturing. The aim with remanufacturing at a majority of companies is to prolong physical product performance by delivering the same or betterthan-original product quality. In general, remanufacturing is an industrial process that brings used products back to useful life by requiring less effort than is demanded by the initial production process. Consequently, from a product life-cycle perspective, remanufacturing generates great product value.

    Remanufacturers lag behind manufacturers since they often face complex and unpredictable material and information flows. Based on a review of remanufacturing research, remanufacturing challenges in material and information flows can be classified into three groups: insufficient product quality, long and unstable process lead times, and an unpredictable level of inventory. While some remanufacturing researchers state that manufacturing and remanufacturing are significantly different, they have more in common than many other processes operations. Therefore, to sustain competitive remanufacturing, companies investigate an opportunity for improvement through the employment of lean production that generates significant benefits for manufacturers.

    In order to investigate the potential to address remanufacturing challenges by lean production, a Minimum time for material and information flow analysis (MiniMifa) method was developed. This method originates from the value stream mapping (VSM) method, broadly practiced to bring lean to manufacturing companies. The focus of MiniMifa was to collect empirical data on the identified groups of remanufacturing challenges from the remanufacturing perspective, and to provide a basis for the development of improvements originating from lean principles.

    Lean production was selected for this research due to its system perspective on material and information flows. Among the defined lean principles in remanufacturing, a pull principle was investigated at the case companies. The suggested principle demonstrated a reduction in lead time, followed by improvements in inventory level and product quality. However, in order to become lean, remanufacturers have to overcome three levels of lean remanufacturing challenges: external and internal challenges as well as lean wastes.

    Finally, this research reduces the gap between academia and industry by contributing with a possible solution to the identified remanufacturing challenges in material and information flows.

    Delarbeten
    1. Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

    Nyckelord
    Remanufacturing, Lean, Material and Information Flows, Data collection workshop, Process map
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118270 (URN)
    Konferens
    Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), September 16-18, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-05-25 Skapad: 2015-05-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-17Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: 12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing – Emerging Potentials, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 26, s. 270-275Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2015
    Serie
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271
    Nyckelord
    Remanufacturing, Product life-cycle, Lean, Pull, Kanban
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118272 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.187 (DOI)000360931800048 ()
    Konferens
    12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing - Emerging Potentials, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 22–24 September 2014
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-05-25 Skapad: 2015-05-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-09-29Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 644-652Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lean philosophy, which promotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from the Japanese car manufacturer, Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean has not been fully explored is remanufacturing, a process that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to the uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity. This study explored remanufacturing by identifying its challenges and opportunities in becoming lean. The challenges of a lean remanufacturing system do not exceed its advantages. Although some researchers state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean principles to remanufacturing, this research utilizes lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that focuses on improving the remanufactured products’ quality, process lead times, and inventory levels. 

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Fuji Technology Press, 2014
    Nyckelord
    lean, remanufacturing, product life cycle, continuous improvement
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan samhällsbyggnadsteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120764 (URN)
    Projekt
    ÅterProdukt, KEAP
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-08-24 Skapad: 2015-08-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-17Bibliografiskt granskad
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    omslag
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    presentationsbild
  • 297.
    Kuurne, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Malmstens Linköpings universitet.
    Produktutveckling i praktiken: Prototypens olika stadier2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In this report you will be able to read about the development of a chair. How it is developed through different prototypes and changes step by step. The work is distributed at different stages and based on research and knowledge accumulated from the furniture design education at Malmstens LIU.      One half of the work is the documentation and reflection made before and after the various stages of development. The second half is practical work with the manufacture of prototypes. But description of the manufacture is not included because it can be performed in different ways. However, the results are highlighted with pictures and descriptions of how and why they change.      The purpose is to improve as a designer and through product development teach me to develop my furniture. Demonstrate that tests and prototypes play a significant role in the development and refinement of a product.      The question is: How can product development of a chair, improve my knowledge as a designer? The goal is to achieve an ability and skill to make prototypes and product development. I want to be able to build quickly and efficiently and thus make changes at an early stage. It was also important to do-document what I change so that I could make conscious decisions through the process. In addition to the fact that I aimed to present a result, the work has mostly been about the process leading up to the result. Learning from the different steps and developing myself as a designer, which I consider myself to have done.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 298.
    Källmar, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson Sundqvist, Therese
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integration of Environmental Aspects in Product Development and Ship Design2013Ingår i: Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Singapore 17-19 April, 2013 / [ed] Andrew Y. C. Nee, Bin Song and Soh-Khim Ong, Singapore: Springer, 2013, s. 41-46Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ship recycling is a pressing issue to handle due to bad conditions in South Asian countries. The objective of this paper isto explore how to integrate environmental aspects, especially recycling, in the product development process of ships atKockums AB by developing and proposing an implementation of a tool, document and/or method. As a result, a Long-termEnvironmental Action Plan (LEAP) including 18 actions was developed. The proposed way of implementing LEAP wasthrough plan-do-act-check methodology by a systematic integration of ecodesign. LEAP includes tools, documents andmethods that are to be used in daily work and product development.

  • 299.
    Lakemond Ebbers, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Ingenjörshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Ingenjörshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    From product development to production - on the complexity of geographical and organizational dispersion2006Ingår i: R and D Management Conference,2006, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 300.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Saab AB, S-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    The quest for combined generativity and criticality in digital-physical complex systems2022Ingår i: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 65, artikel-id 101701Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The transformation from physical systems into digital-physical systems puts new engineering and technology management challenges at the foreground. This paper explores how industrial firms engaged in such systems simultaneously can address the seemingly disjunct properties of criticality and generativity in platform-based systems including the connected (inter)-organizational processes and related strategic choices. The in-depth embedded single case study of avionics, the electronics on aircraft, underline the importance of (1) considering organizational and technology aspects together, (2) the long-term gradual transition towards digitalization, and (3) openness in innovation including temporality and cross-industry aspects. Digital innovation appears as a double-edged sword as it enables mastering an increasingly complex system, facilitating its safe operation and maintenance, but at the same time requires new approaches to manage increased complexity during the development and evolution of systems.

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    fulltext
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