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  • 51.
    Hajihoseini, Hamidreza
    et al.
    Univ Iceland, Iceland; Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Cada, Martin
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Czech Republic.
    Hubicka, Zdenek
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Czech Republic.
    Unaldi, Selen
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Raadu, Michael A.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Brenning, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas
    Univ Iceland, Iceland; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Sideways deposition rate and ionized flux fraction in dc and high power impulse magnetron sputtering2020In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 38, no 3, article id 033009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sideways (radial) deposition rate and ionized flux fraction in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge are studied and compared to a dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) discharge, while the magnetic field strength | B | and degree of balancing are varied. A significant deposition of the film forming material perpendicular to the target surface is observed for both sputter techniques. This sideways deposition decreases with increasing axial distance from the target surface. The sideways deposition rate is always the highest in dc operation, while it is lower for HiPIMS operation. The magnetic field strength has a strong influence on the sideways deposition rate in HiPIMS but not in dcMS. Furthermore, in HiPIMS operation, the radial ion deposition rate is always at least as large as the axial ion deposition rate and often around two times higher. Thus, there are a significantly higher number of ions traveling radially in the HiPIMS discharge. A comparison of the total radial as well as axial fluxes across the entire investigated plasma volume between the target and the substrate position allows for revised estimates of radial over axial flux fractions for different magnetic field configurations. It is here found that the relative radial flux of the film forming material is greater in dcMS compared to HiPIMS for almost all cases investigated. It is therefore concluded that the commonly reported reduction of the (axial) deposition rate in HiPIMS compared to dcMS does not seem to be linked with an increase in sideways material transport in HiPIMS.

  • 52. Hellgren, N.
    et al.
    Johansson, Mats P
    Hjorvarsson, B.
    Hjörvarsson, B., Materials Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 14, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Broitman, E.
    Östblom, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Sundgren, J.-E.
    Growth, structure, and mechanical properties of CNxHy films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering in N2/Ar/H2 discharges2000In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 2349-2358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive direct current magnetron sputtering was used to deposit the hydrogenated carbon nitride films in mixed nitrogen (N2)/argon (Ar)/ hydrogen (H2) discharges. Growth and structure evolution of films was found to be affected by chemical sputtering effects. The hydrogen were found to be bonded to nitrogen and hydrogen incorporation decreases the elasticity and hardness.

  • 53.
    Hellgren, Niklas
    et al.
    Messiah Univ, PA 17055 USA.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sortica, Mauricio A.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of TiBx (1.3 <= x <= 3.0) thin films2021In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 39, no 2, article id 023403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a comprehensive analysis of titanium boride thin films by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Films were grown by both direct current magnetron sputtering and high- power impulse magnetron sputtering from a compound TiB2 target in Ar discharge. By varying the deposition parameters, the film composition could be tuned over the wide range 1:3 &B/Ti &3:0, as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. By comparing spectra over this wide range of compositions, we can draw original conclusions about how to interpret XPS spectra of TiBx. By careful spectra deconvolution, the signals from Ti-Ti and B-B bonds can be resolved from those corresponding to stoichiometric TiB2. The intensities of the off-stoichiometric signals can be directly related to the B/Ti ratio of the films. Furthermore, we demonstrate a way to obtain consistent and quantum-mechanically accurate peak deconvolution of the whole Ti 2p envelope, including the plasmons, for both oxidized and sputter-cleaned samples. Due to preferential sputtering of Ti over B, the film B/Ti ratio is best determined without sputter etching of the sample surface. This allows accurate compositional determination, assuming that extensive levels of oxygen are not present in the sample. Fully dense films can be accurately quantified for at least a year after deposition, while underdense samples do not give reliable data if the O/Ti ratio on the unsputtered surface is *3:5. Titanium suboxides detected after sputter etching is further indicative of oxygen penetrating the sample, and quantification by XPS should not be trusted.

  • 54.
    Honnali, Sanath Kumar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poterie, Charlotte
    Univ Poitiers, France.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of tilted closed-field magnetron design on the microstructure and mechanical properties of TiZrNbTaN coatings2023In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 41, no 4, article id 043402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common design of sputtering systems is to integrate many magnetron sources in a tilted closed-field configuration, which can drastically affect the magnetic field in the chamber and thus plasma characteristics. To study this effect explicitly, multicomponent TiZrNbTaN coatings were deposited at room temperature using direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) with different substrate biases. The coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nano-indentation, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Magnetic field simulations revealed ten times higher magnetic field strengths at the substrate in single-magnetron configuration when compared to the closed-field. As a result, the substrate ion current increased similar to 3 and 1.8 times for DCMS and HiPIMS, respectively. The film microstructure changed with the discharge type, in that DCMS coatings showed large sized columnar structures and HiPIMS coatings show globular nanosized structures with (111) orientation with a closed-field design. Coatings deposited from a single source showed dense columnar structures irrespective of the discharge type and developed (200) orientation only with HiPIMS. Coatings deposited with closed-field design by DCMS had low stress (0.8 to -1 GPa) and hardness in the range from 13 to 18 GPa. Use of HiPIMS resulted in higher stress (-3.6 to -4.3 GPa) and hardness (26-29 GPa). For coatings deposited with single source by DCMS, the stress (-0.15 to -3.7 GPa) and hardness were higher (18-26 GPa) than for coatings grown in the closed-field design. With HiPIMS and single source, the stress was in the range of -2.3 to -4.2 GPa with a similar to 6% drop in the hardness (24-27 GPa).

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  • 55.
    Hsu, Chih-Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinovic, Ivan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bakhit, Babak
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rouf, Polla
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Homogeneous high In content InxGa1-x N films by supercycle atomic layer deposition2022In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 40, no 6, article id 060402Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    InxGa1-x N is a strategically important material for electronic devices given its tunable bandgap, modulated by the In/Ga ratio. However, current applications are hindered by defects caused by strain relaxation and phase separation in the material. Here, we demonstrate growth of homogeneous InxGa1-x N films with 0.3 &lt; x &lt; 0.8 up to similar to 30 nm using atomic layer deposition (ALD) with a supercycle approach, switching between InN and GaN deposition. The composition is uniform along and across the films, without signs of In segregation. The InxGa1-x N films show higher In-content than the value predicted by the supercycle model. A more pronounced reduction of GPC(InN) than GPC(GaN) during the growth processes of InN and GaN bilayers is concluded based on our analysis. The intermixing between InN and GaN bilayers is suggested to explain the enhanced overall In-content. Our results show the advantage of ALD to prepare high-quality InxGa1-x N films, particularly with high In-content, which is difficult to achieve with other growth methods.

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  • 56.
    Huang, Jing-Jia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SGL Carbon GmbH, Germany.
    Militzer, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SGL Carbon GmbH, Germany.
    Wijayawardhana, Charles
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SGL Carbon GmbH, Germany.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conformal and superconformal chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide coatings2022In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 40, no 5, article id 053402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The approaches to conformal and superconformal deposition developed by Abelson and Girolami for a low-temperature, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) setting relevant for electronic materials in micrometer or submicrometer scale vias and trenches, are tested here in a high-temperature, moderate pressure CVD setting relevant for hard coatings in millimeter-scale trenches. Conformal and superconformal deposition of polycrystalline silicon carbide (SiC) can be accomplished at deposition temperatures between 950 and 1000 degrees C with precursor partial pressure higher than 20 Pa and an optional minor addition of HCl as a growth inhibitor. The conformal deposition at low temperatures is ascribed to slower kinetics of the precursor consumption along the trench depth, whereas the impact of high precursor partial pressure and addition of inhibitor is attributable to surface site blocking. With the slower kinetics and the site blocking from precursor saturation leading the growth to nearly conformal and the possibly preferential inhibition effect near the opening than at the depth, a superconformal SiC coating with 2.6 times higher thickness at the bottom compared to the top of a 1 mm trench was achieved. Published under an exclusive license by the AVS.

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  • 57.
    Huang, Jing-Jia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SGL Carbon GmbH, Germany.
    Militzer, Christian
    SGL Carbon GmbH, Germany.
    Wijayawardhana, Charles
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SGL Carbon GmbH, Germany.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Superconformal silicon carbide coatings via precursor pulsed chemical vapor deposition2023In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 41, no 3, article id 030403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, silicon carbide (SiC) coatings were successfully grown by pulsed chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The precursors silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) and ethylene (C2H4) were not supplied in a continuous flow but were pulsed alternately into the growth chamber with H-2 as a carrier and a purge gas. A typical pulsed CVD cycle was SiCl4 pulse-H-2 purge-C2H4 pulse-H-2 purge. This led to growth of superconformal SiC coatings, which could not be obtained under similar process conditions using a constant flow CVD process. We propose a two-step framework for SiC growth via pulsed CVD. During the SiCl4 pulse, a layer of Si is deposited. In the following C2H4 pulse, this Si layer is carburized, and SiC is formed. The high chlorine surface coverage after the SiCl4 pulse is believed to enable superconformal growth via a growth inhibition effect.

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  • 58.
    Hänninen, Tuomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor2015In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 05E121-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse. (C) 2015 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

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  • 59.
    Högberg, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Impact Coatings AB, Linköping, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reactive sputtering of delta-ZrH2 thin films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering2014In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 041510-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive sputtering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a Zr target in Ar/H-2 plasmas was employed to deposit Zr-H films on Si(100) substrates, and with H content up to 61 at.% and O contents typically below 0.2 at.% as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a chemical shift of similar to 0.7 eV to higher binding energies for the Zr-H films compared to pure Zr films, consistent with a charge transfer from Zr to H in a zirconium hydride. X-ray diffraction shows that the films are single-phase delta-ZrH2 (CaF2 type structure) at H content greater thansimilar to 55 at.% and pole figure measurements give a 111 preferred orientation for these films. Scanning electron microscopy cross-section images show a glasslike microstructure for the HiPIMS films, while the DCMS films are columnar. Nanoindentation yield hardness values of 5.5-7 GPa for the delta-ZrH2 films that is slightly harder than the similar to 5 GPa determined for Zr films and with coefficients of friction in the range of 0.12-0.18 to compare with the range of 0.4-0.6 obtained for Zr films. Wear resistance testing show that phase-pure delta-ZrH2 films deposited by HiPIMS exhibit up to 50 times lower wear rate compared to those containing a secondary Zr phase. Four-point probe measurements give resistivity values in the range of similar to 100-120 mu Omega cm for the delta-ZrH2 films, which is slightly higher compared to Zr films with values in the range 70-80 mu Omega cm.

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  • 60.
    Hörling, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjölén, Jacob
    SECO Tools AB.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    SECO Tools AB.
    Thermal stability of arc evaporated high aluminum-content Ti1−xAlxN thin films2002In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 1815-1823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal stability of Ti1−xAlxN films deposited by arc evaporation from Ti–Al cathodes with 67 and 75 at. % aluminum, respectively, has been investigated. The microstructure of as-deposited and isothermally annealed samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The chemical composition and elemental distribution were determined by energy dispersive x ray (EDX), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and EDX mapping. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a dense and columnar microstructure in the as-deposited condition. Films deposited from the 67 at. % cathodes were of cubic NaCl-structure phase, whereas films deposited from the 75 at. % cathodes exhibited nanocrystallites of wurzite-structure hexagonal-phase AlN in a cubic (c)-(Ti,Al)N matrix. Both films were stable during annealing at 900 °C/120 min with respect to phase composition and grain size. Annealing at 1100 °C of films deposited from the 67 at. % cathodes resulted in phase separation of c-TiN and h-AlN, via spinodal decomposition of c-TiN and c-AlN. (Ti,Al)N films undergo extensive stress relaxation and defect annihilation at relatively high temperatures, and aspects of these microstructural transformations are discussed.

  • 61.
    Jamnig, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Poitiers, France.
    Pliatsikas, Nikolaos
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Abadias, Gregory
    Univ Poitiers, France.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Manipulation of thin metal film morphology on weakly interacting substrates via selective deployment of alloying species2022In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 40, no 3, article id 033407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a versatile concept for manipulating morphology of thin (& LE;25 nm) noble-metal films on weakly interacting substrates using growth of Ag on SiO2 as a model system. The concept entails deployment of minority metallic (Cu, Au, Al, Ti, Cr, and Mo) alloying species at the Ag-layer growth front. Data from in situ and real-time monitoring of the deposition process show that all alloying agents-when deployed together with Ag vapor throughout the entire film deposition-favor two-dimensional (2D) growth morphology as compared to pure Ag film growth. This is manifested by an increase in the substrate area coverage for a given amount of deposited material in discontinuous layers and a decrease of the thickness at which a continuous layer is formed, though at the expense of a larger electrical resistivity. Based on ex situ microstructural analyses, we conclude that 2D morphological evolution under the presence of alloying species is predominantly caused by a decrease of the rate of island coalescence completion during the initial film-formation stages. Guided by this realization, alloying species are released with high temporal precision to selectively target growth stages before and after coalescence completion. Pre-coalescence deployment of all alloying agents yields a more pronounced 2D growth morphology, which for the case of Cu, Al, and Au is achieved without compromising the Ag-layer electrical conductivity. A more complex behavior is observed when alloying atoms are deposited during the post-coalescence growth stages: Cu, Au, Al, and Cr favor 2D morphology, while Ti and Mo yield a more pronounced three-dimensional morphological evolution. The overall results presented herein show that targeted deployment of alloying agents constitutes a generic platform for designing bespoken heterostructures between metal layers and technologically relevant weakly interacting substrates.& nbsp;Published under an exclusive license by the AVS.

  • 62.
    Jin, P.
    et al.
    National Institute of AIST, 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Nagoya, 463-8560, Japan.
    Xu, G.
    National Institute of AIST, 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Nagoya, 463-8560, Japan.
    Tazawa, M.
    National Institute of AIST, 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Nagoya, 463-8560, Japan.
    Yoshimura, K.
    National Institute of AIST, 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Nagoya, 463-8560, Japan.
    Music, Denis
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Alami, Jones
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Low temperature deposition of a-Al2O3 thin films by sputtering using a Cr2O3 template2002In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 2134-2136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A description about low temperature deposition of a-Al2O3 thin films by sputtering was presented. Cr2O3 thin layer was used as a template. Nanoindentation was used to study the mechanical properties of the deposited films. Calculations were made to obtain the hardness and Young's modulus of the films.

  • 63.
    Johansson, Leif I
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xia, Chao
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jacobi, Chariya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li induced effects in the core level and pi-band electronic structure of graphene grown on C-face SiC2015In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 33, no 6, article id 061405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of the effects induced in the electronic structure after Li deposition, and subsequent heating, on graphene samples prepared on C-face SiC are reported. The as prepared graphene samples are essentially undoped, but after Li deposition, the Dirac point shifts down to 1.2 eV below the Fermi level due to electron doping. The shape of the C 1s level also indicates a doping concentration of around 10(14) cm(-2) after Li deposition, when compared with recent calculated results of core level spectra of graphene. The C 1s, Si 2p, and Li 1s core level results show little intercalation directly after deposition but that most of the Li has intercalated after heating at 280 degrees C. Heating at higher temperatures leads to desorption of Li from the sample, and at 1030 degrees C, Li can no longer be detected on the sample. The single pi-band observable from multilayer C-face graphene samples in conventional angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is reasonably sharp both on the initially prepared sample and after Li deposition. After heating at 280 degrees C, the p-band appears more diffuse and possibly split. The Dirac point becomes located at 0.4 eV below the Fermi level, which indicates occurrence of a significant reduction in the electron doping concentration. Constant energy photoelectron distribution patterns extracted from the as prepared graphene C-face sample and also after Li deposition and heating at 280 degrees C look very similar to earlier calculated distribution patterns for monolayer graphene. (C) 2015 Author(s).

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  • 64.
    Johansson, M P
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Münger, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schutze, A
    Fraunhofer‐Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Low-temperature deposition of cubic BN: C films by unbalanced direct current magnetron sputtering of a B4C target1996In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 3100-3107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controllable-unbalanced de magnetron sputtering of a B4C target in mixed Ar-N-2 discharges has been used to deposit BN:C thin films with carbon concentrations in the range of 5-21 at, % on Si(001) substrates. The variation of the nitrogen gas consumption with nitrogen partial pressure was used to determine the sorption capacity of the sputtering source and was then correlated to the film discharge plasma density near the substrate in a wide range. Hence, the ion flux J(i) of primary Ar+ and N-2(+) ions accelerated to the substrate by an applied negative substrate bias could be varied while keeping the deposition flux J(n) (the sum of film building species, B, C, and N atoms) near constant. BN:C films were grown at large ion-to-neutral flux ratios 3 less than or equal to J(i)/J(n) less than or equal to 24, ion energies E(i) less than or equal to 500 eV, and substrate temperatures 150 less than or equal to T-s less than or equal to 350 degrees C. The phase and elemental composition of as-deposited BN:C films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Deposition of cubic phase c-BN:C containing 5-7 at. % of C is demonstrated under conditions of low energy (110 eV) ion bombardment, a high ion-to-atom arrival rate ration (J(i)/J(n) similar to 24), and low growth temperatures (similar to 150 degrees C). (C) 1996 American Vacuum Society.

  • 65.
    Kindlund, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Growth and mechanical properties of 111-oriented V0.5Mo0.5Nx/Al2O3(0001) thin films2018In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, no 5, article id 051512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pseudobinary V0.5Mo0.5Nx(111) alloys with the Bl-NaCl crystal structure are grown on Al2O3(0001) substrates in an ultra-high-vacuum system by reactive magnetron sputter deposition in mixed Ar/N-2 atmospheres at temperatures T-s between 100 and 900 degrees C. Nitrogen-to-metal, N/(V + Mo), fractions x vary monotonically from 0.9 +/- 0.1 with T-s = 100 degrees C to 0.4 +/- 0.1 at T-s = 900 degrees C. Nitrogen loss at higher growth temperatures leads to a corresponding decrease in the relaxed lattice parameter a(o) from 4.21 +/- 0.01 angstrom at T-s = 300 degrees C to 4.125 +/- 0.005 angstrom with T-s = 900 degrees C. Scanning electron micrographs of cube-corner nanoindents extending into the substrate show that the films are relatively ductile, exhibiting material pile-up (plastic flow) around the indent edges. Nanoindentation hardnesses H and elastic moduli E, obtained using a calibrated Berkovich tip, of V0.5Mo0.5Nx(111) layers increase with increasing T-s(decreasing x) from 15 +/- 1 and 198 +/- 5 GPa at 100 degrees C to 23 +/- 2 and 381 +/- 11 GPa at 900 degrees C. These values are lower than the corresponding results obtained for the 001-oriented V0.5Mo0.5Nx films In addition, film wear resistance increases with increasing T-s, while the coefficient of friction, under 1000 mu N loads, is 0.09 +/- 0.01 for all layers. Published by the AVS.

  • 66.
    Kindlund, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joseph E.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Epitaxial V0.6W0.4N/MgO(001): Evidence for ordering on the cation sublattice2013In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 31, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    V0.6W0.4N alloys are grown on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum reactive magnetron sputtering from V and W targets in 10 mTorr pure-N-2 atmospheres at temperatures T-s ranging from 600 to 900 degrees C. Based on x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results, all films have the B1-NaCl crystal structure and grow with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship to the substrate, (001)(VWN)parallel to(001)(MgO) and [100](VWN parallel to)[100](MgO). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses show that the N content in V0.6W0.4Nx alloys decreases with increasing T-s from overstoichiometric with x = 1.13 at 600 degrees C, to approximately stoichiometric with x = 1.08 at 700 degrees C, to understoichiometric at 800 degrees C (x = 0.80) and 900 degrees C (x = 0.75). High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Z-contrast, and selected-area electron diffraction investigations of V0.6W0.4N(001) alloys grown at 600 and 700 degrees C reveal the onset of W ordering on adjacent 111 planes of the metal sublattice; no ordering is observed for understoichiometric films grown at higher temperatures.

  • 67.
    Kindlund, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, USA.
    Greene, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of WN content on toughness enhancement in V1–xWxN/MgO(001) thin films2014In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 030603-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors report the growth and mechanical properties of epitaxial B1 NaCl-structure V1-xWxN/MgO(001) thin films with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.60. The Gibbs free energy of mixing, calculated using density functional theory (DFT), reveals that cubic V1-xWxN solid solutions with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.7 are stable against spinodal decomposition and separation into the equilibrium cubic-VN and hexagonal-WN binary phases. The authors show experimentally that alloying VN with WN leads to a monotonic increase in relaxed lattice parameters, enhanced nanoindentation hardnesses, and reduced elastic moduli. Calculated V1-xWxN lattice parameters and elastic moduli  (obtained from calculated C11, C12, and C44 elastic constants) are in good agreement with experimental results. The observed increase in alloy hardness, with a corresponding decrease in the elastic modulus at higher x values, combined with DFT-calculated decreases in shear to bulk moduli ratios, and increased Cauchy pressures (C12–C44) with increasing x reveal a trend toward increased toughness.

  • 68.
    Kubart, T.
    et al.
    Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala Universitet, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Trinh, David Huy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liljeholm, L.
    Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala Universitet, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyberg, T.
    Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala Universitet, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, S.
    Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala Universitet, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Experiments and Modelling of Dual Reactive Magnetron Sputtering Using Two Reactive Gases2008In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 565-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive sputtering from two elemental targets, aluminium and zirconium, with the addition of two reactive gases, oxygen and nitrogen, is studied experimentally as well as theoretically. The complex behaviour of this process is observed and explained. It is shown that the addition of oxygen to a constant supply of nitrogen, significantly changes the relative content of aluminium with respect to zirconium in the film. Moreover, it is concluded that there is substantially more oxygen than nitrogen in the films even when the oxygen supply is significantly lower than the nitrogen supply. It is further shown that the addition of a certain minimum constant flow of nitrogen reduces, and eventually eliminates, the hysteresis with respect to the oxygen supply. It is concluded that the presented theoretical model for the involved reactions and mass balance during reactive sputtering of two targets in two reactive gases is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results and can be used to find optimum processing conditions for deposition of films of a desired composition.

  • 69.
    Kurapov, D.
    et al.
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Reiss, J.
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Trinh, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Schneider, J.M.
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Influence of the normalized ion flux on the constitution of alumina films deposited by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition2007In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 831-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alumina thin films were deposited onto tempered hot working steel substrates from an Al Cl3 - O2 -Ar- H2 gas mixture by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The normalized ion flux was varied during deposition through changes in precursor content while keeping the cathode voltage and the total pressure constant. As the precursor content in the total gas mixture was increased from 0.8% to 5.8%, the deposition rate increased 12-fold, while the normalized ion flux decreased by approximately 90%. The constitution, morphology, impurity incorporation, and the elastic properties of the alumina thin films were found to depend on the normalized ion flux. These changes in structure, composition, and properties induced by normalized ion flux may be understood by considering mechanisms related to surface and bulk diffusion. © 2007 American Vacuum Society.

  • 70.
    Landälv, Ludvig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Gothelid, Emmanuelle
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ahlgren, Mats
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Influence of Si doping and O-2 flow on arc-deposited (Al,Cr)(2)O-3 coatings2019In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 6, article id 061516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (Al,Cr)(2)O-3 coatings with Al/( Al + Cr) = 0.5 or Al = 70 at. %, doped with 0, 5, or 10 at. % Si, were deposited on hard metal and Si(100) substrates to elucidate the influence of Si on the resulting coatings. The chemical analysis of the coatings showed between 3.3 and 7.4 at. % metal fraction Si incorporated into all studied coatings depending on cathode Si composition. The incorporated Si content does not change significantly with different oxygen flows covering a wide range of deposition conditions from low to high O-2 flow during growth. The addition of Si promotes the metastable B1-like cubic structure over the thermodynamically stable corundum structure. The hardness determined by nanoindentation of the as-deposited coatings is slightly reduced upon Si incorporation as well as upon increased Al content. Si is found enriched in droplets but can also be found at a lower content, evenly spread, without visible segregation at the similar to 5 nm scale, in the actual oxide coating. The positive effect of improved cathode erosion upon Si incorporation has to be balanced against the promotion of the metastable B1-like structure, having lower room temperature hardness and inferior thermal stability compared to the corundum structure. Published by the AVS.

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  • 71.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wet-cleaning of MgO(001): Modification of surface chemistry and effects on thin film growth investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy2017In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, no 2, article id 021407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the wet-cleaning process using solvents and detergent on the surface chemistry of MgO(001) substrate for film deposition was investigated. Six different wet-cleaning processes using solvent and detergent were compared. The effect on film growth was studied by the example system ScN. The surface chemistry of the cleaned surface was studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the film/substrate interface after film growth was investigated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The surface composition is dependent on the wet-cleaning process. Sonication in a detergent before the solvents yield a pure oxide surface compared to hydroxide/carbonate contaminated surface for all the other processes. An annealing step is efficient for the removal of carbon contamination as well as most of the hydroxide or carbonates. The study of the film/substrate interface revealed that the wet-cleaning process significantly affects the final interface and film quality. The substrate cleaned with detergent followed by solvent cleaning exhibited the cleanest surface of the substrate before annealing, after annealing, in addition to the sharpest film/substrate interface. (C) 2017 American Vacuum Society.

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  • 72.
    Li, Xiao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Determining role of W+ ions in the densification of TiAlWN thin films grown by hybrid HiPIMS/DCMS technique with no external heating2023In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 41, no 1, article id 013407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid high-power impulse and dc magnetron co-sputtering (HiPIMS/DCMS) with substrate bias synchronized to the high mass metal-ion fluxes was previously proposed as a solution to reduce energy consumption during physical vapor deposition processing and enable coatings on temperature-sensitive substrates. In this approach, no substrate heating is used (substrate temperature is lower than 150 C-o) and the thermally activated adatom mobility, necessary to grow dense films, is substituted by overlapping collision cascades induced by heavy ion bombardment and consisting predominantly of low-energy recoils. Here, we present direct evidence for the crucial role of W+ ion irradiation in the densification of Ti0.31Al0.60W0.09N films grown by the hybrid W-HiPIMS/TiAl-DCMS co-sputtering. The peak target current density J(max) on the W target is varied from 0.06 to 0.78 A/cm(2) resulting in more than fivefold increase in the number of W+ ions per deposited metal atom, eta = W+/(W + Al + Ti) determined by time-resolved ion mass spectrometry analyses performed at the substrate plane under conditions identical to those during film growth. The DCMS is adjusted appropriately to maintain the W content in the films constant at Ti0.31Al0.60W0.09N. The degree of porosity, assessed qualitatively from cross-sectional SEM images and quantitatively from oxygen concentration profiles as well as nanoindentation hardness, is a strong function of eta ( J m a x ). Layers grown with low eta values are porous and soft, while those deposited under conditions of high eta are dense and hard. Nanoindentation hardness of Ti0.31Al0.60W0.09N films with the highest density is & SIM;33 GPa, which is very similar to values reported for layers deposited at much higher temperatures (420-500 C-o) by conventional metal-ion-based techniques. These results prove that the hybrid HiPIMS/DCMS co-sputtering with bias pulses synchronized to high mass metal ion irradiation can be successfully used to replace conventional solutions. The large energy losses associated with heating of the entire vacuum chamber are avoided, by focusing the energy input to where it is in fact needed, i.e., the workpiece to be coated.

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  • 73.
    Lundin, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Paris 11, France .
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of pulse power amplitude on plasma properties and film deposition in high power pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition2014In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 32, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discharge characteristics in high power pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is studied with the aim to characterize the impact of high power pulses (HiPP). Using a power scheme of combined HiPP and direct current (DC) to ignite the plasma discharge, and adjusting the HiPP/DC time-averaged power ratio while keeping the total power constant, the effect of the high power pulses was isolated from the total power. By monitoring the discharge current along with the optical emission from the plasma, it is found that the amount of available ions increased with increasing HiPP/DC ratio, which indicates a higher plasma density. Using carbon films deposited from acetylene in an argon plasma as model system, a strong increase in deposition rate with higher HiPP/DC is observed. The increased deposition rate is ascribed to a more efficient plasma chemistry generated by the denser plasma.

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  • 74. Macak, K.
    et al.
    Kouznetsov, V.
    Schneider, Jochen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Petrov, I.
    Materials Science Department, Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Ionized sputter deposition using an extremely high plasma density pulsed magnetron discharge2000In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 18, no 4 II, p. 1533-1537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high power density pulsed plasma discharge for ionized sputter deposition is studied. The temporal evolution of the plasma ion composition in high power pulsed magnetron sputtering is investigated and shows that Ar ions dominated the beginning of the pulse. As time elapsed, metal ions are detected and finally dominated the ion composition.

  • 75.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Compositional dependence of epitaxial Tin+1SiCn MAX-phase thin films grown from a Ti3SiC2 compound target2019In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 2, article id 021506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigate sputtering of a Ti3SiC2 compound target at temperatures ranging from RT (no applied external heating) to 970 °C as well as the influence of the sputtering power at 850 °C for the deposition of Ti3SiC2 films on Al2O3(0001) substrates. Elemental composition obtained from time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows an excess of carbon in all films, which is explained by differences in the angular distribution between C, Si, and Ti, where C scatters the least during sputtering. The oxygen content is 2.6 at. % in the film deposited at RT and decreases with increasing deposition temperature, showing that higher temperatures favor high purity films. Chemical bonding analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows C–Ti and Si–C bonding in the Ti3SiC2 films and Si–Si bonding in the Ti3SiC2 compound target. X-ray diffraction reveals that the phases Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 can be deposited from a Ti3SiC2 compound target at substrate temperatures above 850 °C and with the growth of TiC and the Nowotny phase Ti5Si3Cx at lower temperatures. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy shows epitaxial growth of Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 on TiC at 970 °C. Four-point probe resistivity measurements give values in the range ∼120 to ∼450 μΩ cm and with the lowest values obtained for films containing Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5.

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    Compositional dependence of epitaxial Tin+1SiCn MAX-phase thin films grown from a Ti3SiC2 compound target
  • 76.
    Malinovskis, Paulius
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Synthesis and characterization of MoB2-x thin films grown by nonreactive DC magnetron sputtering2016In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, p. 031511-1-031511-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DC magnetron sputtering was used to depositmolybdenumboridethin films for potential low-friction applications. The films exhibit a nanocomposite structure with ∼10 nm large MoB2−x (x > 0.4) grains surrounded by a boron-rich tissue phase. The preferred formation of the metastable and substoichiometric hP3-MoB2structure (AlB2-type) is explained with kinetic constraints to form the thermodynamically stable hR18-MoB2 phase with a very complex crystal structure. Nanoindentation revealed a relatively high hardness of (29 ± 2) GPa, which is higher than bulk samples. The high hardness can be explained by a hardening effect associated with the nanocomposite microstructure where the surrounding tissue phase restricts dislocation movement. A tribological study confirmed a significant formation of a tribofilm consisting of molybdenum oxide and boron oxide, however, without any lubricating effects at room temperature.

  • 77.
    Mei, A B
    et al.
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA .
    Howe, B M
    Air Force Research Lab, OH 45433 USA .
    Zhang, C
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA .
    Sardela, M
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA .
    Eckstein, J N
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rockett, A
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA .
    Petrov, I
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA .
    Greene, J E
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA .
    Physical properties of epitaxial ZrN/MgO(001) layers grown by reactive magnetron sputtering2013In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 061516-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-crystal ZrN films, 830 nm thick, are grown on MgO(001) at 450 degrees C by magnetically unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering. The combination of high-resolution x-ray diffraction reciprocal lattice maps, high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and selected-area electron diffraction shows that ZrN grows epitaxially on MgO(001) with a cube-on-cube orientational relationship, (001)(ZrN)parallel to(001)(MgO) and [100](ZrN)parallel to[100](MgO). The layers are essentially fully relaxed with a lattice parameter of 0.4575 nm, in good agreement with reported results for bulk ZrN crystals. X-ray reflectivity results reveal that the films are completely dense with smooth surfaces (roughness = 1.3 nm, consistent with atomic-force microscopy analyses). Based on temperature-dependent electronic transport measurements, epitaxial ZrN/MgO(001) layers have a room-temperature resistivity rho(300K) of 12.0 mu Omega-cm, a temperature coefficient of resistivity between 100 and 300K of 5.6 x 10(-8) Omega-cm K-1, a residual resistivity rho(o) below 30K of 0.78 mu Omega-cm (corresponding to a residual resistivity ratio rho(300K)/rho(15K) = 15), and the layers exhibit a superconducting transition temperature of 10.4 K. The relatively high residual resistivity ratio, combined with long in-plane and out-of-plane x-ray coherence lengths, xi(parallel to) = 18 nm and xi(perpendicular to) = 161 nm, indicates high crystalline quality with low mosaicity. The reflectance of ZrN(001), as determined by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, decreases slowly from 95% at 1 eV to 90% at 2 eV with a reflectance edge at 3.04 eV. Interband transitions dominate the dielectric response above 2 eV. The ZrN(001) nanoindentation hardness and modulus are 22.7 +/- 1.7 and 450 +/- 25 GPa.

  • 78.
    Mikula, Marian
    et al.
    Comenius University, Slovakia; Slovak Academic Science, Slovakia.
    Truchly, Martin
    Comenius University, Slovakia.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany.
    Plasienka, Dusan
    Comenius University, Slovakia.
    Roch, Tomas
    Comenius University, Slovakia.
    Gregor, Maros
    Comenius University, Slovakia.
    Durina, Pavol
    Comenius University, Slovakia.
    Janik, Marian
    Comenius University, Slovakia.
    Kus, Peter
    Comenius University, Slovakia.
    Experimental and computational studies on toughness enhancement in Ti-Al-Ta-N quaternaries2017In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, no 6, article id 060602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design of hard ceramic material coatings with enhanced toughness, which prevents crack formation/propagation leading to brittle failure during application, is a primary industrial requirement. In this work, experimental methods supported by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations and electronic structure analyses are used to investigate the mechanical behavior of magnetron sputtered Ti-Al-Ta-N hard coatings. The as-deposited Ti1-x-yAlxTayN (y = 0-0.60) films exhibit a single phase cubic sodium chloride (B1) structure identified as TiAl(Ta)N solid solutions. While the hardness H of Ti0.46Al0.54N (32.5 +/- 2 GPa) is not significantly affected by alloying with TaN (H of the quaternary nitrides varies between 26 +/- 2 and 35 +/- 4 GPa), the elastic stiffness monotonically decreases from 442 to 354 GPa with increasing Ta contents, which indicates improved toughness in TiAlTaN. Consistent with the experimental findings, the DFT results show that Ta substitutions in TiAlN reduce the shear resistance due to the enhanced occupation of metal-metal bonding states while preserving strong metal-N bonds. The metal-N bonding character, however, is progressively modified from prevalently ionic (TiAlN) toward more covalent (TiAlTaN). (C) 2017 American Vacuum Society.

  • 79.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kugler, Veronika Mozhdeh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Czigany, Zolt
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flink, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Werner, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schneider, J.M.
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Role of carbon in boron suboxide thin films2003In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 1355-1358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray amorphous BO0.02 thin films with the C content from 0 to 0.6 at. % were grown by reactive dual magnetron sputtering in an UHV system. It was shown that the elastic and dielectric properties of the as-deposited films are affected by the amount of the incorporated C and the film density.

  • 80.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Schneider, Jochen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Kugler, Veronika Mozhdeh
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Nakao, S.
    National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya 462-8510, Japan.
    Jin, P.
    National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya 462-8510, Japan.
    Östblom, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Synthesis and mechanical properties of boron suboxide thin films2002In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 335-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and mechanical properties of boron suboxide thin films deposited on silicon and graphite substrates was discussed. The deposition was performed using reactive magnetron sputtering technique, and amorphous films were obtained. The affect of varying O2 partial pressure on film composition and microstructure was studied using spectroscopic techniques. It was found that variation of partial pressure from 0.02 to 0.21 resulted in a decrease in elastic modulus from 272 to 109 GPa.

  • 81.
    Nadhom, Hama
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rouf, Polla
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chemical vapor deposition of metallic films using plasma electrons as reducing agents2020In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 38, no 3, article id 033402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic thin films are key components in electronic devices and catalytic applications. Deposition of a conformal metallic thin film requires using volatile precursor molecules in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The metal centers in such molecules typically have a positive valence, meaning that reduction of the metal centers is required on the film surface. Powerful molecular reducing agents for electropositive metals are scarce and hamper the exploration of CVD of electropositive metals. The authors present a new CVD method for depositing metallic films where free electrons in a plasma discharge are utilized to reduce the metal centers of chemisorbed precursor molecules. They demonstrate this method by depositing Fe, Co, and Ni from their corresponding metallocenes using electrons from an argon plasma as a reducing agent.

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  • 82.
    Nadhom, Hama
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yuan, Yusheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rouf, Polla
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Area selective deposition of iron films using temperature sensitive masking materials and plasma electrons as reducing agents2021In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 39, no 4, article id 043411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of area-selective deposition (ASD) with a newly developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, which utilizes plasma electrons as reducing agents for deposition of metal-containing films, is demonstrated using temperature sensitive polymer-based masking materials. The masking materials tested were polydimethylsiloxane, polymethylmethacrylate, polystyrene, parafilm, Kapton tape, Scotch tape, and office paper. The masking materials were all shown to prevent film growth on the masked area of the substrate without being affected by the film deposition process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirms that the films deposited consist mainly of iron, whereas no film material is found on the masked areas after mask removal. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of films deposited with nonadhesive masking materials show that film growth extended for a small distance underneath the masking material, indicating that the CVD process with plasma electrons as reducing agents is not a line-of-sight deposition technique. The reported methodology introduces an inexpensive and straightforward approach for ASD that opens for exciting new possibilities for robust and less complex area-selective metal-on-metal deposition.

  • 83.
    Nedfors, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Tengstrand, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Nb-B-C thin films for electrical contact applications deposited by magnetron sputtering2014In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 041503-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high wear resistance, high chemical inertness, and high electrical conductivity of magnetron-sputtered transition metal diborides make them a candidate material for sliding electrical contacts. However, their high hardness makes it difficult to penetrate surface oxides, resulting in a high electrical contact resistance. In this study, the authors have investigated how the contact resistance can be improved by the formation of softer Nb-B-C films. The Nb-B-C films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and shown to exhibit a nanocomposite microstructure consisting of nanocrystalline NbB2-x grains with a solid solution of C separated by an amorphous BCx phase. The formation of the BCx phase reduces the hardness from 41 GPa for the NbB2-x film to 19 GPa at 36 at. % C. As a consequence the contact resistance is drastically reduced and the lowest contact resistance of 35 m Omega (contact force 5N) is achieved for a film containing 30 at. % C. However, crack formation and subsequent delamination and fragmentation is observed for the C-containing Nb-B-C films in tribology tests resulting in high friction values for these films.

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  • 84.
    Nedfors, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vozniy, Oleksiy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of synchronized bias in the deposition of TiB2 thin films using high power impulse magnetron sputtering2018In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, no 3, article id 031510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium diboride thin films have been deposited from a compound TiB2 target on Si(001) substrates at a temperature of 500 degrees C using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at a frequency of 1000 Hz and pulse lengths of 20 and 40 mu s. A -60V bias pulse of different pulse length was applied at different time delay relative to the HiPIMS pulse. The average energy per deposited species, amp;lt; E-D amp;gt; = E-i(J(i)/J(t)), where E-i is the average ion energy and J(i)/J(t) is the ratio of the ion bombarding flux to the total flux of deposited species, is strongly dependent on bias mode. A change in preferred orientation from (101) to (001) is observed when amp;lt; E-D amp;gt; increase above 50 eV. The limited adatom mobility at amp;lt; E-D amp;gt; below 50 eV promote growth of fast growing planes resulting in a (101) texture, while amp;lt; E-D amp;gt; above 50 eV supply sufficient energy for development of the thermodynamically more favorable (001) texture. A linear increase in compressive residual stress with the increase in amp;lt; E-D amp;gt; is also found, due to more intensive Ar+ ion bombardment. Analysis of charge-state-resolved plasma chemistry and ion energy shows that the total flux of bombarding ions contains a higher fraction of B+ when the bias is applied in synchronous with the HiPIMS pulse instead of after, resulting in a lower residual stress at similar values of amp;lt; E-D amp;gt; (cf. -2.0 +/- 0.2 and -2.6 +/- 0.1 GPa). This study shows that use of a bias synchronized in different modes relative to the HiPIMS pulse, can be used as a tool to control amp;lt; E-D amp;gt; and to some extent the type of bombarding species, and hence the microstructure of TiB2 thin films. Published by the AVS.

  • 85.
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Beyond ?- C3 N4 -Fullerene-like carbon nitride: A promising coating material2007In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 633-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the synthesis of super-hard-crystalline ?- C3 N4 remains elusive, noncrystalline C Nx compounds are of increasing importance owing to their competitive properties. Especially the fullerene-like allotrope of C Nx exhibits outstanding elasticity in combination with low work of indentation. This new class of thin solid film materials is characterized by a microstructure of bent and intersecting basal planes. Substitutional incorporation of nitrogen into the predominantly s p2 hybridized graphitic layer triggers the formation of curvature-inducing pentagons and interplanar cross-links at a much lower energy cost as compared to carbon-only materials. The term "fullerene- like" was coined to reflect the nanometer scale of curved structural units. Thus, fullerene-like C Nx deforms by bond angle deflection and compression of the graphitic interplanar lattice spacing, whereas the superior strength of the s p2 bonds inhibits plastic deformation giving the material an extremely resilient character. The orientation, radius of curvature of basal planes, and density of cross-linking can be adjusted by the synthesis conditions. Here, the existence of significant numbers of precursor molecules is a determining factor. The inherent resiliency of the material in combination with the carbon-based beneficial friction promises to give rise to numerous tribological applications. © 2007 American Vacuum Society.

  • 86.
    Niiranen, Pentti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kapran, Anna
    Inst Phys, Czech Republic.
    Nadhom, Hama
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cada, Martin
    Inst Phys, Czech Republic.
    Hubicka, Zdenek
    Inst Phys, Czech Republic.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Plasma electron characterization in electron chemical vapor deposition2024In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 42, no 2, article id 023006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a novel approach of depositing metallic films with chemical vapor deposition (CVD), using plasma electrons as reducing agents, has been presented and is herein referred to as e-CVD. By applying a positive substrate bias to the substrate holder, plasma electrons are drawn to the surface of the substrate, where the film growth occurs. In this work, we have characterized the electron flux at the substrate position in terms of energy and number density as well as the plasma potential and floating potential when maintaining an unbiased and a positively biased substrate. The measurements were performed using a modified radio frequency Sobolewski probe to overcome issues due to the coating of conventional electrostatic probes. The plasma was generated using a DC hollow cathode plasma discharge at various discharge powers and operated with and without precursor gas. The results show that the electron density is typically around 10(16) m(-3) and increases with plasma power. With a precursor, an increase in the substrate bias shows a trend of increasing electron density. The electron temperature does not change much without precursor gas and is found in the range of 0.3-1.1 eV. Introducing a precursor gas to the vacuum chamber shows an increase in the electron temperature to a range of 1-5 eV and with a trend of decreasing electron temperature as a function of discharge power. From the values of the plasma potential and the substrate bias potential, we were able to calculate the potential difference between the plasma and the substrate, giving us insight into what charge carriers are expected at the substrate under different process conditions.

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  • 87.
    Nordin, M.
    et al.
    AB Sandvik Coromant, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Larsson, M.
    Materials Science Division, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Joelsson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Residual stress formation in multilayered TiN/TaNx coatings during reactive magnetron sputter deposition2000In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 2884-2889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered physical vapor deposited TiN/TaNx coatings were deposited on cemented carbide substrates using a dual target magnetron sputtering system. The coatings were investigated with respect to the influence of nitrogen partial pressure during deposition on the residual stress developed in the coatings. Furthermore, the fracture strength of the material, i.e., the magnitude of the tensile stress that the coating can support without cracking, was evaluated. It was found that, by increasing the nitrogen partial pressure, it is possible to change the stress from compressive to tensile. The highest tensile stress was about 3.6 GPa. Despite this high stress, the coating displayed no cracking. This implies that it is possible to grow TiN/TaNx multilayered coatings with high tensile fracture strength using dual magnetron sputtering and a high deposition temperature (about 680 °C). 

  • 88.
    Nyman, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Husqvarna AB, Sweden.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Husqvarna AB, Sweden.
    Sarius, Niklas
    Husqvarna AB, Sweden.
    Kahl, Soren
    Husqvarna AB, Sweden.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Composition, structure, and mechanical properties of cathodic arc deposited Cr-rich Cr-N coatings2023In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 41, no 2, article id 023105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We arc deposit Cr-rich Cr-N coatings and show that these coatings are a promising alternative to electrodeposited hard chrome. We find that the substrate bias is of importance for controlling the N content in the grown coatings as it determines the degree of preferential resputtering of N. The substrate bias also affects the substrate temperature and film growth rate. Higher bias results in higher temperatures due to higher energy transfer to the substrate, while the growth rate decreases due to an increased re-sputtering. The N content affects the morphology, microstructure, hardness, and resistivity of the coatings. The hardness increases from 10 GPa with 0.5 at. % N to 17 GPa with 7.5 at. % N, after which no further increase in hardness is seen. At the same time, the grain structure changes from columnar to more featureless and the resistivity rises from 15 to 45 mu omega cm.

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  • 89.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Chulalongkorn Univ, Thailand; Commiss Higher Educ, Thailand.
    Thermodynamic stability of hexagonal and rhombohedral boron nitride under chemical vapor deposition conditions from van der Waals corrected first principles calculations2019In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 4, article id 040603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of boron nitride (BN), particularly the sp(2)-hybridized polytypes hexagonal BN (h-BN) and rhombohedral BN (r-BN), are interesting for several electronic applications, given the bandgaps in the UV. They are typically deposited close to thermal equilibrium by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at temperatures and pressures in the regions 1400-1800K and 1000-10000Pa, respectively. In this letter, the authors use the van der Waals corrected density functional theory and thermodynamic stability calculations to determine the stability of r-BN and compare it to that of h-BN as well as to cubic BN and wurtzitic BN. The authors find that r-BN is the stable sp(2)-hybridized phase at CVD conditions, while h-BN is metastable. Thus, their calculations suggest that thin films of h-BN must be deposited far from thermal equilibrium.

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  • 90.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barry, Sean T.
    Carleton Univ, Canada.
    Sundqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. BALD Engn AB, Sweden; TECHCET CA LLC, CA 92130 USA.
    Green CVD-Toward a sustainable philosophy for thin film deposition by chemical vapor deposition2021In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 39, no 5, article id 051001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of materials are critical components for most areas of sustainable technologies, making thin film techniques, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD), instrumental for a sustainable future. It is, therefore, of great importance to critically consider the sustainability aspects of CVD processes themselves used to make thin films for sustainable technologies. Here, we point to several common practices in CVD that are not sustainable. From these, we offer a perspective on several principles for a sustainable, "Green CVD" philosophy, which we hope will spur research on how to make CVD more sustainable without affecting the properties of the deposited film. We hope that these principles can be developed by the research community over time and be used to establish research on how to make CVD more sustainable and that a Green CVD philosophy can develop new research directions for both precursor and reactor design to reduce the precursor and energy consumption in CVD processes.

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  • 91.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lin, Ching-Chi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On the change of preferential growth orientation in chemical vapor deposition of titanium carbide by aromatic hydrocarbon precursors2013In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 31, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of titanium carbide grown by chemical vapor deposition exhibit a strong preferential (111) growth direction if aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, are used as a carbon precursor. If aliphatic hydrocarbons such as methane are used, growth on the (100) surface is preferred. In this study, quantum chemical computations are used to study the adsorption of benzene and methane on the (100) and (111) surfaces to provide an explanation for the changed growth behavior. The adsorption energy of benzene is found to be approximately twice as high on the (111) surface as compared to the (100) surface, and adsorption studies further suggest that benzene chemisorbs on the (111) surface, while it physisorbs on the (100) surface. The studies reveal no significant differences in adsorption energy or behavior for methane on the two surfaces. The authors propose that the higher benzene adsorption energy and different adsorption behavior on the (111) surface are the explanations for the preferential growth orientation.

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  • 92.
    Persson, Per O A
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring the thermal behavior and diffusive functionality of structural defects and phase boundaries in near-stoichiometric chromium diborides by in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy2024In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 42, no 2, article id 020401Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Near-stoichiometric chromium diboride films were subject to in situ annealing inside a scanning transmission electron microscope to access the thermal behavior of the film and embedded structural planar defects. Independent of films' stoichiometry, the planar defects were unaffected by the applied heat treatments. On the contrary, the interfaces between the boron-rich tissue phase and the CrB2 phase were reshaped in the overstoichometric CrB2 film. At high temperatures, diffusion of contact metal species (platinum) from the focused ion beam sample preparation was triggered, with subsequent migration onto the sample. This resulted in the formation of metal-rich regions as directly observed and characterized at the atomic level. We determined that platinum did not react with the diboride structure but is accommodated by various defects present in the film.

  • 93.
    Petrov, I.
    et al.
    Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory and Department of Materials Science, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.
    Barna, P.B.
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, J.E.
    Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory and Department of Materials Science, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.
    Microstructural evolution during film growth2003In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 117-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic-scale control and manipulation of the microstructure of polycrystalline thin films during kinetically limited low-temperature deposition, crucial for a broad range of industrial applications, has been a leading goal of materials science during the past decades. Here, we review the present understanding of film growth processes—nucleation, coalescence, competitive grain growth, and recrystallization—and their role in microstructural evolution as a function of deposition variables including temperature, the presence of reactive species, and the use of low-energy ion irradiation during growth.

  • 94.
    Petrov, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Fitz-Gerald, Jim
    Univ Virginia, VA 22903 USA.
    Floro, Jerrold A.
    Univ Virginia, VA 22903 USA.
    Joseph, Eric A.
    IBM TJ Watson Res Ctr, NY 10598 USA.
    Aydil, Eray
    Tandon Sch Engn, NY 11201 USA.
    Preface for the Festschrift Honoring Dr. Steve Rossnagel2020In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 38, no 5, article id 051601Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 95.
    Petrov, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hall, Allen
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Mei, Antonio B.
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Nedfors, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhirkov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reed, Amber
    Mat and Mfg Directorate, OH 45431 USA.
    Howe, Brandon
    Mat and Mfg Directorate, OH 45431 USA.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Controlling the boron-to-titanium ratio in magnetron-sputter-deposited TiBx thin films2017In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, no 5, article id 050601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetron sputter-deposited TiBx films grown from TiB2 targets are typically highly overstoichiometric with x ranging from 3.5 to 2.4 due to differences in Ti and B preferential ejection angles and gasphase scattering during transport between the target and the substrate. The authors show that the use of highly magnetically unbalanced magnetron sputtering leads to selective ionization of sputter-ejected Ti atoms which are steered via an external magnetic field to the film, thus establishing control of the B/Ti ratio with the ability to obtain stoichiometric TiB2 films over a wide range in Ar sputtering pressures. (C) 2017 American Vacuum Society.

  • 96.
    Pliatsikas, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jamnig, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Poitiers, France.
    Konpan, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Delimitis, Andreas
    Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Abadias, Gregory
    Univ Poitiers, France.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Manipulation of thin silver film growth on weakly interacting silicon dioxide substrates using oxygen as a surfactant2020In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 38, no 4, article id 043406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors study the morphological evolution of magnetron-sputtered thin silver (Ag) films that are deposited on weakly interacting silicon dioxide (SiO2) substrates in an oxygen-containing (O-2) gas atmosphere. In situ and real-time monitoring of electrically conductive layers, along with ex situ microstructural analyses, shows that the presence of O-2, throughout all film-formation stages, leads to a more pronounced two-dimensional (2D) morphology, smoother film surfaces, and larger continuous-layer electrical resistivities, as compared to Ag films grown in pure argon (Ar) ambient. In addition, the authors data demonstrate that 2D morphology can be promoted, without compromising the Ag-layer electrical conductivity, if O-2 is deployed with high temporal precision to target film formation stages before the formation of a percolated layer. Detailed real-space imaging of discontinuous films, augmented by in situ growth monitoring data, suggests that O-2 favors 2D morphology by affecting the kinetics of initial film-formation stages and most notably by decreasing the rate of island coalescence completion. Furthermore, compositional and bonding analyses show that O-2 does not change the chemical nature of the Ag layers and no atomic oxygen is detected in the films, i.e., O-2 acts as a surfactant. The overall results of this study are relevant for developing noninvasive surfactant-based strategies for manipulating noble-metal-layer growth on technologically relevant weakly interacting substrates, including graphene and other 2D crystals.

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  • 97.
    Renner, Max
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Fischer, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Evatec AG, Switzerland.
    Hajihoseini, H.
    Univ Twente, Netherlands.
    Gudmundsson, J. T.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Rudolph, M.
    Leibniz Inst Surface Engn IOM, Germany.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Angular distribution of titanium ions and neutrals in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges2023In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 41, no 3, article id 033009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The angular dependence of the deposition rates due to ions and neutrals in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges with a titanium target were determined experimentally using a magnetically shielded and charge-selective quartz crystal microbalance (or ionmeter). These rates have been established as a function of the argon working gas pressure, the peak discharge current density, and the pulse length. For all explored cases, the total deposition rate exhibits a heart-shaped profile and the ionized flux fraction peaks on the discharge axis normal to the cathode target surface. This heart-shaped pattern is found to be amplified at increasing current densities and reduced at increased working gas pressures. Furthermore, it is confirmed that a low working gas pressure is beneficial for achieving high deposition rates and high ionized flux fractions in HiPIMS operation.

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  • 98.
    Rogoz, Vladyslav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sumy State Univ, Ukraine.
    Pshyk, Oleksandr V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Switzerland.
    Wicher, Bartosz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High-mass metal ion irradiation enables growth of high-entropy sublattice nitride thin films from elemental targets2023In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 41, no 6, article id 063108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis of high-entropy sublattice nitride (HESN) coatings by magnetron sputtering is typically done using custom-made alloyed targets with specific elemental compositions. This approach is expensive, requires long delivery times, and offers very limited flexibility to adjust the film composition. Here, we demonstrate a new method to grow HESN films, which relies on elemental targets arranged in the multicathode configuration with substrates rotating during deposition. TiVNbMoWN films are grown at a temperature of similar to 520(degrees)C using Ti, V, Nb, and Mo targets operating in the direct current magnetron sputtering mode, while the W target, operated by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), provides a source of heavy ions. The energy of the metal ions EW+ is controlled in the range from 80 to 620 eV by varying the amplitude of the substrate bias pulses V-s, synchronized with the metal-ion-rich phase of HiPIMS pulses. We demonstrate that W(+ )irradiation provides dynamic recoil mixing of the film-forming components in the near-surface atomic layers. For EW+ &gt;= 320 eV the multilayer formation phenomena, inherent for this deposition geometry, are suppressed and, hence, compositionally uniform HESN films are obtained, as confirmed by the microstructural and elemental analysis.(c) 2023 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

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  • 99.
    Rogström, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Seco Tools AB, 737 82 Fagersta, Sweden.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of chemical composition and deposition conditions on microstructure evolution during annealing of arc evaporated ZrAlN thin films2012In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 031504-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of substrate bias and chemical composition on the microstructure and hardness of arc evaporated Zr1−xAlxN films with 0.12 < x < 0.74 is investigated. A cubic ZrAlN phase is formed at low aluminum contents (x < 0.38) whereas for a high Al-content, above x=0.70, a single-phase hexagonal structure is obtained. For intermediate Al-contents, a two-phase structure is formed. The cubic structured films exhibit higher hardness than the hexagonal structured ones. A low bias results in N-rich films with a partly defect-rich microstructure while a higher substrate bias decreases the grain size and increases the residual stress in the cubic ZrAlN films. Recrystallization and out-diffusion of nitrogen from the lattice in the cubic ZrAlN films takes place during annealing at 800 C, which results in an increased hardness. The cubic ZrAlN phase is stable to annealing temperatures of 1000 C while annealing at higher temperature results in nucleation and growth of hexagonal AlN. In the high Al-content ZrAlN films, formation of ZrN- and AlN-rich domains within the hexagonal lattice during annealing at 1000 C improves the mechanical properties.

  • 100.
    Rudolph, M.
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Surface Engn IOM, Germany.
    Brenning, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Hajihoseini, H.
    Univ Twente, Netherlands.
    Raadu, M. A.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Fischer, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gudmundsson, J. T.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Operating modes and target erosion in high power impulse magnetron sputtering2022In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 40, no 4, article id 043005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetron sputtering combines a glow discharge with sputtering from a target that simultaneously serves as a cathode for the discharge. The electrons of the discharge are confined between overarching magnetic field lines and the negatively biased cathode. As the target erodes during the sputter process, the magnetic field strengthens in the cathode vicinity, which can influence discharge parameters with the risk of impairing reproducibility of the deposition process over time. This is of particular concern for high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) as the discharge current and voltage waveforms vary strongly with the magnetic field strength. We here discuss ways to limit the detrimental effect of target erosion on the film deposition process by choosing an appropriate mode of operation for the discharge. The goal is to limit variations of two principal flux parameters, the deposition rate and the ionized flux fraction. As an outcome of the discussion, we recommend operating HiPIMS discharges by maintaining the peak discharge current constant.

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