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  • 301.
    Amadori, Kristian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tarkian, Mehdi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Flexible and Robust CAD Models for Design Automation2012Ingår i: Advanced Engineering Informatics, ISSN 1474-0346, E-ISSN 1873-5320, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 180-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores novel methodologies for enabling Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) of complex engineering products. To realize MDO, Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) is adopted with the aim of achieving design reuse and automation. The aim of the on-going research at Linköping University is to shift from manual modelling of disposable geometries to Computer Aided Design (CAD) automation by introducing generic high-level geometry templates. Instead of repeatedly modelling similar instances of objects, engineers should be able to create more general models that can represent entire classes of objects. The proposed methodology enables utilization of commercial design tools, hence taking industrial feasibility into consideration. High Level CAD templates (HLCt) will be proposed and discussed as the building blocks of flexible and robust CAD models, which in turn enables high-fidelity geometry in the MDO loop. Quantification of the terms flexibility and robustness is also presented, providing a means to measure the quality of the geometry models. Finally, application examples are presented in which the outlined framework is evaluated. The applications have been chosen from three ongoing research projects aimed at automating the design of transport aircraft, industrial robots, and micro air vehicles.

  • 302.
    Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph
    et al.
    Kent Business School, University of Kent, UK.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    United We Stand, Divided We Fall.: Historical Trajectory of Strategic Renewal Activities at Scandinavian Airlines System, 1946-2012.2017Ingår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 572-606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the second half of the twentieth century saw the rise and fall of ‘multi-flag companies’ (MFCs) in the civil aviation industry, our understanding of how some managed to buck the trend and achieve longevity remains limited. This article advances business history and strategic management research by examining the strategic renewal activities of Scandinavian Airlines (formerly Scandinavian Airlines System [SAS]) during the period 1946–2012. The study sheds light on the key roles of private and state owners, rivals as well as banks, in critical financial phases are discussed in terms of longevity in the company. The longevity of the business stems from the leaders’ ability to develop as anticipated and respond to change in their competitive arena in close interaction with the owners. Thus, incumbent firms that strategically renew themselves prior to or during market reform, such as deregulation, enhance their chances of developing the size of their networks and revenue streams. Our main contribution to business history and strategic management literatures is the development of context-specific stages, which shed light on the evolution of strategic renewal activities and shifts from older processes and routines towards customer service and efficiency.

  • 303.
    Ambrutytė, Zita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Management Control: Linking Strategy with Inter‐Organisational Relationships2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ekonomistyrningsforskningen antas allmänt att anpassningen mellan strategi och styrsystem påverkar hur framgångsrika företag är i konkurrensen. Nutida tendenser till globalisering, vertikal desintegration, minskning av antalet leverantör, fokusering av verksamhet och outsourcing av icke-kärnverksamhet, leder till att företagen för sin framgång blir alltmera beroende av relationer med andra företag. Det är allmänt accepterat att styrsystem här spelar en viktig roll när det gäller att hantera beroendeförhållanden mellan organisationer, men trots detta har forskningen kring kopplingen mellan till strategi, styrsystem och styrning av inter-organisatoriska relationer hittills varit begränsad. Detsamma gäller sambandet mellan strategi och styrning av och inom inköpsfunktionen som gränssnitt mot inter-organisatoriska relationer. Vidare har området inter-organisatorisk styrning oftast behandlats skilt från interna företagsprocesser.

    I denna avhandling görs ett försök att relatera strategi till intra- och inter- organisatorisk styrning. Syftet är att beskriva och analysera hur företagets strategi påverkar utformning av styrningen av inköpsfunktionen och hur detta sedan kopplar an till styrningen av relationerna med leverantörerna. Vidare är syftet att föreslå en modell för strategins effekter på styrningen av inköp och av inter-organisatoriska relationerna. De två forskningsfrågorna som utgör grunden för syftet är 1) hur affärsstrategin påverkar styrning av inköpsfunktionen, och 2) hur affärsstrategin påverkar styrning av inter-organisatoriska relationerna. Fältarbete omfattar tjugonio intervjuer inom två tillverkningsföretag och tio underleverantörer. Data samlades in under de två tidsperioderna, 2002-2003 och 2006-2007.

    Avhandlingen fokuserar två företag med olika affärsstrategier klassificierade enligt Porters (1980) typologi, samt deras underleverantörer. I enligt med ett contingency-synsätt förväntades att de olika strategierna skaulle medföra olika utformning av styrningen av inköpsfunktionen och av styrningen av underleverantörsrelationerna. Resultatet av denna avhandling är tvåfaldigt; för det första föreslås ett mönster för kopplingen affärsstrategi, funktionsstrategi samt styrning och kontroll av interorganisatoriska relationer; och för det andra, identifieras möjliga vägar till utveckling av detta mönster.

  • 304. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Economic and Environmental Benefits of CHP-based District Heating Systems in Sweden2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Framtidens energisystem och därmed även klimatet påverkas av många faktorer, såsom energitillgångar, efterfrågan på energi, energipolicy och valet  av energitekniska lösningar. De framtida energisystemen står inför tre viktiga utmaningar: den ständigt växande efterfrågan på energi i världen, problemet med minskande energitillgångar samt den ökande koldioxidhalten i atmosfären och utsläppen av andra växthusgaser och deras påverkan på klimatförändring. Det blir alltmer angeläget att möta de nämnda utmaningarna med hållbarhetsbegreppet i åtanke, att agera för att öka energieffektiviteten och att välja ett energieffektivt energisystem som också är kostnadseffektivt. Fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla baserade på kraftvärme (CHP) kan i hög grad bidra till ökad effektivitet genom användning av energi som annars skulle gå till spillo.

    Syftet med denna studie är att öka förståelsen för hur CHP-baserad fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla som använder olika energikällor kan bidra till mer kostnadseffektiva energisystem som även ger minskade globala koldioxidutsläpp samt att belysa effekterna av vissa viktiga parametrar för svenska fjärrvärmesystem. Ett viktigt antagande i denna studie är beräkningarna av koldioxidutsläppen från elproduktion som är baserade på marginalelsperspektiv. På kort sikt antas marginalelen komma från koleldade kondenskraftverk, medan den på lång sikt utgörs av el som produceras av naturgas i gaskombi-kondenskraftverk. I beräkningarna antas den lokala elproduktionen ersätta marginalelsproduktionen. Det underliggande antagandet är en ideal, helt avreglerad, europeisk elmarknad där handelshindren är borta och det inte finns några begränsningar i överföringskapaciteten.

    Resultaten visar att elproduktion i kraftvärmeverk, speciellt i högeffektiva kraftvärmeverk med en kombination av ång- och gasturbiner med naturgas, kan minska den globala miljöpåverkan av energianvändningen avsevärt. Resultaten bekräftar också, genom de scenarier som presenteras i denna studie, att avfall utnyttjas fullt ut som bränsle i kraftvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem eftersom det har de lägsta driftskostnaderna. Resultaten visar också hur införande av ett biogasbaserat kraftvärmeverk i ett biogassystem bidrar till ett effektivt system för att minska koldioxidutsläppen och systemkostnaderna. Resultaten visar att det är kostnadseffektivt och klimatvänligt att byta ut eldrivna kompressorkylmaskiner mot värmedrivna absorptionskylmaskiner i ett CHP-system eftersom elanvändningen minskas och elproduktionen samtidigt kommer att öka. Resultaten av studien visar också att det finns potential att bygga ut fjärrvärmesystem till områden med lägre värmetäthet med både miljövinster och ekonomiska fördelar för fjärrvärmeföretagen.

    Resultaten visar att driften av ett studerat CHP-baserat fjärrvärmesystem där olika gränsvärden för utsläpp införs är mycket känsligt för hur koldioxidutsläppen redovisas, d v s som lokala koldioxidutsläpp eller utsläpp från marginalel. Resultatet visar hur elproduktionen ökar i marginalelsfallet jämfört med det lokala fallet för att minska de globala koldioxidutsläppen. Resultaten visade också att inte bara el- och bränslepriserna, utan också styrmedlen är viktiga för att främja kraftvärmebaserad fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla. Elcertifikat har t ex stor inverkan på införandet av biogasbaserad kraftvärme. En annan slutsats från modelleringarna är att de styrmedel som finns i dagens Sverige utgör starka incitament för kraftvärme och har en liknande effekt som att använda externa kostnader.

    Delarbeten
    1. Modelling and optimisation of electricity, steam and district heating production for a local Swedish utility
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Modelling and optimisation of electricity, steam and district heating production for a local Swedish utility
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 175, nr 2, s. 1224-1247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    District heating may help reduce environmental impact and energy costs, but policy instruments and waste management may influence operations. The energy system optimisation model MODEST has been used for 50 towns, regions and a nation. Investments and operation that satisfy energy demand at minimum cost are found through linear programming. This paper describes the application of MODEST to a municipal utility, which uses several fuels and cogeneration plants. The model reflects diurnal and monthly demand fluctuations. Several studies of the Linköping utility are reviewed. These indicate that the marginal heat cost is lower in summer, a new waste or wood fired cogeneration plant is more profitable than a natural-gas-fired combined cycle, material recycling of paper and hard plastics is preferable to waste incineration from an energy-efficiency viewpoint, and considering external costs enhances wood fuel use. Here, an emission limit is used to show how fossil-fuel cogeneration displaces CO2 from coal-condensing plants. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43950 (URN)10.1016/j.ejor.2005.06.026 (DOI)75220 (Lokalt ID)75220 (Arkivnummer)75220 (OAI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-10 Skapad: 2009-10-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    2. Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 10, s. 5242-5253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Both energy supply and waste treatment give rise to negative effects on the environment, so-called external effects. In this study, monetary values on external costs collected from the EU′s ExternE project are used to evaluate inclusion of these costs in comparison with an energy utility perspective including present policy instruments. The studied object is a municipal district heating system with a waste incineration plant as the base supplier of heat. The evaluation concerns fuels used for heat production and total electricity production, for scenarios with external costs included and for a scenario using the present policy instrument.

    Impacts of assumptions on marginal power producers (coal or natural gas power plants) are investigated, since locally produced electricity is assumed to replace marginal power and thus is credited for the avoided burden. Varying levels of external costs for carbon dioxide emissions are analysed. The method used is an economic optimisation model, MODEST.

    The conclusion is that present policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration, even when external costs are included. Waste is fully utilised in all scenarios. In cases where coal is the marginal power producer, more electricity is produced; when natural gas is the marginal power producer, less is produced. There are several uncertainties in the data for external costs, both methodological and ethical. In the ExternE data, not all environmental impacts are included. For waste incineration, ashes are not included, and another difficulty is how to treat the avoided burden of other waste treatment methods.

    Nyckelord
    External costs, Combined heat and power, Waste incineration
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14206 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.04.026 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-01-04 Skapad: 2007-01-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    3. European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, nr 12, s. 1319-1337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mankind is facing an escalating threat of global warming and there is increasing evidence that this is due to human activity and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. Converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in a combined heat and power (CHP) system is a measure towards sustainability as electricity consumption is replaced with electricity generation. This electricity produced in Swedish CHP-system will substitute marginally produced electricity and as result lower global emissions of carbon dioxide. The use of absorption chillers is limited in Sweden but the conditions are in fact most favourable. Rising demand of cooling and increasing electricity prices in combination with a surplus of heat during the summer in CHP system makes heat driven cooling extremely interesting in Sweden. In this paper we analyse the most cost-effective technology for cooling by comparing vapour compression chillers with heat driven absorption cooling for a local energy utility with a district cooling network and for industries in a Swedish municipality with CHP. Whilst this case is necessarily local in scope, the results have global relevance showing that when considering higher European electricity prices, and when natural gas is introduced, absorption cooling is the most cost-effective solution for both industries and for the energy supplier. This will result in a resource effective energy system with a possibility to reduce global emissions of CO2 with 80%, a 300% lower system cost, and a 170% reduction of the cost of producing cooling due to revenues from electricity production. The results also show that, with these prerequisites, a decrease in COP of the absorption chillers will not have a negative impact on the cost-effectiveness of the system, due to increased electricity production.

    Nyckelord
    Absorption cooling, European electricity prices, Natural gas, Carbon dioxide, Global emissions
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14161 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2006.09.016 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-11-27 Skapad: 2006-11-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    4. Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Ostergotland in Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Ostergotland in Sweden
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 496-506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of natural gas for heat and power production for the municipality of Linkoping, Norrkoping and Finspang in the County of Ostergotland, Sweden.

    The results of the study revealed that these three municipalities with the present heating demand can convert 2030 GWh/year of the present fuel mixed to natural gas. The expansion of natural gas provides the possibility to increase the electricity generation with approximately 800 GWh annually in the County of Ostergotland. The global emissions of CO2 reduce also by approximately 490 ktonne/year by assuming the coal condensing power plant as the marginal power plant. The total system cost decreases by 76 Mkr/year with the present electricity price which varies between 432 and 173 SEK/MWh and with 248 Mkr/year if the present electricity price increases to 37% which is approximately corresponding to European electricity prices.

    Sensitivity analysis is done with respect to the different factors such as price of electricity, natural gas, etc. The findings show that increased price of electricity and increased district heating demand increases the profitability to convert to natural gas using CHP plant.

    Nyckelord
    Natural gas, CO2 emissions, Combined heat and power
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16971 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.080 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-03-01 Skapad: 2009-02-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    5. Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 7, s. 2401-2410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gavle, Sandviken and Borlange in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO2. The largest reductions in CO2 emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2010
    Nyckelord
    Combined heat and power; Heat sparse areas; CO2 emissions; District heating; Deregulated electricity market
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58385 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.02.002 (DOI)000278675100034 ()
    Anmärkning
    Original Publication: Shahnaz Amiri and Bahram Moshfegh, Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems, 2010, Applied Energy, (87), 7, 2401-2410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.02.002 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Tillgänglig från: 2010-08-13 Skapad: 2010-08-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12
    6. Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, nr SI, s. 242-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Biogas system, CO2 emissions, Energy systems optimisation, Combined heat and power plant, Marginal electricity
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85624 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2012.01.022 (DOI)000309902000051 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-11-26 Skapad: 2012-11-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Economic and Environmental Benefits of CHP-based District Heating Systems in Sweden
    Ladda ner (pdf)
    omslag
  • 305.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Henning, Dag
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system2013Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, nr SI, s. 242-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

  • 306.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems2010Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 7, s. 2401-2410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gavle, Sandviken and Borlange in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO2. The largest reductions in CO2 emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems.

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  • 307.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh , Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Ostergotland in Sweden2009Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 496-506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of natural gas for heat and power production for the municipality of Linkoping, Norrkoping and Finspang in the County of Ostergotland, Sweden.

    The results of the study revealed that these three municipalities with the present heating demand can convert 2030 GWh/year of the present fuel mixed to natural gas. The expansion of natural gas provides the possibility to increase the electricity generation with approximately 800 GWh annually in the County of Ostergotland. The global emissions of CO2 reduce also by approximately 490 ktonne/year by assuming the coal condensing power plant as the marginal power plant. The total system cost decreases by 76 Mkr/year with the present electricity price which varies between 432 and 173 SEK/MWh and with 248 Mkr/year if the present electricity price increases to 37% which is approximately corresponding to European electricity prices.

    Sensitivity analysis is done with respect to the different factors such as price of electricity, natural gas, etc. The findings show that increased price of electricity and increased district heating demand increases the profitability to convert to natural gas using CHP plant.

  • 308.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Weinberger, Gottfried
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Increased cogeneration of renewable electricity through energy cooperation in a Swedish district heating system - A case study2018Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 116, s. 866-877Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study of the district heating (DH) system in the city of Kisa, Sweden, shows how, through energy cooperation with a nearby sawmill and paper mill, a local energy company contributes to energy efficient DH and cost-effective utilization of a new biofuel combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Cases of stand-alone and integrated energy systems are optimized with the linear program MODEST. The European power market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The results show clear advantages for the energy company to cooperate with these industries to produce heat for DH and process steam for industry. The cooperating industries gain advantages from heat and/or biofuel by-product supply as well. The opening to use a biofuel CHP plant for combined heat supply results in cogenerated electricity of almost 29 GWh/a with an increased biofuel use of 13 GWhia, zero fuel oil use and CO2 emission reductions of 25,800 tons CO2/a with coal-condensing power plant on the margin and biofuel as limited resource. The total system cost decreases by -2.18 MEUR/a through extended cooperation and renewable electricity sales. The sensitivity analysis shows that the profitability of investing in a biofuel CHP plant increases with higher electricity and electricity certificate prices. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 309.
    Amiryan, Linette
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Eleftheriadou, Jiota
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Styrningen i pandemins fotspår: En kvalitativ undersökning om Covid-19:s påverkan på styrningen i kunskapsintensiva tjänsteföretag2021Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Management control in the trace of the pandemic - A qualitative study of Covid-19's impact on management control in knowledge-intensive business services

    Authors: Linette Amiryan and Jiota Eleftheriadou

    Supervisor: Svjetlana Pantic Dragisic

    Background: Covid-19 erupted in 2020 and struck the world on many levels. One of the consequences is that the employees had to start working from home. This can affect their motivation and performance in many different ways, both of which are essential parts of a company, especially in knowledge-intensive business services, where the employees are considered as their main assets. How do knowledge-intensive business services execute their management control in order to maintain the motivation and the performance?

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and contribute with research on how management control, both from a performance and motivational perspective, has been adapted in knowledge –intensive business services as a result of the Covid-19 outbreak.

    Methodology: The study is conducted according to a qualitative method from a hermeneutic perspective. Purpose and research questions are answered based on a multiple case study of two IT companies. The empirical material has been obtained from interviews with their managers.

    Conclusion: The knowledge-intensive business services have greatly adapted their management control under Covid-19 in order to handle the new situation. This has mainly been reflected in a gradually increased control and tighter reconciliations. Furthermore, the organizational culture has provided great support for maintaining performance and motivation. Personnel control and personal responsibility have also been important elements for maintaining performance during Covid-19.

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    Styrningen i pandemins fotspår
  • 310.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental management systems and environmental performance2007Ingår i: Strategic sustainability: the state of the art in corporate environmental management systems / [ed] Robert Sroufe and Joseph Sarkis, Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Ltd, 2007, s. 242-257Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental management systems (EMSs) are tools that can be used to steer and controlan organisation’s environmental efforts. This chapter focuses on standardisedEMSs, those that deal with fulfilling the requirements of the international standard ISO14001 (ISO 1996) and/or the EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) (EC 2001).These standardised EMSs have been applied for about a decade; the number of organisationsthat are certified in accordance with them worldwide is steadily rising and nowhas reached over 100,000 (ISO World 2007).Early EMS work focused on issues relating to implementation. Often, positive environmentaleffects were taken for granted. More recently, however, questions addressingthe effects of standardised EMSs have become more popular in the research literature.The extent and types of effects of a standardised system are critical issues from anenvironmental perspective. The information presented within this chapter will helpuncover and capture some of the nuances of the connection between EMSs and environmentalperformance. Important lessons learned as a result of this study include arelative lack of understanding of EMSs even after more than a decade of practical application.Additional insights include the extent to which EMSs are useful tools in achievingbetter organisational environmental conditions and identification of the importantfactors influencing the effectiveness and efficiency of such systems. While the focus ofthis chapter is on the use of standardised EMSs to reduce environmental impacts, themethods used in this study build on the author’s findings from several earlier studies—a meta-analytic perspective—and are summarised where appropriate. Some key strategicEMS issues addressed here include:

    ● Environmental aspects, their identification, formulation and assessment

    ● The scope of EMSs, including their relationship with product development

    ● Environmental policy, targets and objectives

    ● External environmental auditing

    ● Continual improvement in environmental performance

    ● EMSs and the supply chain

  • 311.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Miljöarbete i företag2023Ingår i: Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling / [ed] Jonas Ammenberg, Olof Hjelm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, 2, Vol. Sidorna 163-177, s. 163-177Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Så här långt i bokens tredje del har angreppssätt för att hantera miljöfrågor berörts ur olika perspektiv. Det har handlat om en historisk tillbakablick, övergripande strategier och produktutveckling, men också om systemperspektiv och miljösystemanalys. Boken har i många avseende samhällsfokus, men mycket av det som berörs har stor relevans för och inverkan på enskilda företag och andra typer av organisationer. De måste ofta inom ramarna för sin verksamhet och organisation hantera miljöfrågor som berör dem. Eftersom det kan vara nyttigt att försöka se situationen ur ett företagsperspektiv beskrivs i detta kapitel kortfattat hur miljöarbete kan se ut i dag i större svenska industriföretag.

  • 312.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Miljöhistorisk översikt2023Ingår i: Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling / [ed] Jonas Ammenberg, Olof Hjelm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, 2, Vol. Sidorna 111-114, s. 111-114Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta sjätte kapitel inleder bokens tredje del, som handlar om olika angreppssätt för att hantera miljöproblem. Kapitlet bidrar med en kort historisk översikt för att illustrera hur både synen på miljöfrågorna och åtgärderna förändrats över tid. Avslutningsvis summeras olika strategier för att jobba med miljöfrågor.

  • 313.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Miljömanagement: miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete i företag och andra organisationer2012 (uppl. 2 [rev.])Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken ger läsaren kunskap om viktiga förutsättningar när det gällerföretags, och andra typer av organisationers, arbete med miljö- och hållbar utveckling. Det gäller både förutsättningar utanför och inom organisationer. Boken behandlar även relevanta strategier, metoder och koncept inom området.

    I den första delen – Omvärlden – behandlas områden som främst påverkar företag och andra typer av organisationer utifrån. Inledningsvis beskrivs exempelvis miljöproblematiken och ”hållbar utveckling”. Därefter behandlas miljöpolitik, miljölagstiftning, de ekonomiska systemen samt etiska frågor.

    I den andra delen – Hållbarhetsstrategiskt arbete med fokus på miljö – behandlas delar i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet som ofta berör hela organisationen. Först introduceras intressentperspektivet och därefter grunderna avseende strategiskt arbete. Vidare finns en kort introduktion till organisationsteori med en beskrivning av hur miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete kan organiseras och genomföras. Därefter följer två kapitel om ledningssystem, först ges en allmän introduktion för flera olika områden och sedan en mer ingående beskrivning. Den andra delen avslutas med ett kapitel om miljöarbete i olika typer av organisationer.

    I bokens tredje del – Viktiga delar i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet – berörs andra ”områden” i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet, som kan vara mycket viktiga men ofta inte är lika övergripande. Det innefattar miljörevision; miljöarbete med fokus på produkter; miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar; riskhantering; samt marknadsföring och extern kommunikation.

    Boken är i första hand skriven för kurser i miljömanagement eller miljöledning vid högskolor och universitet, men kan också användas för utbildningar på företag och inom andra typer av organisationer.

  • 314.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    Division of Energy Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    Division of Energy Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biogas in the transport sector: Actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand side in the Stockholm region2018Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 129, s. 70-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has ambitions to phase out fossil fuels and significantly increase the share of biofuels it uses. This articlefocuses on Stockholm County and biogas, with the aim to increase the knowledge about regional preconditions.Biogas-related actors have been interviewed, focusing on the demand side. Biogas solutions play an essentialrole, especially regarding bus transports and taxis. Long-term development has created well-functioning sociotechnicalsystems involving collaboration. However, uncertainties about demand and policy cause hesitation andsigns of stagnating development.Public organizations are key actors regarding renewables. For example, Stockholm Public Transport procuresbiogas matching the production at municipal wastewater treatment plants, the state-owned company Swedaviasteers via a queuing system for taxis, and the municipalities have shifted to “environmental cars”.There is a large interest in electric vehicles, which is expected to increase significantly, partially due tosuggested national policy support. The future role of biogas will be affected by how such an expansion comesabout. There might be a risk of electricity replacing biogas, making it more challenging to reach a fossil-freevehicle fleet. Policy issues strongly influence the development. The environmental car definition is of importance,but its limited focus fails to account for several different types of relevant effects. The dynamic policylandscape with uncertainties about decision makers’ views on biogas seems to be one important reason behindthe decreased pace of development. A national, long-term strategy is missing. Both the European Union andSweden have high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy, which should favor biogas solutions.

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  • 315.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact2015Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 145-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

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  • 316.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Cement production is one of the largest contributors to global CO2-emissions. However, the context and characteristics of the production and the cement products vary a lot. A significant part of the production must be characterized as rather linear, for example, to a large extent based on fossil fuels and involving material flows that are not closed. But there are also much more synergistic examples, involving industrial by-products, renewable energy, etc. Clearly, there are opportunities for improvement within the cement industry and it is interesting to analyze to what extent increased industrial symbiosis can lead to improved climate performance. This has been done by studying the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products produced within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX. The methodology is mostly based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), from cradle-to-gate.

    Purpose

    The overall purpose is to contribute to a better understanding of the climate performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The climate impact is assessed for “traditional”, rather linear, ways of making cement, but also two more synergistic alternatives, where the by-product granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is utilized to a large extent, substituting cement clinker. It is also shown how the climate performance of the West Cluster has changed from 1997 until 2009 (the main year of study), and investigated how further industrial symbiosis measures could improve the performance.

    Theoretical framework

    To a large extent this project has been based on mapping and analysis of relevant flows of material and energy, where LCA methodology has played an important part. Theoretical and methodological aspects related to the fields of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis have played an important role. The findings are discussed in relation to some of the key ideas within these fields. The paper generates insight into the methodological challenge of quantifying environmental performance of different production approaches and basically what CO2 improvement potential cement industry has by taking industrial symbiosis measures.

    Results

    The results showed that the cement clinker produced at Cluster West is competitive from a climate perspective, causing CO2-eq missions that are a couple of percent lower than the world average. During the twelve year period from 1997 to 2009 these emissions became about 12 percent lower, which was mainly achieved by production efficiency measures but also via changing fuels. However, the most interesting results concern the blended cement products. It was manifested that it is very advantageous from a climate perspective to substitute clinker with granulated blast furnace slag. For example, the CO2-eq emissions were estimated to be 65 percent lower for the best product compared to “ordinary cement”.

    Conclusions

    Information and measures at the plant level are not sufficient to compare products or to significantly reduce the climate impact related to cement. To achieve important reductions of the emissions, measures and knowledge at a higher industrial symbiosis level are needed.

  • 317.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Bohn, Irene
    Den Kgl. Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole, Denmark.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Systematic assessment of feedstock for an expanded biogas production: A multi-criteria approach2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas solutions can contribute to more renewable and local energy systems, and also involve other essential aspects such as nutrient recycling. From a theoretical feedstock perspective there is a great biogas potential in Sweden, but the development has been relatively slow as many biogas producers face challenges of different types. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) is of strategic importance. Within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), hosted by Linköping University in Sweden, a research project focused on feedstock has been ongoing for several years. It has involved researchers, biogas and biofertilizer producers, agricultural organizations and others. The main aim has been to develop a method to assess the suitability of feedstock for biogas and biofertilizer production, and to apply this method on a few selected feedstocks. A multi-criteria method has been developed that covers potential, feasibility and resource efficiency, operationalized via 17 indicators directed towards cost efficiency, technological feasibility, energy and environmental performance, accessibility, competition, policy and other issues. Thus the method it is relatively comprehensive, yet hopefully simple enough to be used by practitioners.

    The main ambition, applying the method, has been to collect and structure relevant information to facilitate strategic overviews, communication and informed decision making. This is relevant for development within the biogas and biofertilizer industry, for policymakers, to define and prioritize among essential research projects, etc. This report presents some essential parts of this project, focusing on the multi-criteria method and results regarding ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels and food waste (and stickleback to some extent). It clarifies how the method can be applied and highlights barriers, drivers and opportunities for each feedstock. Comparisons are also made. The results indicate that biogas production from food waste and ley crops is the most straightforward, and for straw and farmed blue mussels there are more obstacles to overcome. For all of them, the dynamic and very uncertain policy landscape is a barrier. In the final chapter, some conclusions about the method and its application are drawn.

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  • 318.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlgren, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainability Assessment of Public Transport, Part I-A Multi-Criteria Assessment Method to Compare Different Bus Technologies2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 2, artikel-id 825Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article departs from the perspective of Swedish regional transport authorities and focuses on the public procurement of bus transports. Many of these public organizations on the county level have the ambition to contribute to a transition involving the continued marginalization of fossil fuels and improved sustainability performance. However, there are several renewable bus technologies to choose between and it can be difficult to know what alternative (or combination) is preferable. Prior research and the authors experiences indicate a need for improved knowledge and supportive methods on how sustainability assessments can support public procurement processes. The purpose of this article is to develop a multi-criteria assessment (MCA) method to support assessments of public bus technologies sustainability. The method, which was established in an iterative and participatory process, consists of four key areas and 12 indicators. The article introduces the problem context and reviews selected prior research of relevance dealing with green or sustainable public procurement and sustainability assessments. Further on, the process and MCA method are presented and discussed based on advice for effective and efficient sustainability assessments. In the companion article (Part II), the MCA method is applied to assess several bus technologies involving biodiesel, biomethane, diesel, electricity, ethanol and natural gas.

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  • 319.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making2017Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, s. 388-404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

  • 320.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Feizaghaii, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement production: Final report of the CEMEX-Linköping University industrial ecology project, 20112011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains information about a research project lead by researchers from Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University in Sweden. It has been conducted in cooperation with staff from the global cement company CEMEX. The study has been focused on three cement plants in the western parts of Germany, referred to as CEMEX Cluster West. They form a kind of work alliance, together producing several intermediate products and final products. One of the plants is a cement plant with a kiln, while the other two can be described as grinding and mixing stations.

    The overall aim has been to contribute to a better understanding of the climate performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. An important objective was to systematically assess different cement sites, and production approaches, from a climate perspective, thereby making it easier for the company to analyze different options for improvements. Theoretical and methodological aspects related to the fields of Industrial Ecology (IE) and Industrial Symbiosis (IS) have played an important role.

    A common way of making cement is to burn limestone in a cement kiln. This leads to the formation of cement clinker, which is then grinded and composes the main component of Ordinary Portland Cement. One very important phase of the production of clinker is the process of calcination, which takes place in the kiln. In this chemical reaction calcium carbonate decomposes at high temperature and calcium oxide and carbon dioxide are produced. The calcination is of high importance since it implies that carbon bound in minerals is transformed to CO2. A large portion of the CO2 emissions related to clinker production is coming from the calcination process.

    Both clinker and Ordinary Portland Cement (CEM I 42.5) were studied. However, there are other ways of making cement, where the clinker can be substituted by other materials. Within Cluster West, granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry is used to a large extent as such a clinker substitute. This slag needs to be grinded, but an important difference compared to clinker is that it has already been treated thermally (during iron production) and therefore does not have to be burned in a kiln. With the purpose to include products with clearly different share of clinker substitutes, the project also comprised CEM III/A 42.5 (blended cement, about 50% clinker) and CEM III/B 42.5 N-. (blended cement, about 27% clinker). To sum up, this means that the study involved “traditional”, rather linear, ways of making cement, but also two more synergistic alternatives, where a byproduct is utilized to a large extent instead of clinker.

    The methodology is mostly based on Life Lycle Assessment (LCA), from cradle-to-gate, using the SimaPro software. This means that the cement products have been studied from the extraction of raw materials until they were ready for delivery at the “gate” of Cluster West. The functional unit was 1 tonne of product. A lot of data was collected regarding flows of material and energy for the year of 2009. In addition, some information concerning 1997 was also acquired. Most of the used data has been provided by CEMEX, but to be able to cover upstream parts of the life cycle data from the Ecoinvent database has also been utilized.

    The extensive data concerning 2009 formed the base for the project and made it possible to study the selected products thoroughly for this year. However, the intention was also to assess other versions of the product system – Cluster West in 1997 and also a possible, improved future case. For this purpose, a conceptual LCA method was developed that made it possible to consider different products as well as different conditions for the product system. Having conducted the baseline LCA, important results could be generated based on knowledge about six key performance indicators (KPIs) regarding overall information about materials, the fuel mix and the electricity mix. The conceptual LCA method could be used for other products and versions of Cluster West, without collecting large amounts of additional specific Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data. The developed conceptual LCA method really simplified the rather complex Cluster West production system. Instead of having to consider hundreds of parameters, the information about the six KPIs was sufficient to estimate the emissions from different products produced in different versions of the production system (Cluster West).

    The results showed that the clinker produced at Cluster West is competitive from a climate perspective, causing CO2-eq missions that are a couple of percent lower than the world average. During the twelve year period from 1997 to 2009 these emissions became about 12 percent lower, which was mainly achieved by production efficiency measures but also via changing fuels. However, the most interesting results concern the blended cement products. It was manifested that it is very advantageous from a climate perspective to substitute clinker with granulated blast furnace slag, mainly since it reduces the emissions accounted related to calcination. For example, the CO2-eq emissions related to CEM III/B product were estimated to be 65 percent lower than those for CEM I.

    A framework for identifying and evaluating options for improvement has been developed and applied. Based on that framework the present production system was analyzed and illustrated, and different measures for reducing the climate impact were shown and evaluated. Two possible scenarios were defined and the conceptual LCA model used to estimate their climate performance.

    The authors’ recommendation is for CEMEX to continue to increase the share of CEM III (the share of good clinker substitutes), and to make efforts to shift the focus on the market from clinker and cement plants to different types of cement (or concrete) or even better to focus on the lifecycle of the final products such as buildings and constructions.

    Information and measures at the plant level are not sufficient to compare products or to significantly reduce the climate impact related to cement. To achieve important reductions of the emissions, measures and knowledge at a higher industrial symbiosis level are needed.

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    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement production
  • 321.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    O’Shea, Richard
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Gray, Nathan
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Lyng, Kari-Anne
    NORSUS, Norwegian Research Institute for Sustainability Research.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Murphy, Jerry D.
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Perspectives on biomethane as a transport fuel within acircular economy, energy, and environmental system2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature indicates that the life cycle costs of biomethane fueled light vehicles may be 15 to 20% highe rthan for similar petrol and diesel fueled vehicles, while liquid biomethane fueled heavy duty trucks may have similar life cycle costs to diesel. However, such an analysis can be two dimensional and limited in the message it conveys. On one hand the acceptance of diesel fueled trucks and buses will be limited due to the climate emergency and air pollution and after 2030 diesel may not be the competition for biomethane anymore. On the otherhand, biomethane production is part of a larger circular economy, energy, and environmental system. It is verydifficult to divorce the energy vector, biomethane, from the system through which it is produced. In essence biomethane can be considered as one of the products or services of a broad biogas system.

    An advantage of biogas is that it can be produced from most wet organic wastes or by-products, includingfor food waste, animal by-products, (such as manure), agricultural residues, sewage sludge, industrial biowaste (such as from slaughterhouses and food and beverage processing industries). Biogas production is an element in the environmental management of such wastes; biogas plants can also deliver digestate, which contains most ofthe nutrients in the feedstock and can be an excellent biofertilizer. In addition, it is possible to utilize the carbon dioxide removed in upgrading biogas to biomethane as a product with added value. The resource of biomethane is very significant in considering the vast amounts of organic wastes landfilled around the world each year, that instead could be used to produce biogas, biofertilizers and food grade CO2 while improving the environment through reduced fugitive methane emissions and improved water quality. Furthermore, the application of biogas systems in bio-industrial contexts (such as paper mills, food production facilities, or other types of biorefineries) has huge potential to decarbonize industry while significantly increasing the resource of biomethane. Due to the multifunctionality of biomethane solutions, broad assessment methods are needed to grasp thewide spectrum of relevant factors when comparing different technologies:

    • Biomethane has a competitive performance compared with fossil fuels and other biofuels on a whole lifecycle analysis and is particularly suited to long distance heavy vehicles.

    • Biomethane from manure, residues, waste & catch crops is estimated to have low GHG emissions ascompared to other renewable fuels.

    • Biomethane may contribute to reduced air pollution in comparison with diesel, petrol, and other biofuels.• Biomethane can contribute to a substantial reduction in acidification compared with fossil fuels.

    • Biomethane may contribute to significantly reduced noise levels in comparison with diesel heavy goodsvehicles.

    • Well-designed and applied biogas systems may be essential to transform conventional farming to moresustainable farming and to organic farming.

    • Common types of biogas solutions provide essential sociotechnical systems services as components ofsystems for waste and (waste) water management.

    • Biogas solutions may importantly contribute to improved energy supply/security and flexibility.

    Natural gas systems should be a facilitator of the introduction of biomethane for transport, but the sustainability problems associated with natural gas negatively impact the view of biomethane. This is where arguments amongst the renewable sector actors can hinder progress. Biomethane and (power to methane) can utilize the existing gas grid and accelerate progress to decarbonization of the overall energy sector beyond just electricity and also to decarbonize chemical (such as ammonia and methanol) and steel production. This should be advantageous especially when realizing that more energy is procured from the natural gas grid than the electricity gridin the EU and the US; however, suggestions that biomethane is only greenwashing the natural gas industry, and in doing so extending the lifetime of natural gas, greatly impedes this progress.

    This report provides exemplars of very good biomethane based transport solutions, with a high technologicalreadiness level for all elements of the chain from production to vehicles. Transport biomethane sits well in the broad circular economy, energy, and environmental system providing services across a range of sectors including reduction in fugitive methane emissions from slurries, treatment of residues, environmental protection, provision of biofertiliser, provision of food grade CO2 and a fuel readily available for long distance heavy haulage. What we do not have is time to postpone the sustainable implementation of such circular economy biomethane systems as the climate emergency will not wait for absolutely perfect zero emission solutions; should they exist.

  • 322.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Miljöteknik: För en hållbar utveckling2013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 323.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, OlofLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling2023Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utmaningarna inom miljöområdet är stora och inte minst industrin arbetar intensivt med sin omställning för att både minska sin negativa miljöpåverkan och ta fram lösningar som bidrar till ett gott liv för alla. Boken behandlar möjligheterna att vända miljöproblem till möjligheter genom miljöteknik...[Bokinfo]

  • 324.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thuresson, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling2011 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 325.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jonsson, Charlotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Öberg, Margareta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental management systems: scope assessment of environmental aspectsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to increase the understanding of how standardised environmental management systems (EMSs) affect environmental performance. Based on interviews with environmental managers from 18 different companies and two environmental consultants, we make clear how companies identify, formulate and assess their environmental aspects.

    The results show that consultants have an important role concerning EMSs. Many of the environmental managers have deficient knowledge concerning their own EMS, since they cannot explain central EMS procedures. This can probably be explained by too much external assistance, from consultants, in combination with internal barriers such as lack of competence, time and motivation.

    The characteristics of the companies’ assessment methods are presented, which among other things include which parameters are used and their relative weight. From an environmental point of view, it is positive that environmental parameters, in general, have a big influence. However it should also be noted that some of the companies use methods in which business parameters seem to dominate. Other important results show that most systems, overall, are facility oriented. In most cases it was difficult to understand the scope of individual aspects, for example, concerning what environmental impacts were considered. A majority of the environmental managers were rather uncertain about issues in relation to scope and system perspectives. Therefore, it is recommended that incentives be taken to increase environmental managers’ competence and to improve the standards, the guiding documents and the systems for their application.

  • 326.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Products in environmental management systems: drivers, barriers and experiences2005Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 405-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Do standardised environmental management systems (EMS) lead to improved environmental performance? This depends on to what extent these systems lead to changes in important flows of material and energy, which for manufacturing companies, in turn, mean that the product development process is important. Consequently, it appears vital to investigate the connection between EMS and ‘Design for the Environment’ (DFE), i.e. the connection between these management systems and concepts that deal with environmental issues in product development.

    This paper presents product-oriented environmental management systems (POEMS), including characteristics of existing models, experiences from projects where these models have been tested and experiences concerning the product connection in ‘normal’ EMS. It includes a discussion of important factors influencing to what extent DFE activities are integrated into EMS and/or the outcome of such integration.

    There are many motives for integrating the two concepts. Firstly, DFE thinking might enrich EMS by contributing with a life-cycle perspective. If EMS encompassed products' life cycles to a greater extent, they would be a better complement to the often facility-oriented legal requirements and authority control. Secondly, EMS might remove the pilot project character of DFE activities and lead to continuous improvement. Thirdly, integration could lead to successful co-operation, both internally and externally. However, existing studies show that there is a mixed picture concerning the extent ‘normal’ EMS currently encompass products.

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    fulltext
  • 327.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Products in environmental management systems: the role of auditors2005Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 417-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For standardized environmental management systems (EMS) to be environmentally effective tools, they should affect important environmental aspects related to flows of materials and energy, which for manufacturing companies are closely connected to their products. This paper presents how external environmental auditors interpret and apply important product-related requirements of ISO 14001 at manufacturing companies in Sweden.

    The results indicate that the link between EMS and products is rather weak. Products are seldom regarded as significant environmental aspects and are therefore not within the main scope of many EMS, which are mainly focused on sites. However, all of the interviewed auditors require that some kind of environmental considerations be incorporated into product development, but these considerations are to large extent site oriented; how they are prioritized in relation to other factors such as economics and other customer priorities appears to be up to the companies.

    The paper includes some recommendations to strengthen the role of products within the framework of standardized EMS.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 328.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 12015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Biogas Research Center (BRC) är ett kompetenscentrum för biogasforskning som finansieras av Energimyndigheten, LiU och ett flertal externa organisationer med en tredjedel vardera. BRC har en mycket bred tvärvetenskaplig inriktning och sammanför biogasrelaterad kompetens från flera olika områden för att skapa interaktion på flera olika plan:

    • mellan näringsliv, akademi och samhälle,
    • mellan olika perspektiv, samt
    • mellan olika discipliner och kompetensområden.

    BRC:s vision är:

    Resurseffektiva biogaslösningar finns genomförda i många nya tillämpningar och bidrar till en mer hållbar energiförsörjning, förbättrat miljötillstånd och goda affärer.

    BRC:s särskilda roll för att uppnå denna vision är att bidra med kunskapsförsörjning och process-/teknikutveckling för att facilitera utveckling, innovation och implementering av biogaslösningar. Resurseffektivitet är ett nyckelord, vilket handlar om att förbättra befintliga processer och system samt utveckla biogaslösningar i nya sektorer och möjliggöra användning av nya substrat.

    For BRC:s etapp 1, den första tvåårsperioden mellan 2012-2014, var forskningsprojekten organiserade enligt tabellen nedan. Den visar viktiga utmaningar för biogasproducenter och andra intressenter, samt hur dessa ”angreps” med åtta forskningsprojekt. Fem av projekten var av explorativ karaktär i bemärkelsen att de var bredare och mer framtidsorienterade - exempelvis utvärderade flera möjliga tekniska utvecklingsmöjligheter (EP1-5). Tre projekt hade ett tydligare fokus på teknik- och processutveckling (DP6-8).

    I den här slutrapporten ges en kortfattad bakgrundsbeskrivning och det finns en introduktion till vad den här typen av kompetenscentrum innebär generellt. Därefter finns mer detaljerad information om BRC, exempelvis gäller det centrumets etablering, relevans, vision, hörnstenar och utveckling. De deltagande organisationerna presenteras, både forskargrupperna vid Linköpings universitet och partners och medlemmar. Vidare finns en mer utförlig introduktion till och beskrivning av utmaningarna i tabellen och kortfattat information om forskningsprojekten, följt av ett kapitel som berör måluppfyllelse och den externa utvärdering som gjorts av BRC:s verksamhet. Detaljerad, listad information finns till stor del i bilagorna.

    Kortfattat kan det konstateras att måluppfyllelsen överlag är god. Det är speciellt positivt att så många vetenskapliga artiklar publicerats (eller är på gång att publiceras) kopplat till forskningsprojekten och även i det vidare centrumperspektivet. Helt klart förekommer en omfattande verksamhet inom och kopplat till BRC. I etapp 2 är det viktigt att öka andelen mycket nöjda partner och medlemmar, där nu hälften är nöjda och hälften mycket nöjda. Det handlar framför allt om stärkt kommunikation, interaktion och projektledning. Under 2015 förväntas åtminstone två doktorsexamina, där avhandlingarna har stor koppling till forskningen inom etapp 1.

    I början på år 2014 skedde en extern utvärdering av verksamheten vid BRC med huvudsyftet att bedöma hur väl centrumet lyckats med etableringen samt att granska om det fanns förutsättningar för framtida framgångsrik verksamhet. Generellt var utfallet mycket positivt och utvärderarna konstaterade att BRC på kort tid lyckats etablera en verksamhet som fungerar väl och engagerar det stora flertalet deltagande aktörer, inom relevanta områden och där de flesta involverade ser BRC som en befogad och väl fungerande satsning, som de har för avsikt att även fortsättningsvis stödja. Utvärderingen bidrog också med flera relevant tips och till att belysa utmaningar.

    Utöver denna slutrapport finns separata publikationer från forskningsprojekten.

    Arbetet som presenteras i rapporten har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och de medverkande organisationerna.

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    Table Swe
    Ladda ner (png)
    Table Eng
  • 329.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thuresson, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Globala miljöproblem2023Ingår i: Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling / [ed] Jonas Ammenberg, Olof Hjelm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, Vol. Sidorna 39-70, s. 39-70Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel beskrivs några betydande miljöproblem av global karaktär. Det handlar närmare bestämt om klimatförändringar, uttunning av ozonskiktet, minskad biologisk mångfald och användning av naturresurser. Syftet är att du som läsare bättre ska förstå vad som kännetecknar problemen, vad i samhället som orsakar dem, rådande trender och möjliga åtgärder.

  • 330.
    Analytis, Pantelis P.
    et al.
    Cornell Univ, USA.
    Barkoczi, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Herzog, Stefan M.
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Germany.
    Social learning strategies for matters of taste2018Ingår i: Nature Human Behaviour, E-ISSN 2397-3374, Vol. 2, nr 6, s. 415-424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most choices people make are about 'matters of taste', on which there is no universal, objective truth. Nevertheless, people can learn from the experiences of individuals with similar tastes who have already evaluated the available options-a potential harnessed by recommender systems. We mapped recommender system algorithms to models of human judgement and decision-making about 'matters of fact' and recast the latter as social learning strategies for matters of taste. Using computer simulations on a large-scale, empirical dataset, we studied how people could leverage the experiences of others to make better decisions. Our simulations showed that experienced individuals can benefit from relying mostly on the opinions of seemingly similar people; by contrast, inexperienced individuals cannot reliably estimate similarity and are better off picking the mainstream option despite differences in taste. Crucially, the level of experience beyond which people should switch to similarity-heavy strategies varies substantially across individuals and depends on how mainstream (or alternative) an individual's tastes are and the level of dispersion in taste similarity with the other people in the group.

  • 331.
    Ananno, Anan Ashrabi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktrealisering. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Masud, Mahadi Hasan
    RMIT Univ, Australia; Rajshahi Univ Engn & Technol, Bangladesh.
    Chowdhury, Sami Ahbab
    Rajshahi Univ Engn & Technol, Bangladesh.
    Dabnichki, Peter
    RMIT Univ, Australia.
    Ahmed, Nufile
    Rajshahi Univ Engn & Technol, Bangladesh.
    Arefin, Amit Md. Estiaque
    Texas Tech Univ, TX 79409 USA.
    Sustainable food waste management model for Bangladesh2021Ingår i: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 27, s. 35-51Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive food waste (nearly 1.3 billion tons per annum) has exacerbated the world hunger crisis. This comprehensive review focuses on the food waste scenario, adverse effects, food waste management, existing waste management policies, and regulations in Bangladesh. Municipalities and urban centers generate 3.78 million tons of waste each year (15.96% of total food waste). This study utilized the national database to analyze food waste generation and projected growth by the year 2050. Yearly an estimated 17215.2 thousand acres of land and a significant amount of natural resources (water, energy) are being used to produce 23691.15 thousand tons of wasted food (45% of total food production). This study critically analyzed the waste management policy gap of Bangladesh and clearly identified each stage of the food loss production supply chain. The study assessed that yearly 481.6 MW energy could be generated from food waste. Focusing on effective policy and sustainability, a national food waste management model has been proposed for Bangladesh in compliance with sustainable development goals 12.3.1 global food loss. Food accumulates 16.7% to 20% of the world economy; therefore, any measures taken to reduce the food waste will be economically beneficial and environmentally sustainable. (C) 2020 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 332.
    Ananno, Anan Ashrabi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktrealisering. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Masud, Mahadi Hasan
    RMIT Univ, Australia; Rajshahi Univ Engn & Technol, Bangladesh.
    Dabnichki, Peter
    RMIT Univ, Australia.
    Mahjabeen, Mosarrat
    Shaheed Suhrawardy Med Coll, Bangladesh.
    Chowdhury, Sami Ahbab
    Rajshahi Univ Engn & Technol, Bangladesh.
    Survey and analysis of consumers behaviour for electronic waste management in Bangladesh2021Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 282, artikel-id 111943Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to establish consumers perception of electric waste recycling and management on a national scale in Bangladesh. The attitude, willingness to pay (WTP) and consumers behaviour were explored by conducting a questionnaire-based survey. The conclusions are based on 915 valid responses out of 2000 online survey invitations. Interestingly, 37.9% of the respondents indicated that they would accept to pay for electronic waste recycling. Analysis also shows that the preferred WTP would cover 5-10% of the recycling cost. Factors like environmental awareness, monthly income, and education level affect the consumers WTP. Nevertheless, most of the participants believe that the Government should share the recycling cost. The study suggests that e-waste recycling can be stimulated by promoting environmental awareness, educating the public about the benefits of recycling e-waste, and making e-waste recycling more convenient. However, additional measures will likely be needed to tackle the e-waste problem. Thus, support for environmental education is imperative in order to promote environmental awareness and increase the WTP of consumers. The study outlines key characteristics of consumer-focused e-waste management archetypes and proposes an effective road map for Bangladesh.

  • 333.
    Ananno, Anan Ashrabi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktrealisering. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktrealisering. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Multi-Heuristic Algorithm for Multi-Container 3-D Bin Packing Problem Optimization Using Real World Constraints2024Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 12, s. 42105-42130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing demand for sustainable and optimal packaging solutions, this study proposes a novel two-stage algorithm for the multi-container three-dimensional bin packing problem. The research addresses this problem within the context of a real-world industrial scenario and implements several practical constraints including: full shipment, customer positioning requirements, and product geometric interlocking, for increased stability and with the purpose of minimizing the use of plastic wrapping and/or additional supporting surfaces. The main optimization target is to minimize the total number of containers used in the palletization process of custom orders with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed algorithm includes two stages/phases of processing. In the first phase, the algorithm uses constructive heuristics to generate homogeneous product layers. The layers are then stacked to produce blocks, which are then placed on individual containers or pallets. The second phase packs the leftover items using a genetic algorithm. The performance of the proposed solution is benchmarked using real-world industrial data, as well as a more classic academic benchmark. It is demonstrated, across a very large set of orders, that the algorithm always achieves solutions for full palletization of the orders. The analysis shows that the approach is generic and the quality of the solutions generated is relatively even for both small and large, homogeneous and heterogeneous problem instances.

  • 334.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Assessing the Contribution of Organic Agriculture: PovertyReduction and Employment Creation in Selected Value Chains2016Ingår i: Vulnerability of Agricultural Production Networks and Global Food Value Chainsdue to Natural Disasters: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Meinhard Breiling, Anbumozhi Venkatachalam, Vienna: TU Wien , 2016, s. 23-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic agriculture (OA) is increasingly viewed as an economic opportunity for farmers allover the world. This paper addresses the effects of OA in terms of income, vulnerability andpoverty alleviation in rural areas in developing countries. It is based on a literature reviewwith emphasis on two value chains: cotton and coffee, which both involve smallholders indeveloping regions, and growing organic markets, but differ in terms of value chain structuresand geographical patterns.

  • 335.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hamnarna rustas för fartygens avloppsvatten2014Ingår i: Sjöfarten kring Sverige och dess påverkan på havsmiljön / [ed] Tina Johansen Lilja och Eva-Lotta Sundblad, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2014, nr 4, s. 10-11Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    När avloppsvatten från sjöfarten släpps ut i havet påverkar det miljön negativt genom att bakterier sprids och näringsämnen kommer ut i havet. Utsläppen är koncentrerade till farleder och hamnar och där kan effekterna vara tydliga, även om utsläppen är små i förhållande till de totala utsläppen till havet.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 336.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Urban green growth-myth or reality?2015Ingår i: URBACT II New Urban Economies : How can cities foster economic development and develop ‘new urban economies’ / [ed] Willem van Winden, Luis Carvalho, Saint-Denis, France: URBACT II Programme , 2015, s. 35-38Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘To create the most resource-efficient region in the world’. This is the vision of Tekniska verken, the municipalityowned infrastructural company in Linköping, Sweden. It reflects the city’ s long-standing ambitions to be a ‘forerunner in climate and environmental initiatives’ and to support ‘business-driven’ environmental development, actively stimulating the development of a green economic sector. Linköping and the surrounding county of Östergötland are here used for discussing the development of the green economy in cities and regions.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 337.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Western harbor in Malmö2015Ingår i: Review 11. Re-inventing planning: examples from the Profession, Rotterdam, Nederländerna: International Society of City and Regional Planners , 2015, Vol. 11, s. 210-227Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last 15 years Västra hamnen (Western Harbor) in Malmö, and Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm have been the major flagships of Swedish international eco-city ambitions. These city development projects are presented both as leading examples of the conversion of former industrial harbor areas and of environmental adaptation of densely built urban environments. Western Harbor is a centrally located former shipyard area which, since the end of the 1990s, has developed into a mixed city area for housing, schools, offices, shops and other workplaces as well as for recreational areas with beaches, parks and yacht harbors. Since its first phase, part of a housing expo in 2001, it has attracted international interest for its dense architecture, bold energy goals based on varied local renewable energy production, household waste systems, green and blue structures, and dialogue processes. By 2031, when the area is completed, it is expected to be the home for 25,000 people and 25,000 workplaces. In 2014, there were 7,300 inhabitants and more than 12,000 work places in Western Harbor, already twice of the work force of the former shipyard at its height.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 338.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kevin, Cullinane
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Johansson Nikopolou, Zoi
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Utsläppshandel kan vara en lönsam vägtill lägre utsläpp från sjöfarten2017Ingår i: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön / [ed] Tina Johansen Lilja, Frida Lundberg och Eva-Lotta Sundblad., Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, s. 14-16Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handel med utsläppsrätter under ett fastställt ”tak” av totalautsläpp som efterhand sänks, har i en del regioner i världenvisat sig vara en både kostnadseffektiv och framgångsrikstrategi för att minska luftföroreningarna. Frågan är om utsläppshandelskulle kunna vara ett effektivt sätt för att minskasjöfartens utsläpp i Europa eller Östersjöregionen?

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Utsläppshandel kan vara en lönsam vägtill lägre utsläpp från sjöfarten
  • 339.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wilewska Bien, Magda
    Sjöfart och marin teknik/maritim miljö och energisystem, Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Billigare avfallshantering i hamnarna har inte gett förväntad effekt2017Ingår i: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön / [ed] Tina Johansen Lilja, Frida Lundberg och Eva-Lotta Sundblad, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, s. 26-27Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hamnarna kan spela en viktig roll för att minska sjöfartensutsläpp i havet. Reglerna för fartygens avfallsdumpning harskärpts och i Östersjöområdet har det länge funnits en överenskommelseom att fartygen ska kunna lämna sitt avfall ihamn utan extra avgift. I praktiken låter dock de stora förbättringarnavänta på sig.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Billigare avfallshantering i hamnarna har inte gett förväntad effekt
  • 340.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wilewska-Bien, Magda
    Sjöfart och marin teknik/maritim miljö och energisystem, Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Expanderande kryssningsbransch ställer krav på Östersjöns hamnar2017Ingår i: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön / [ed] Tina Johansen Lilja, Frida Lundberg och Eva-Lotta Sundblad, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, s. 24-25Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kryssningssjöfarten ger växande inkomster för kuststäderna,men innebär också ökad påverkan på miljön i Östersjön och dess hamnar. Trots att branschen åtagit sig att sluta släppa utavloppsvatten till sjöss lämnar bara var tredje kryssningsfartygsitt avfallsvatten vid hamnbesök. Dessutom är delar av fartygsflottani stort behov av förbättrad miljöprestanda.

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    Expanderande kryssningsbransch ställer krav på Östersjöns hamnar
  • 341.
    Anderbygd, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Toivanen, Kim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kultur, ett informellt styrmedel: En enkel fallstudie om organisationskultur som ett informellt styrmedel i ett mikroföretag2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Denna studie ämnar undersöka hur kultur kan användas som styrverktyg och hur en grundares kulturella intentioner återspeglas i organisationen. Studien undersöker ett mikroföretag där grundaren är aktivt närvarande i den dagliga verksamheten. Vi har analyserat hur styrverktygen formats av kulturella aspekter genom att studera hur kultur implementerats som styrverktyg.

    Metod: Metoden utgörs av en flervalsmetod och genomför i form av en enkel fallstudie. Empirin som presenteras är insamlad genom intervjuer, enkät och observation.

    Teoretisk referensram: Den teoretiska referensramen innehåller teorier kring kulturens uppbyggnad, grundarens roll i kulturstyrningen samt teorier kring ekonomistyrning. Malmi och Browns paket (2008) kommer att användas tillsammans med Andersson och Funcks (2017) styrprocess för att förklara hur de olika kontrollerna kan användas och hur alla dessa påverkas av organisationskulturen.

    Slutsats: Resultatet av denna studie visar hur och att grundaren har använt sig av kultur som styrverktyg. Det framkommer även att grundarens värderingar påverkar hur styrverktygen utformas och används samt att detta resulterat i att styrverktygen är informella. Resultatet visar även på att grundarens intentioner återspeglas till viss del i organisationen.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 342.
    Anders, Signahl
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Nils, Hjerpe
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Deep Green i oceana strömmar - en konceptstudie2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With growing economies and better living standards in many parts of the world today, there is a need of expanding the capacity of generating electricity. The alternatives for renewable energy technologies are not fully developed and have still some problems to conquer.

    The company Minesto has developed a technology that is called Deep Green. It is designed to gain electricity from tidal currents. Deep Green works in a similar way as a kite that is attached to the seafloor with a moving wire. It contains of a wing that moves due to the water current. The path of the movement is circular or a shape of an “8”. The turbine under the wing is powered by the water flow which in turn leads to generation of electricity by the generator.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the potential of using the Deep Green technology in ocean currents with respect to construction and economy. The site for the investigation is off the east coast of Florida where the Florida current streams with a speed of about 1, 5 m/s close to the surface. The major difference compared to the use in tidal currents is the deep waters of about 300 m and a oneway current direction.

    A mooring construction was developed and optimized and with the use of carbon fiber ropes, buoys and foundations lets 9 Deep Greens operate between 20 and 79 m depth. The idea is to install 7 such clusters with a total of 63 Deep Greens on the site in Florida. This configuration generates a power of 24 MW and gives a production of 185 GWh/year.

    Economic accounts were made with support of earlier made calculations regarding a park of 60 Deep Greens in a tidal current application. The results for the clustered configuration in ocean currents indicated a cost of 0,67 SEK/kWh with a discount rate of 8%. The required capital for the installation is about 780 mSEK (CAPEX). The operating costs (OPEX) are 43,3 mSEK.

    The design seems reasonable in many respects and it operates in a continuous ocean current with good electricity generation. The use of Deep Green in ocean currents speaks for being a profitable application. Though, it will be a large‐scale economic project, mainly because installations in a small scale will not be profitable due to costs such as grid connection.

    Critical issues to look at in a further development was considered to be surveys of the installation site, the displacement and movements of the mooring, the buoyancy‐system and the installation procedure.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 343.
    Andersen, E. S.
    et al.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Vaagaasar, A.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Projects and politics: exploring the duality between action and politics in complex projects2010Ingår i: International Journal of Management and Decision Making, ISSN 1462-4621, E-ISSN 1741-5187, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 121-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional research and literature on project management and organisation theory tend to view project organisations as non-political bodies and purely action-oriented endeavours. In contrast, this paper presents an alternative analysis drawing on the idea of projects as political and emergent processes. Based on in-depth, case-study findings of a complex development and implementation project, we suggest an analytical framework that focuses on the interrelatedness of action and political processes and which explains how project management deals with the two processes simultaneously. We identify and analyse three separate but nested organisational logics applied by the project management team to cope with the dual challenges of politics and action. The general idea is to illustrate the notion of projects as emergent processes involving both politics and action. The three logics are: 1) balancing openness and closure; 2) reformulating tasks to seek solutions; 3) relating to improve action capacity. Our findings add to the literature on the role and practice of project management in complex projects that entail both stakeholder and technological challenges.

  • 344.
    Andersen Söderbergh, Kim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Blästring av trä: Ett materialbibliotek av blästrade och ytbehandladeträytor2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In my thesis I have sand blasted different type of woods - ring-porous and diffuseporous deciduous tree species and conifers - to show different results depending on the species, the direction of the grain and the effects of surface treatment of a blasted surface.

    The results of my tests were sometimes unexpected, such as that the sand from blasting almost completely disappeared, that all wood surfaces after blasting exhibited a much lighter or paler surface than before and that the diffuse-porous tree species showed differences in hardness between the beginning and end of annual rings.

    By creating a library of different kinds of wood and sandblasted surface treatment, I have created a reference bank that I will be able to use me in the manufacturing of interiors, furniture and other objects.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Blästring av trä
  • 345.
    Anderson, Brian S.
    et al.
    Univ Missouri, MO 64110 USA; Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    McMullen, Jeffery S.
    Indiana Univ, IN 47405 USA.
    Editorial: Enhancing quantitative theory-testing entrepreneurship research2019Ingår i: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 34, nr 5, artikel-id UNSP 105928Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this editorial is to discuss methodological advancements to enhance quantitative theory-testing entrepreneurship research. As the impact of entrepreneurship scholarship accelerates and deepens, our methods must keep pace to continue shaping theory, policy, and practice. Like our sister fields in business, entrepreneurship is coming to terms with the replication and credibility crisis in the social sciences, forcing the field to revisit commonly-held assumptions that limit the promise and prospect of our scholarship. Thus, we provide suggestions for reviewers and editors to identify concerns in empirical work, and to guide authors in improving their analyses and research designs. We hope that our editorial provides useful and actionable guidance for entrepreneurship researchers submitting theory-testing papers to Journal of Business Venturing.

  • 346.
    Anderson, Helen
    et al.
    Jonköping International Business School.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Oberg, Christina
    Lund University.
    Do Competition Authorities Consider Business Relationships?2012Ingår i: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 67-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Companies engage in business relationships for a variety of reasons, including specialization, product development, and building competitive networks. Research has demonstrated that mergers and acquisitions (Mandamp;As) may challenge ongoing business relationships. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether and how competition authorities consider business relationships when evaluating Mandamp;As. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethodology: The article uses the documentation from 450 Mandamp;As reported to the Swedish competition authority to capture the way in which an authority evaluates Mandamp;As. The Swedish competition authority evaluation corresponds to other national and international evaluation procedures. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanFindings: The findings indicate that the competition authorities neglect an important aspect of business life, namely companies forming business relationships. The competition authorities evaluate Mandamp;As on the basis of risk for price increases, and consequently disregard such issues as heterogeneity in demand and offerings, and values built into existing business relationships. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanOriginality/Value/Contribution: The article contributes to research on business relationships through exploring how a public authority deals with such relationships. It also contributes to research on mergers and acquisitions through examining how these activities are evaluated by competition authorities. Furthermore, the article contributes to competition research by reflecting on competition law concerning Mandamp;A regulations in relation to business relationships.

  • 347.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Havila, V.
    Salmi, A.
    Can You Buy a Business Relationship?: On The Importance of Customer and Supplier Relationships in Acquisitions2001Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 575-586Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers and acquisitions have become a popular strategy for gaining growth. Studies show, however, high failure rates for acquisitions. Earlier literature concentrates on the strategic or organizational fit between companies and integration processes and fails to recognize the companies' external business relationships. An implicit assumption seems to be that through acquisition the market position of the target firm can be taken over. We argue that it is not always easy or even possible to take over a company's customer and supplier relationships. We elaborate on the various problems related to relationships that acquisitions may give rise to. Our conceptual discussion is illustrated with a case study from the graphics industry. © 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  • 348.
    Andersson, Agnes
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi.
    Forsgren, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi.
    Ett intressentperspektiv på slow fashion-affärsmodellen: En multipel fallstudie om långsam konsumtion i modebranschen2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en reaktion mot fast fashion-rörelsen och de oansvariga konsumtionsmönster som den medför har slow fashion uppstått som ett mer hållbart alternativ i modebranschen. Slow fashion beskrivs ofta som mode av hög kvalitet med en tidlös design vars syfte är att sakta ner flödena och minska konsumtionen. Tidigare studier beskriver slow fashion som koncept och några incitament och barriärer för att arbeta med slow fashion. Dock saknas en konkret definition av slow fashion-affärsmodellen och dess ingående komponenter. Det finns också ett gap mellan teorin och den praktiska tillämpningen av slow fashion-affärsmodellen, vilket gör detta till ett intressant perspektiv att undersöka. Därför är syftet med denna studie att bidra med ökad förståelse kring möjligheterna med slow fashion-affärsmodellen för modeföretag.

    Slow fashion-affärsmodellen definieras baserat på tidigare litteratur om affärsmodeller och slow fashion-konceptet. Detta presenteras som en modell med fyra komponenter: värdeerbjudande, värdeskapande, värdeleverans och värdelogik. Jämförelsen mellan denna definition och affärsmodellerna för sju modeföretag visar att det finns många möjligheter kopplade till slow fashion-värdeerbjudandet. I vilken utsträckning de andra komponenterna i slow fashion tillämpas i praktiken beror på företagets målgrupp, ägarstruktur och hur hållbarhet är förankrat i organisationen. När det gäller intressentperspektivet på slow fashion-affärsmodellen visar studien att myndigheter och beslutsfattare har störst möjligheter att möjliggöra slow fashion-affärsmodellen, genom att påverka både modeindustrin och konsumenterna. På grund av aktieägarnas inflytande över modeföretagens långsiktiga strategi kan de vara en drivkraft om hållbarhet prioriteras av dem. Andra intressenter kan agera som möjliggörare för tillämpningen av slow fashion-komponenter på grund av sitt potentiella intresse för hållbarhet och minskad konsumtion.Studiens syfte besvaras med följande propositioner:

    • Proposition 1: Det finns en marknad för slow fashion-värdeerbjudandet men det saknas incitament för att tillämpa affärsmodellen fullt ut.
    • Proposition 2: Konkurrenskraften i slow fashion-affärsmodellen ligger i värdeerbjudandet, inte i priset.
    • Proposition 3: En styrka i slow fashion-affärsmodellen är dess lönsamhetspotential, vilket kan gynna ägare och investerare.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar studien att det finns potential när det gäller efterfrågan, konkurrenskraft och lönsamhet i slow fashion-affärsmodellen. Det finns dock begränsade incitament för modeföretag att tillämpa alla komponenter i affärsmodellen i sin verksamhet. Det finns också indikationer på att efterfrågan på mer långvariga kläder kan öka i framtiden. För tillfället verkar dock behovet av variation fortsätta vara starkt.

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  • 349.
    Andersson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Cell för induktionshärdning: -En inledande studie för ett beslutsunderlag2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete är ett examensarbete utfört av en student vid civilingenjörsprogrammet i maskinteknik vid Linköpings tekniska högskola och omfattar 30 högskolepoäng enligt nya europeiska systemet. Examensarbetet är utfört vid företaget AB Wahlquists Verkstäder i Linköping. Vilket är en koncern inom verkstadsindustrin med cirka 180 anställda och har anläggningar i både Sverige och Estland.

    Genom insamling av fakta från både litteratur, muntliga källor och genom studiebesök på anläggningar har en kortare sammanställning om tekniken för induktionshärdning utförts. Sammanställningen behandlar hur tekniken går till, hur den används, vilka begränsningar som finns samt hur utrustningen fungerar. Utformandet är styrt och prioriterat efter vad som för företaget är intressant och valt att ligga till grund för den inledande vetskapen om tekniken.

    Den underliggande fakta som presenterats har därefter varit underlag för de diskussioner och idéer som presenterats i form av förslag på utformning av en induktionshärdningscell. Där förslaget på den utformade cellen är efter de önskemål som företaget valt att ställa. För att sedan kunna göra förslaget tydligare för företaget har beräkningar för investeringskostnader, tider i produktion och beläggningsgrad med aktuella detaljer utförts.

    De för AB Wahlquists Verkstäder viktiga punkter, som kan vara av vikt att diskutera i form av synergieffekter till en anskaffning av induktionshärdningsutrustning har presenterats. Punkterna är av stort värde eller har mindre påverkan beroende på hur det specifika företaget själva väljer att behandla dessa. Däremot rekommenderas i arbetet att personer med rätt kunskaper avfärdar eller belyser de presenterade punkterna.

    Det genomförda arbetet har sedan sammanställts och en slutgiltig rekommendation har utfärdats till företaget. Här ges en rekommendation till hur företaget ska gå vidare med sitt arbete för den aktuella anskaffningen och vad som behöver studeras ytterligare innan ett komplett beslutsunderlag kan utfärdas.

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  • 350.
    Andersson, Angelica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Engelson, Leonid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Daly, Andrew
    ITS, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Long-distance mode choice model estimation using mobile phone network data2022Ingår i: Journal of Choice Modelling, E-ISSN 1755-5345, Vol. 42, artikel-id 100337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we develop two methods for the use of mobile phone data to support the estimation of long-distance mode choice models. Both methods are based on logit formulations in which we define likelihood functions and use maximum likelihood estimation. Mobile phone data consists of information about a sequence of antennae that have detected each phone, so the mode choice is not actually observed. In the first trip-based method, the mode of each trip is inferred by a separate procedure, and the estimation process is then straightforward. However, since it is not always possible to determine the mode choice with certainty (although it is possible in the majority of cases), this method might give biased results. In our second antenna-based method we therefore base the likelihood function on the sequences of antennae that have detected the phones. The estimation aims at finding a parameter vector in the mode choice model that would explain the observed sequences best. The main challenge with the antenna-based method is the need for detailed resolution of the available data. In this paper we show the derivation of the two methods, that they coincide in case of certainty about the chosen mode and discuss the validity of assumptions and their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we apply the first trip-based method to empirical data and compare the results of two different ways of implementing it.

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